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tum valet pro liberatione animæ defuncti, sicut celebratio Missæ a sacerdote. Item, quod omnis concubitus matrimonialis præter illum, in quo speratur bonum prolis, sit peccatum.-Comp. Berthold's Sermons, edited by Kling,

pp. 308, 309.

§ 191.

BAPTISM.

The scholastics exhibited more originality in their discussions on the Lord's Supper, than in their inquiries into the doctrine of Baptism, where they confined themselves rather to particular points. In adherence to the allegorical system of Cyprian, they adopted the mystical interpretation of the water, as the liquid element, but exercised their ingenuity and fondness for subtile distinctions in pedantic definitions concerning the fluids to be used at the performance of the rite of baptism.' The baptism of blood was as well known during the present period as in preceding ages, with this difference only, that it was performed by those who inflicted tortures upon themselves (Flagellantes) instead of by martyrs.' The baptism of water could be administered by none but priests, except in cases of necessity. The doctrine of infant baptism had long been regarded by the Church as a settled point; Peter of Bruis, however, and some mystical sects, spoke of it in a slighting way." As infants, the subjects of baptism could not enter into any engagement themselves; an engagement was made for them by their godfathers and godmothers, according to the principle of Augustine : credit in altero, qui peccavit in altero. —Infant baptism was supposed to remove orignal sin, but it did not take away the concupiscentia (lex fomitis), though it lessened it by means of the grace imparted in baptism. In the case of grown up persons who are baptised, baptism not only effects the pardon of sins formerly committed, but it also imparts, according to Peter Lombard, assisting grace to perform virtuous actions. The assertion of Thomas Aquinas, that children also obtained that grace,' was confirmed by Pope Clement V. at the Synod of Vienne (A. D. 1311.)'

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Compare Cramer, vii. p. 715. ss. Peter Lombard taught, Sent. Lib. iv. Dist.'3, G : non in alio liquore potest consecrari baptismus nisi in aqua; others, however, thought that the rite of baptism might also be performed with air, sand, or soil. (Schmid, J. A., de Baptismo per Arenam. Helmst. 1697. 4.) Various opinions obtained concerning the question, whether beer, broth, fish-sauce, mead or honey-water, lye or rose-water, might be used instead of pure water. See Meiners and Spittlers Neues Göttingen. bis. torisches Magazin, Vol. iii. part 2, 1793, 8, (reprinted from Holderi dubietatibus circa Baptismum): Augusti, theologische Blätter, Vol. i. p. 170, ss., and his Archæologie vii. p. 206, ss. The scholastics carried their absurdities so far, as to start the question : Quid faciendum, si puer urinaret (stercorizaret) in fontem! A distinction was also made between aqua artificialis, naturalis, and usualis.- Many other useless and unprofitable contentions took place about the baptistnal formulas; see Holder, l. C.-Sprinkling also (instead of dipping) gave rise to many discussions. Thomas Aquinas, preferred the more ancient custom (Summa P. iii. Qu. 66, Art. 6), because immersion reminded Christians of the burial of Christ: but he did not think it absolutely necessary. From the thirteenth century, sprinkling came into more general use in the West. The Greek Church, however, and the Church of Milan, still retained the practice of immersion ; see Augusti, Archäologie vii. p. 229, ss.*—On the question whether it was necessary to dip once, or thrice, see Holder, l. c. (he has collected many more instances of the ingenuity and acuteness of the casuists in reference to all possible difficulties.)

Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 66, Art. 11...... præter baptismum aquæ potest aliquis consequi sacramenti effectum ex passione Christi, inquantam quis ei conformatur pro Christo patiendo.-Concerning the Flagellantes, see Förstemann, die christlichen Geisslergesellschaften, Halle, 1828.

Peter Lombard, Sent. iv. Dist. 6, A (after Isidore of Spain) : Constat baptismum solis sacerdotibus esse traditum, ejusque ministerium nec ipsis diaconis implere est licitum absque episcopo vel presbytero, nisi his procul absentibus, ultima languoris cogat necessitas : quod etiam laicis fidelibus permittitur. Compare Gratian. in Decret, de Consecrat. Dist. 4, c. 19.Thomas Aquinas, Summ. P. iii. Qu. 67, Art. 1-6. (The further definitions belong to the province of canon law.)

Comp. Petr. Ven. Cluniacensis adv. Petrobrusianos, in Bibl. PP. Max. Lugd. T. xxii. p. 1033.—The Paulicians, Bogomiles, Cathari, etc., opposed infant baptism ; several of these sects (e. g., the Cathari) rejected baptism by water altogether. Comp. Moneta, advers. Catharos et Waldenses, Lib. V. c. i., p. 277, ss. Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, pp. 209, 210.

Comp. Vol. i. 8 137, note 6, p. 390, Peter Lombard, Sent. L. iv. Dist. 6, G. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 68, Art. 9: Regeneratio spiritualis, quæ fit per baptismum, est quodammodo similis nativitati carnali, quantum ad hoc, quod, sicut pueri in maternis uteris constituti non per se ipsos nutrimentum accipiunt, sed ex nutrimento matris sustentantur, ita etiam pueri nondum habentes usum rationis, quasi in utero matris ecclesiæ constituti, non per se ipsos, sed per actum ecclesiæ salutem suscipiunt.-The regulations concerning the ecclesiastical relationship in which the godfathers and godmothers stand to each other, belong to the canon law. Comp. Peter Lomb. L. iv. Dist. 42. Thomas Aquinas, P. iii, in Supplem. Qu. 56, Art. 3.—Decretalia Greg. IX. Lo iv. T. 11. Sexti Decretal. L. iv. T. 3.

Lombard, L. ii. Dist. 32, A. (in accordance with Augustine) : Licet remaneat concupiscentia post baptismum, non tamen dominatur et regnat sicut ante : imo per gratiam baptismi mitigatur et minuitur, ut post dominari

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* Various regulations concerning the right performance of baptism may also be found in Berthold's Sermons, pp. 442, 443. Thus it is there said: “Young people ought not to baptize children for fun or mockery; por ought foolish people to push a Jew into the water contrary to his wishes. Such doings are not valid."

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non valeat, nisi quis reddat vires hosti eundo post concupiscentias. Nec post baptismum remanet ad reatum, quia non imputatur in peccatum, sed tantum pæna peccati est; ante baptismum vero pæna est et culpa. Compare what follows. Thomas Aquinas, Summ. P. ii. Qu. 81, Art. 3: Peccatum originale per baptismum aufertur reatu, inquantum anima recuperat gratiam quantum ad mentem : remanet tamen peccatum originale actu, quantum ad fomitem, qui est inordinatio partium inferiorum animæ et ipsius corporis. Comp. P. ii. Qu. 27, Art. 3.

· Lombard Lib. iv. Dist. 4, H: De adultis enim, qui digne recipiunt sacramentum, non ambigitur, quin gratiam operantem et cooperantem perceperint.

....De parvulis vero, qui nondum ratione utuntur, quæstio est, an in baptismo receperint gratiam, qua ad majorem venientes ætatem possint velle et operari bonum. Videtur quod non receperint: quia gratia illa charitas est et fides, quæ voluntatem præparat et adjuvat. Sed quis duxerit eos accepisse fidem et charitatem ? Si vero gratiam non receperint, qua bene operari possint cum fuerint adulti, non ergo sufficit eis in hoc statu gratia in baptismo data, nec per illam possunt modo boni esse, nisi alia addatur: quæ si non additur, non est ex eorum culpa, quia justificati (al, non) sunt a peccato. Quidam putant gratiam operantem et cooperantem cunctis parvulis in baptismo dari in munere, non in usu, ut, cum ad majorem venerint ætatem, ex munere sortiantur

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liberum arbitrium usum muneris extinguant peccando : et ita ex culpa eorum est, non ex defectu gratiæ, quod mali fiunt.

Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 69, Art. 6: Quia pueri, sicut et adulti, in baptismo efficiuntur membra Christi, unde necesse est, quod a capite recipiant influxum gratiæ et virtutis.

• In Mansi, Tom. xxv. Col. 411, Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 203. [Mansi, Col. 411: Baptisma unicum....celebratum in aqua, in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, credimus esse tam adultis quam parvulis communiter perfectum remedium ad salutem. Verum quantum ad effectum cum theologi varias opiniones habeant; videlicet dicentibus quibusdam, parvulis culpam remitti, sed gratiam non conferri ; aliis e contra assientibus quod et culpa eisdem in baptismo remittitur, et virtutés ac informans gratia infunduntur quoad habitum, etsi non pro illo tempore quoad usum : nos attendentes generalem efficaciam mortis Christi, quæ per baptisma applicatur pariter omnibus baptizatis, opinionem secundam, quæ dicit tam parvulis quam adultis conferri in baptismo, gratiam informantem et virtutes, tanquam probabiliorem et dictis Sanctorum et doctorum modernorum theologiæ magis consonam et concordem, sacro approbante Concilio, duximus eligendam.]

The repetition of the rite of baptism was not in accordance with the nature of that sacrament. But theologians differed in their opinions respecting the question, whether those who are prevented by circumstances from being baptised, may be saved ? In opposition to earlier divines (such as Rabanus Maurus), later theologians, e. g. Bernard of Clairval, Peter Lombard, and Thomas Aquinas, maintained, that in such cases the will alone was sufficient. Compare the passages quoted by Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, pp. 205, 206. [Aquinas, Qu. 68, Art. 2: Alio modo potest sacramentum baptismi alicui deesse re, sed non voto : sicut cum aliquis baptizari desiderat, sed aliquo casu prævenitur morte, antequam baptismum suscipiat. Et talis sine baptismo actuali salutem consequi potest propter desiderium baptismi, quod procedit ex fide per dilectionem operante, per quam Deus interius hominem sanctificat, cujus potentia sacramentis visibilibus non alligatur.]

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§ 192.

CONFIRMATION.

Klee, Dogmengeschichte, ii. p. 160–170. J. F. Bachmann Geschichte der Einführung

der Contirmation innerhalb d. Evangel. Kirche. Berlin, 1852. [Jo. Dallius, de duabus Latinorum ex Unctione' Sacramentis, Confirmatione et extrema Unctione, Genev., 1669. Toid. De Cultibus religios. Latinorum, L. ix., 1671. In reply, Natal. Alexander, Hist. Eccles. Sæc. II. Diss. x. N. Wiseman, Lectures on the Offices and Ceremonies, etc. H. Hepwood, the Order and History of Confirmation, 2d ed., 1850. Church Review (New Haven), Difference of Protest. Episc. and Rom. Cath. View of Confirmation, April, 1852. T. Smyth, the Rito of Contirmation, 1845.]

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Confirmation (xpīoua, confirmatio) originally connected with baptism, was, in the course of time, separated from it, as a particular rite, and then came to be viewed as a sacrament, which only the bishop could administer. As the first motion to spiritual life is the effect of baptism, so its growth is promoted by the rite of confirmation. Its characteristic is invigoration ;' and so, those who are made members of this spiritual knighthood were smitten on the cheek.' Moreover baptism must precede confirmation.' Nor ought the latter rite to be performed without godfathers and godmothers. All these regulations were confirmed by Pope Eugen IV. But Wycliffe and Hus declared confirmation to be an abuse.'

Compare Augusti, Archæologie, vii. p. 401, ss. On the origin of this sacrament, and its reference to a Council of Meaux (Concilium Meldense), as alleged by Alexander of Hales, see Gieseler, Dogmengesch, 527. [Alex. ander got this notion from the Decretum Gratiani, where a statement about Confirmation is headed-Ex Concil. Meldens. But the passage is from a Paris Council, A. D. 829. But Alexander, though wrong, seems unconsciously to imply, that a sacrament might be directly instituted by the church; which Aquinas denies, saying, that the sacraments must be appointed or promised by Christ.]

Melchiades in Epist. ad Hisp. Episcopos (in Peter Lombard, Sent. Lib. iv. Dist. 7); Thomas Aquinas, Art. 6, and 7 (quoted by Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, pp. 211, 212). [Melchiades (in Pseudo-Isidor.) says : Sp. S. in fonte plenitudinem tribuit ad innocentiam: in confirmatione augmentum præstat ad gratiam. Et quia in hoc mundo tota ætate victoris inter invisibiles hostes et pericula gradiendum est : in baptismo regeneramur ad vitam, post baptismum confirmamur ad pugnam.... Aquinas, Art. 6: Character confirmationis ex necessitate præsupponit characterem baptismalem : ita scilicet quod, si aliquis non baptizatus confirmaretur, nihil reciperet, sed oporteret iterato ipsum confirmari post baptismum (against the Catharists.)] Bonaventura Brevil. P. vi. c. 8, quoted by Klee, Dogmengeschichte, ii. P: 165. [Bonaventura says : Primo ergo, quoniam confessio hæc debet esse integra, et integritas confessionis non est, nisi quis confiteatur Christum verum hominem pro hominibus crucifixum, eundemque verum Dei filium in carnatum in Trinitate Patri et Spiritui Sancto per omnia æqualem, hinc est, quod in forma vocali non tantam fit expressio actus confirmandi, verum etiam ipsius signi crucis, et nominis beatissimæ Trinitatis.- As it should, secondly, be placid and pleasing to God, oil of olives and balsam, etc., are used. Postremo, quia talis confessio debet esse intrepida, ut nec pudore, nec timore dimittat quis dicere veritatem, et tempore persecutionis ignominiosain mortem Christi in cruce confiteri publice formidat quis et erubescit. ...et hujus modi timor et pudor potissime apparet in fronte, ideo ad omnem verecundiam et formidinem propulsandam et manus potestativa imponitur, quæ confirmet et crux fronti imprimitur. Klee, ubi supra, pp. 165–6, note.]

According to Augusti (l. c. pp. 450, 451), this strange usage was not known previous to the thirteenth century; but Klee asserts (Dogmengesch. ii. p. 165) that it existed as early as the eleventh century. At all events, it seems more likely that it had its origin in the customs of the Knights (as Klee supposes), than in certain rites which were observed when apprentices had served out their time (according to Augusti). But the proper element of this sacrament was the Chrisma, confectum ex oleo olivarum. Compare the authorities cited in notes 2 and 6. [The form was in the laying on of bands by the bishop, anointing the forehead with the sign of the cross, using the formula : Consigno te signo crucis, et confirmo te chrismate salutis, in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen.

Thomas Aquinas, 1. e. : Character confirmationis ex necessitate præsupponit characterem baptismalem, etc. Confirmation, too, has a character indelebilis ; hence it is not to be repeated.

Concerning the godfathers and godmothers, see Augusti, l. C.. p. 434. Thomas Aquinas, Art. 10; Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, p. 214. The relation of godfathers and godmothers in confirmation, is also a basis of ecclesiastical relationship. [This spiritual relationship is also considered as a hindrance to marriage. Boniface VIII. (1295) in sexto Decretal. L. iv., Tit. . 3, cap. 1; Ex confirmatione quoque, seu frontis chrismatione spiritualis cognatio eisdem modis (as in baptism) contrahitur, matrimonia similiter impedicus contrahenda, et dirimens post contracta.] • Conc. Florent. Col. 1055, quoted by Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 215.*

p [The Florence Council declared the matter of the sacrament to be-Chrisma oonfectum ex oleo: the form (as above, note 3); the bishop to be the ordi. nary administrator. The effect was-robur. Ideoque in fronte, ubi verecundiæ sedes cst, confirmandus inungitur, ne Christi nomen confiteri erubescat, et præcipue crucem ejus... propter quod signo crucis signatur.]

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* Trialog. Lib. iv. c. 14. Schröckh, Kircheng. xxxiv. p. 508. He doubted whether confirmation could be proved from Acts viii. 17 (as was generally supposed), and called it blasphemy, to maintain that bishops might again impart the Holy Spirit, which had already been imparted by baptism.Hus, Art. ii. apud Trithem. Chron. Hirsaug. ann. 1402. Klee, 1. c. p. 164. Lbe Council of Trent is against Hus, etc. in several canons. Sessio vii. De Conf. Cas. i, ii.] |

• The Creek Church has the sacrament of confirmation as well as the Latin ; only (according to the older tradition of the church) it is performed immediately after baptism, nad every priest is empowered to do it: see Art. Greek Church, in Herzog's Realencyclog.

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