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apostles, and the ministers of the church. (Summa P. iv. Qa. 8, Membr. 2, Art. 1, quoted by Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, pp. 196, 197.)

• According to Thomas Aquinas, P. iii. Qu. 65. Art. 1. the first five sacraments serve—ad spiritualem uniuscujusque hominis in se ipso perfectionem, but the last two, ad totius ecclesiæ regimen multiplicationemque. He then continues: Per Baptismum spiritualiter renascimur, per Confirmationem augemur in gratia et roboramur in fide; renati autem et roborati nutrimur divina Eucharistiæ alimonia. Quod si per peccatum ægritudinem incurrimus animæ, per Pænitentiam spiritualiter sanamur; spiritualiter etiam et corporaliter, prout animæ expedit, per extremam Unctionem. Per Ordinem vero ecclesia gubernatur et multiplicatur spiritualiter, per Matrimonium corporaliter augetur.—Thomas, however, agreed with other theologians, Summ. P. ii. Qu. 62. Art. 5. in regarding baptism and the Lord's Supper as potissima sacramenta.—Bonaventura brought (Brevil. vi. Cent. iii. sect. 47. c. 3.) the seven sacraments into connection with the seven diseases of man. Original sin is counteracted by baptism, mortal sin by penance, venial sin by extreme unction; ignorance is cured by ordination, malice by the Lord's Sup per, infirmity by confirmation, evil concupiscence by matrimony).* He also made a corresponding connection between the sacraments and the seven cardinal virtues: baptism leads to faith, confirmation to hope, the Lord's Supper to love, penance to righteousness, extreme unction to perseverance, ordination to wisdom, matrimony to moderation (for further particulars see, ibidem.)Comp. also Berthold's Sermons edited by Kling, p. 439, ss. sacred things” are, in his opinion, a remedy prepared by Jesus, divided into seven parts, etc. See also Raimund of Sabunde, Tit. 282, in Matzke, p. 91. Et ideo Christus ordinavit ad significandum et repræsentandum omnia ista quæ sunt invisibilia et debent fieri occulte in anima, ut scilicet exterius in corpore fieret ablutio et lavacrum per aquam elementalem cum verbis expresse significantibus ablutionem et lavacrum. Et ideo ista ablutio, quæ fit in aqua eo modo quo Christus ordinavit, vocatur sacramentum seu signum regenerationis et renovationis, quia hoc est regenerare hominem et innovare, quia anima recipit novum esse spirituale. Et ideo in isto sacramento recipit homo nomen novum, quia vocatur Christianus, etc.]

' John Damascenus mentioned (De Fide Orthod. iv. 13) the two mysteries of baptism and the Lord's Supper, the former in reference to the birth of man, the latter in reference to the support of his new life; these two mysteries were again subdivided by him-viz, baptism into water and Spirit (Chrisma), and the Lord's Supper into bread and wine.-Theodore Studita taught (lib. ii. Ep. 165, Opp. p. 517) six sacraments (after the example of Pseudo-Dionysius, see vol. i. $ 136, Note 3)—viz. 1. Baptism ; 2. The Lord's Supper (σύναξις, κοινωνία); 3. The consecration of the holy oil (τελετή μύρου); 4. The ordination of priests (ιερατικαι τελειώσεις); 5. The monastic state (uovaxık) Teelwois); and 6. The rites performed for the dead

The 6


* “ Thus the poor laity have no sacrament for ignorance, nor have the poor clergy a sacrament to counteract lusts." Schleiermacher, Kirchengesch. p. 614.

t. The Sacraments were also referred by some to the seven kinds of animal sacrifices in the Old Testament and the sprinkling of their blood.Gieseler, Dogmengesch. 531.

(Tepi Tūv lepūs kekolunuévwv). See Schröckh, Kirchengeschichte, xxii. pp. 127, 128.

Mansi Conc. T. xxxi. Col. 1054 ss. The decisions of this Synod bad also binding force for the united Armenians.

Wycliffe made mention of the ecclesiastical number, Lib. iv. c. 1., but in the subsequent chapters critically examined each sacrament separately. Comp. $ 190, note 10. Christ was to him “the Sacrament of Sacraments :" Böhringer, 329.—The confession of faith adopted by the Waldenses is given by Legér, Histoire Générale des églises évangéliques de Piémont, Leiden, 1669, p. 95, quoted by Schröckh, Kirchengesch. xxix. p. 548. That of the Husites, A. D. 1443, will be found in Lenfant, Histoire de la Guerre des Husites, vol. ii. p. 132, ss. Schröckh, Kirchengesch. xxxiv. p. 718, ss. Hus himself adopted the doctrine of seven sacraments, though with certain modi. fications : see Münscher, edit. by Von Cölln, p. 201.

§ 190.



Many discussions took place among the scholastics as to the antiquity of the sacraments,' their necessity, design, and significance, as well as respecting their specific virtue and effects.' In the spirit of the better class of the mystics, Hugo of St. Victor traced the design of the sacraments to the inward religious wants of man.' But Thomas Aquinas especially endeavored, with a great show of learning, both to define the idea of sacrament still more precisely, and to enlighten himself, as well as others, concerning its effects. In consequence of the death of Jesus, the sacraments instituted in the New Testament have obtained what is called the virtus instrumentalis, or effectiva, which those of the Old Testament did not possess. Therefore, by partaking of the sacraments, man acquires a certain character, which in the case of some sacraments, such as baptism, confirmation and the ordination of priests, is character indelebilis, and, consequently, renders impossible the repetition of such sacraments. The effects produced by the sacraments arise, not only ex opere operantis, but also ex opere operato.' Accordingly, they neither depend upon the external or internal worth of him who administers the sacrament, nor upon his faith and moral character, but upon his intention to administer the sacrament as such. This intention must at least be habitual; but it is not absolutely necessary that it should be actual.'—In opposition to the doctrine of Thomas, which received the sanction of the Catholic Church, Duns Scotus denied that the effective power of grace was contained in the sacraments themselves. The forerunners of the Reformation, e. g. Wessel and Wycliffe, combated still

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more decidedly the doctrine, that the effects of the sacrament are produced ex opere operato, while they manifested the highest reverence for the sacraments themselves as divine institutions." Thus they preserved the medium between that superstitious, and merely external view, by which the sacrament was changed, as it were, into a charm, and the fanatical and subjective theory adopted by the pantheistic sects, who proudly idealized and rejected all visible pledges and seals of supernatural blessings."

On the question, in what sense the Old Testament may be said to have had its sacraments ? see Peter Lombard, Sent. Lib. iv. Dist. 1, E........ Veteris Testamenti sacramenta promittebant tantum et significabant, hæc autem (novi testamenti) dant salutem (comp. the opinions of Augustine, ibidem.) Inasmuch as the sacraments were made necessary in consequence of sin, but God had instituted matrimony in Paradise, this sacrament was considered to be the earliest, belonging even to the state of innocence. See Cramer, vii. p. 103. Comp. Thomas Aquinas (in notes 4 and 5).

* The common tradition of the Church taught only the notion of a magical efficacy of the sacraments, and thus assigned too great an influence to the mere external and unspiritual form. On the contrary, the scholastics clearly perceived, that justification and sanctification are something essentially free, internal, and spiritual, and depend upon faith. These two notions being contradictory to each other, it became necessary to reconcile them, which was for the most part done by ingenious reasonings ;" Liebner, Hugo von St. Victor, p. 430.

According to Hugo of St. Victor, the design of the sacraments is threefold: Propter humiliationem (we must submit to the visible, in order to attain by it, to the invisible); 2. Propter eruditionem (the visible leads to the invisible. Though a sick person may not see the medicine he is to take, he sees the bottle, which gives him an intimation of the healing power it contains, and inspires him with confidence and hope); 3. Propter exercitationem (the inner and spiritual life of man is strengthened thereby). The tbree persons of the Trinity take an active part in the administration of the sacraments. The Father (as the Creator) creates the elements; the Son (as the Redeemer, God-man) institutes them; and the Holy Ghost sanctifies them (through grace). Man, as the iustrument of God, distributes them. God is the physician, man is the diseased person, the priest is the servant or the messenger of God, the grace of God (not the sacrament) is the medicine, and the sacrament is the vessel in which it is contained.—God could have saved man without sacraments, if he had chosen ; but since he has been pleased to institute them, it is the duty of man to submit to his arrangement; nevertheless, God can still save without sacraments. If either time or place prevent one froin receiving the sacraments, the res (virtus) sacramenti is sufficient; for the thing itself is of more importance than the sign, faith is more than water, etc.; De Sacram. Lib. i. P. ix., c. 3–5. Liebner, p. 430, ss.

Thomas Aquinas Summ. P. iii., Qu. 60-65. (Extracts from it are given by Münscher, edit. by Von Cölln, p. 192, ss.) [Qu. 60, Art. 2. Sacramen.

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tum est signum rei sacræ, inquantum est sanctificans homines. Art. 3. In qua sanctificatione tria possunt considerari : videlicet, ipsa causa sanctificationis nostræ, quæ est passio Christi : et forma nostræ sanctificationis, quæ consistit in gratia et virtutibus ; et ultimus finis sanctificationis nostræ, quæ est vita æterna. Et hæc omnia per sacramenta significantur.-Qu. 61, Art. 1: they are necessary to human salvation in a threefold way: 1. Because man is led by sensible objects. 2. By sin, he is under the


of what is corporeal. 3. Human action is chiefly through and about corporeal matters, etc.)

• Qu. 62., Art. 1: Necesse est dicere sacramenta novæ legis per aliquem modum gratiam causare...... Et dicendum est, quod duplex est causa agens, principalis et instrumentalis. Principalis quidem operatur per virtutem suæ formæ, cui assimilatur effectus, sicut ignis suo calore calefacit. Et hoc modo nihil potest causare gratiam nisi Deus, quia gratia nihil est aliud, quam quædam participata similitudo divinæ naturæ. Causa vero instrumentalis non agit per virtutem suæ formæ, sed solum per motum, quo movetur a principali agente. Unde effectus non assimilatur instrumento, sed principali agenti. Et hoc modo sacramenta novæ legis gratiam causant.- Art. 5: Unde manifestum est, quod sacramenta ecclesiæ specialiter habent virtutem ex passione Christi, cujus virtus quodammodo nobis copulatur per susceptionem sacramentorum.—Art. 6: Per fidem passionis Christi justificabantur antiqui patres, sicut et nos. Sacramenta autem veteris legis erant quædam illius fidei protestationes, inquantum significabant passionem Christi et effectus ejus. Sic ergo patet, quod sacramenta veteris legis non habebant in se aliquam virtutem, qua operarentur ad conferendam gratiam justificantem; sed solum significabant fidem per quam justificabantur.*

Innocent III. in Decret. Greg. IX. L. iii. T. 42, c. 3: Et is, qui ficte ad baptismum accedit, characterem suscipit christianitatis impressum. Thomas, P. iii. Qu. 63, Art. 2: Sacramenta novæ legis characterem imprimunt. The Concilium Florentinum, held under Pope Eugen IV., laid down the following canon (in Mansi T. xxxi. Col. 1054, ss.) : Inter hæc Sacramenta tria sunt, Baptismus, Confirmatio et Ordo, quæ characterem, i. e. spirituale quoddam signum a cæteris distinctivum imprimunt in anima indelebile. Unde in eadem persona non reiterantur. Reliqua vero quatuor characterem non imprimunt et reiterationem admittunt. (Nevertheless a difference of opinion respecting the repetition of extreme unction, took place on occasion of the death of Pope Pius II. Concerning the discussion which arose between the dying Pope and Laurentius Roverella, bishop of Ferrara, sce Platina in Vita Pii II. Compare below, $ 199, note 3.)

'The distinction between these two terms was best defined by Gabriel Biel, in Sent. Lib. iv., Dist. 1, Qu. 3. Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, p. 199):


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O " The notion that the sacraments of the Ou Testament had only figured the divine grace but not communicated it, was rejected by John Bonaventura and Scotus, after the opposite doctrine had previously been propounded by the Venerable Bede; it was, however, confirmed by Pope Eugen IV. at the Council of Florence." Münscher, edit. by Von Cölln, p. 187 (the proofs are given ibid. pp. 198, 199). The doctrine was then established, that the sacraments of the Old Testament produced effects ex opere operantis, those of the New Testament ex opere operato. Comp. Engelhardt, Dogmengeschichte, pp. 197, 198, noto.

Sacramentum dicitur conferre gratiam ex opere operato, ita quod ex eo ipso, quod opus illud, puta sacramentum, exhibetur, nisi impediat obex peccati mortalis, gratia confertur utentibus, sic quod præter exhibitionem sigui foris exhibiti non requiritur bonus motus interior in suscipiente. Ex opere operante vero dicuntur Sacramenta conferre gratiam per modum meriti, quod scilicet sacramentum foris exhibitum non sufficit ad gratiæ collationem, sed ultra hoc requiritur bonus motus seu devotio interior in suscipiente, secundum cujus intentionem confertur gratia, tanquam meriti condigni vel congrui, præcise, et non major propter exhibitionem sacramenti. (This latter view was also that of Scotus.)

Thomas, l. c. Qu. 64, Art. 5:.... Ministri ecclesiæ possunt sacramenta conferre, etiamsi sint mali.- Art. 9 : Sicut non requiritur ad perfectionem sacramenti, quod minister sit in charitate, sed possunt etiam peccatores sacramenta conferre, ita non requiritur ad perfectionem sacramenti fides ejus, sed infidelis potest verum sacramentum præbere, dummodo cætera adsint, quæ sunt de necessitate sacramenti. Concerning the intentio, compare ibidem and Art. 10. Münscher, edit. by Von Cölln,, p. 196. Cramer, vii. pp. 712, 713. [Aquinas opposed the view—quod requiritur mentalis intentio in ministro, quæ si desit, non perficitur sacramentum; and maintained, quod minister sacramenti agit in persona totius ecclesiæ cujus est minister. In verbis autem quæ profert exprimitur intentio ecclesiæ; quæ sufficit ad perfectionem sacramenti, nisi contrarium externis exprimatur ex parte ministri, vel recipientis sacramentum. Comp. also Art. 10.] • Compare note 7.

Wycliffe criticised the doctrine of the sacraments very acutely. Trialogus Lib. iv. c. l. ss. In his opinion, a thousand other things in their quality of rerum sacrarum signa) might be called sacraments, with quite as much propriety as the seven sacraments.... Multa dicta in ista materia habent nimis debile fundamentum, et propter aggregationem ac institutionem in terminis difficile est loquentibus habere viam impugnabilem veritatis. ... Non enim video, quin quælibet creatura sensibilis sit realiter sacramentum, quia signum a Deo institutum ut rem sacram insensibilem significet, cujusmodi sunt creator et creatio et gratia creatoris. Comp. c. 25, where he designated the ceremonies which had been added to the sacraments, inventions of Antichrist, by which he had imposed a heavy burden upon the Church.Wessel expressed himself in milder terms on this point; he did not altogether disapprove of certain external additions (Chrisma), since, out of reverence the Church has surrounded the sacraments with greater pomp; but, concerning their effects, he opposed the doctrine which would represent them as being produced ex opere operato, and he made salvation depend on the disposition of him who receives the sacrament; De Comunun. Sanct., p. 817. Ullmann, pp. 322, 333.

" Mosheim, 1. c. p. 257 : Dicunt, se credere, quod quidlibet Laicus bonus potest conficere corpus Christi, sicut sacerdos peccator. Item, quod sacerdos, postquam exuit se sacris vestibus, est sicut saccus evacuatus frumento. Item, quod corpus Christi æqualiter est in quolibet pane, sicut in pane sacramentali. Item, quod confiteri sacerdoti non est necessarium ad salutem. Item, quod corpus Christi vel sacramentum Eucharistiæ sumere per Laicum, tan


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