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Q. Mar. And turns the sun to shade ;-alas! alas! Witness my son, now in the shade of death ; 6 Whose bright out-shining beams thy cloudy wrath Hath in eternal darkness folded up. Your aiery buildeth in our aiery's nest:7O God, that see'st it, do not suffer it; As it was won with blood, lost be it so!
Buck. Peace, peace, for shame, if not for charity.
Q. Mar. Urge neither charity nor shame to me;
Buck. Have done, have done.
Q. Mar. O princely Buckingham, I kiss thy hand, In sign of league and amity with thee: Now fair befal thee, and thy noble house! Thy garments are not spotted with our blood, Nor thou within the compass of my curse.
Buck. Nor no one here; for curses never pass
Q. Mar. I'll not believe but they ascend the sky,
6 Witness my son, &c.] Her distress cannot prevent her quib. bling. It may be here remarked, that the introduction of Mar. garet in this place, is against all historical evidence. She was ransomed and sent to France soon after Tewksbury fight, and there passed the remainder of her wretched life. Ritson.
Witness iny son.) Thus the quarto of 1598, and the folio. The modern editors, after the quarto of 1612, read-sun. Malone.
7 Your aiery buildeth in our aiery's nest :] An aiery is a hawk's or an eagle's nest. So, in Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608 :
* It is a subtle bird that breeds añong the aiery of hawks." Again, in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630:
“ His high-built aiery shall be drown'd in blood.” 8 Sin, death, and hell,] Possibly Milton took from hence the hint of his famous allegory. Blackstone.
Milton might as probably catch the hint from the following passage in Latimer's Sermons, 1584, fol. 79: “Here came in death
Against the duke of Clarence, but have been
Glo. You may deny that you were not the cause
Riv. She may, my lord; for
Glo. She may, lord Rivers ?why, who knows not so?
Riv. What, marry, may she?
Q. Eliz. My lord of Gloster, I have too long borne
Enter Queen MARGARET, behind. Q. Mar. And lessen'd be that small, God, I beseech
thee! Thy honour, state, and scat, is due to me.
Glo. What! threat you me with telling of the king? Tell him, and spare not; look, what I have said 9 I will avouch in presence of the king: I dare adventure to be sent to the Tower. 1 'Tis time to speak, my pains2 are quite forgot.
9 Tell him, and spare not; look, what I have said-] This verse I have restored from the old quartos. Theobald.
Here we have another proof of a line being passed over by the transcriber, or the compositor at the press, when the first folio was printed, for the subsequent line is not sense without this.
Malone. 1 I dare adventure to be sent to the Tower.) Perhaps our author elliptically omitted the first-to in this line. So, in p. 42:
"To help thee curse” &c. i. e. to curse. See also p. 27, line 13, and p. 31, line 10. Steevens.
Q. Mar. Out, devil!3 I remember them too well:
Glo. Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king,
Q. Mar. Ay, and much better blood than his, or thine.
Glo. In all which time, you, and your husband Grey, Were factious for the house of Lancaster; And, Rivers, so were you :-Was not your husband In Margaret's battles at saint Albans slain? Let me put in your minds, if you forget, What you have been ere now, and what you are ; Withal, what I have been, and what I am.
Q. Mar. A murd'rous villain, and so still thou art. Glo. Poor Clarence did forsake his father Warwick, Ay, and forswore himself-Which Jesu pardon!
Q. Mar. Which God revenge!
2 - my pains ] My labours; my toils. Johnson.
3 Out, devil! | Mr. Lambe observes, in his notes on the ancient metrical history of The Battle of Floddon Field, that out is an interjection of abhorrence or contempt, most frequent in the mouths of the common people of the north. It occurs again in Act IV:
“- out on ye, owls !" Steevens. 4- royalizei. e. to make royal. So, in Claudius Tiberius Nero, 1607:
“ Who means to-morrow for to royalize
“ The triumphs”. &c. Steevens. 5Was not your husband
In Margaret's battle &c.] It is said in Henry VI, that he died in quarrel of the house of York. Fohnson.
The account here given is the true one. See this inconsistency accounted for in Vol. X, p. 356, and in the Dissertation at the end of the Third Part of King Henry VI, p. 466. Malone.
Margaret's battle is–Margaret's army. Ritson.
" What may the king's whole battle reach unto ?” Steevens,
Q. Mar. Hie thee to hell for shame, and leave this
Riv. My lord of Gloster, in those busy days,
Q. Eliz. As little joy, my lord, as you suppose
Q. Mar. A little joy enjoys the queen thereof;
6 our lawful king;] So the quarto, 1598, and the subsequent quartos. The folio has- sovereign king.
In this play the variations between the original copy in quarto, and the folio, are more numerous than, I believe, in any other of our author's pieces. The alterations, it is highly probable, were made, not by Shakspeare, but by the players, many of them being very injudicious. The text has been formed out of the two copies, the folio, and the early quarto; from which the preceding editors have in every scene selected such readings as appeared to them fit to be adopted. To enumerate every variation between the copies would encumber the page with little use. Malone.
7 Hear me, you wrangling pirates, &c.] This scene of Margaret's imprecations is fine and artful She prepares the audience, like another Cassandra, for the following tragic revolutions. Warburton.
Surely, the merits of this scene are insufficient to excuse its improbability. Margaret, bullying the court of England in the royal palace, is a circumstance as absurd as the courtship of Gloster in a publick street. Siectens. 8 w hich you have pill'd from me:7 To pill is to pillage. So, in The Martyr'd Soldier, by Shirley, 1638:
“ He has not pill’d the rich, nor flay'd the poor." Steevens. To pill, is literally, to take off the outside, or rind. Thus they say in Devonshire, to pill an apple, rather than pare it; and Shir. ley uses the word precisely in this sense. Henley.
Ah, gentle villain,' do not turn away!
Q. Mar. I was; but I do find more pain in banishment,
Glo. The curse my noble father laid on thee,
9 Ah, gentle villain, 1 We should read:
ungentle villain, Warburton. The meaning of gentle is not, as the commentator imagines, tender or courteous, but high-born. An opposition is meant between that and villain, which means at once a wicked and a low-born wretch. So before:
“ Since ev'ry Jack is made a gentleman,
“ There 's many a gentle person made a Jack.” Johnson. Gentle appears to me to be taken in its common acceptation, but to be used ironically. M. Mason.
what mak'st thou in my sight?] An obsolete expression for-what dost thou in my sight. So, in Othello:
"Ancient, what makes he here?” Margaret in her answer takes the word in its ordinary accepta.. tion. Malone. So does Orlando, in As you like it : .
“Now, sir, what make you here
“Nothing: I am not taught to make any thing.” Steevens. 2 Wert thou not banished, on pain of death?? Margaret fled into France after the battle of Hexham in 1464, and Edward soon afterwards issued a proclamation, prohibiting any of his subjects from aiding her to return, or harbouring her, should she attempt to revisit England She remained abroad till the 141h of April, 1471, when she landed at Weymouth. After the battle of Tewks. bury, in May, 1471, she was confined in the Tower, where she continued a prisoner till 1475, when she was ransomed by her father Reignier, and removed to France, where she died in 1482. The present scene is in 1477-8. Malone. VOL. XI.