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Q. Mar. And turns the sun to shade ;-alas! alas! Witness my son, now in the shade of death ; 6 Whose bright out-shining beams thy cloudy wrath Hath in eternal darkness folded up. Your aiery buildeth in our aiery's nest:7O God, that see'st it, do not suffer it; As it was won with blood, lost be it so!

Buck. Peace, peace, for shame, if not for charity.

Q. Mar. Urge neither charity nor shame to me;
Uncharitably with me have you dealt,
And shamefully by you my hopes are butcher'd.
My charity is outrage, life my shame,
And in my shame still live my sorrow's rage!

Buck. Have done, have done.

Q. Mar. O princely Buckingham, I kiss thy hand, In sign of league and amity with thee: Now fair befal thee, and thy noble house! Thy garments are not spotted with our blood, Nor thou within the compass of my curse.

Buck. Nor no one here; for curses never pass
The lips of those that breathe them in the air.

Q. Mar. I'll not believe but they ascend the sky,
And there awake God's gentle-sleeping peace.
O Buckingham, beware of yonder dog;
Look, when he fawns, he bites; and, when he bites,
His venom tooth will rankle to the death:
Have not to do with him, beware of him ;
Sin, death, and hell,8 have set their marks on him;

6 Witness my son, &c.] Her distress cannot prevent her quib. bling. It may be here remarked, that the introduction of Mar. garet in this place, is against all historical evidence. She was ransomed and sent to France soon after Tewksbury fight, and there passed the remainder of her wretched life. Ritson.

Witness iny son.) Thus the quarto of 1598, and the folio. The modern editors, after the quarto of 1612, read-sun. Malone.

7 Your aiery buildeth in our aiery's nest :] An aiery is a hawk's or an eagle's nest. So, in Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608 :

* It is a subtle bird that breeds añong the aiery of hawks." Again, in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630:

“ His high-built aiery shall be drown'd in blood.” 8 Sin, death, and hell,] Possibly Milton took from hence the hint of his famous allegory. Blackstone.

Milton might as probably catch the hint from the following passage in Latimer's Sermons, 1584, fol. 79: “Here came in death

Against the duke of Clarence, but have been
An earnest advocate to plead for him.
My lord, you do me shameful injury,
Falsely to draw me in these vile suspects.

Glo. You may deny that you were not the cause
Of my lord Hastings' late imprisonment.

Riv. She may, my lord; for

Glo. She may, lord Rivers ?why, who knows not so?
She may do more, sir, than denying that:
She may help you to many fair preferments;
And then deny her aiding hand therein,
And lay those honours on your high desert.
What may she not? She may-ay, marry, may shem

Riv. What, marry, may she?
Glo. What, marry, may she? marry with a king,
A bachelor, a handsome stripling too:
I wis, your grandam had a worser match.

Q. Eliz. My lord of Gloster, I have too long borne
Your blunt upbraidings, and your bitter scoffs :
By heaven, I will acquaint his majesty,
Of those gross taunts I often have endur'd.
I had rather be a country servant-maid,
Than a great queen, with this condition
To be so baited, scorn'd, and stormed at:
Small joy have I in being England's queen.

Enter Queen MARGARET, behind. Q. Mar. And lessen'd be that small, God, I beseech

thee! Thy honour, state, and scat, is due to me.

Glo. What! threat you me with telling of the king? Tell him, and spare not; look, what I have said 9 I will avouch in presence of the king: I dare adventure to be sent to the Tower. 1 'Tis time to speak, my pains2 are quite forgot.

9 Tell him, and spare not; look, what I have said-] This verse I have restored from the old quartos. Theobald.

Here we have another proof of a line being passed over by the transcriber, or the compositor at the press, when the first folio was printed, for the subsequent line is not sense without this.

Malone. 1 I dare adventure to be sent to the Tower.) Perhaps our author elliptically omitted the first-to in this line. So, in p. 42:

"To help thee curse” &c. i. e. to curse. See also p. 27, line 13, and p. 31, line 10. Steevens.

Q. Mar. Out, devil!3 I remember them too well:
Thou kill'dst my husband Henry in the Tower,
And Edward, my poor son, at Tewksbury.

Glo. Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king,
I was a pack-horse in his great affairs;
A weeder-out of his proud adversaries,
A liberal rewarder of his friends ;
To royalize 4 his blood, I spilt mine own.

Q. Mar. Ay, and much better blood than his, or thine.

Glo. In all which time, you, and your husband Grey, Were factious for the house of Lancaster; And, Rivers, so were you :-Was not your husband In Margaret's battles at saint Albans slain? Let me put in your minds, if you forget, What you have been ere now, and what you are ; Withal, what I have been, and what I am.

Q. Mar. A murd'rous villain, and so still thou art. Glo. Poor Clarence did forsake his father Warwick, Ay, and forswore himself-Which Jesu pardon!

Q. Mar. Which God revenge!
Glo. To fight on Edward's party, for the crown :
And, for his meed, poor lord, he is mew'd up:
I would to God, my heart were flint, like Edward's,
Or Edward's soft and pitiful, like mine;
I am too childish-foolish for this world.

2 - my pains ] My labours; my toils. Johnson.

3 Out, devil! | Mr. Lambe observes, in his notes on the ancient metrical history of The Battle of Floddon Field, that out is an interjection of abhorrence or contempt, most frequent in the mouths of the common people of the north. It occurs again in Act IV:

“- out on ye, owls !" Steevens. 4- royalizei. e. to make royal. So, in Claudius Tiberius Nero, 1607:

“ Who means to-morrow for to royalize

“ The triumphs”. &c. Steevens. 5Was not your husband

In Margaret's battle &c.] It is said in Henry VI, that he died in quarrel of the house of York. Fohnson.

The account here given is the true one. See this inconsistency accounted for in Vol. X, p. 356, and in the Dissertation at the end of the Third Part of King Henry VI, p. 466. Malone.

Margaret's battle is–Margaret's army. Ritson.
So, in King Henry IV, P. I:

" What may the king's whole battle reach unto ?” Steevens,

Q. Mar. Hie thee to hell for shame, and leave this

Thou cacodæmon! there thy kingdom is.

Riv. My lord of Gloster, in those busy days,
Which here you urge, to prove us enemies,
We follow'd then our lord, our lawful king;6
So should we you, if you should be our king.
- Glo. If I should be?--I had rather be a pedlar:
Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof! .

Q. Eliz. As little joy, my lord, as you suppose
You should enjoy, were you this country's king;
As little joy you may suppose in me,
That I enjoy, being the queen thereof.

Q. Mar. A little joy enjoys the queen thereof;
For I am she, and altogether joyless.
I can no longer hold me patient.-

Hear me, you wrangling pirates, that fall out
In sharing that which you have pill'd from me: 8
Which of you trembles not, that looks on me?
If not, that, I being queen, you bow like subjects;
Yet that, by you depos’d, you quake like rebels?

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6 our lawful king;] So the quarto, 1598, and the subsequent quartos. The folio has- sovereign king.

In this play the variations between the original copy in quarto, and the folio, are more numerous than, I believe, in any other of our author's pieces. The alterations, it is highly probable, were made, not by Shakspeare, but by the players, many of them being very injudicious. The text has been formed out of the two copies, the folio, and the early quarto; from which the preceding editors have in every scene selected such readings as appeared to them fit to be adopted. To enumerate every variation between the copies would encumber the page with little use. Malone.

7 Hear me, you wrangling pirates, &c.] This scene of Margaret's imprecations is fine and artful She prepares the audience, like another Cassandra, for the following tragic revolutions. Warburton.

Surely, the merits of this scene are insufficient to excuse its improbability. Margaret, bullying the court of England in the royal palace, is a circumstance as absurd as the courtship of Gloster in a publick street. Siectens. 8 w hich you have pill'd from me:7 To pill is to pillage. So, in The Martyr'd Soldier, by Shirley, 1638:

“ He has not pilld the rich, nor flay'd the poor." Steevens. To pill, is literally, to take off the outside, or rind. Thus they say in Devonshire, to pill an apple, rather than pare it; and Shir. ley uses the word precisely in this sense. Henley.

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Ah, gentle villain,' do not turn away!
Glo. Foul wrinkled witch, what mak'st thou in my

Q. Mar. But repetition of what thou hast marr’d;
That will I make, before I let thee go.
Glo. Wert thou not banished, on pain of death? 2

Q. Mar. I was; but I do find more pain in banishment,
Than death can yield me here by my abode.
A husband, and a son, thou ow'st to me,
And thou, a kingdom;-all of you, allegiance:
This sorrow that I have, by right is yours;
And all the pleasures you usurp, are mine.

Glo. The curse my noble father laid on thee,
When thou didst crown his warlike brows with paper,
And with thy scorns drew'st rivers from his eyes;
And then, to dry them, gav’st the duke a clout,
Steep'd in the faultless blood of pretty Rutland ;-
His curses, then from bitterness of soul

9 Ah, gentle villain, 1 We should read:

ungentle villain, Warburton. The meaning of gentle is not, as the commentator imagines, tender or courteous, but high-born. An opposition is meant between that and villain, which means at once a wicked and a low-born wretch. So before:

“ Since ev'ry Jack is made a gentleman,

“ There 's many a gentle person made a Jack.” Johnson. Gentle appears to me to be taken in its common acceptation, but to be used ironically. M. Mason.

what mak'st thou in my sight?] An obsolete expression for-what dost thou in my sight. So, in Othello:

"Ancient, what makes he here?” Margaret in her answer takes the word in its ordinary accepta.. tion. Malone. So does Orlando, in As you like it : .

“Now, sir, what make you here

“Nothing: I am not taught to make any thing.” Steevens. 2 Wert thou not banished, on pain of death?? Margaret fled into France after the battle of Hexham in 1464, and Edward soon afterwards issued a proclamation, prohibiting any of his subjects from aiding her to return, or harbouring her, should she attempt to revisit England She remained abroad till the 141h of April, 1471, when she landed at Weymouth. After the battle of Tewks. bury, in May, 1471, she was confined in the Tower, where she continued a prisoner till 1475, when she was ransomed by her father Reignier, and removed to France, where she died in 1482. The present scene is in 1477-8. Malone. VOL. XI.


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