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ACT III.....SCENE I.
The same. A Street. The Trumpets sound. "Enter the Prince of Wales, Glos
TER, BUCKINGHAM, Cardinal BOURCHIER,R and
Others. Buck. Welcome, sweet prince, to London, to your
chamber.? Glo. Welcome, dear cousin, my thoughts' sovereign: The weary way hath made you melancholy.
Prince. No, uncle; but our crosses on the way
Glo. Sweet prince, the untainted virtue of your years
were none. Glo. My lord, the mayor of London comes to greet
Enter the Lord Mayor, and his Train. May. God bless your grace with health and happy days!
6 Cardinal Bourchier,] Thomas Bourchier was made a Cardinal, and elected Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1464. He died in 1486.
Malone.' 7 to your chamber.) London was anciently called Camera regis. Pope.
Só, in Heywood's If you know not me you know Nobody, 1633, Part II:
“ This city, our great chamber." Steevens. This title it began to have immediately after the Norman con. quest. See Coke's 4 Inst. 243, where it is styled Camera Regis; Cainden's Britannia, 374; Ben Jonson's Account of King James's Entertainment in passing to his Coronation, &c. Reed. 8_ jumpeth with the heart.] So, in Soliman and Perseda, 1599: “Wert thou my friend, thy mind would jump with mine."
Prince. I thank you, good my lord ;-and thank you
[Exeunt Mayor, &c.
Buck. Fy! what an indirect and peevish course
Card. My lord of Buckingham, if my weak oratory
Buck. You are too“senseless-obstinate, my lord, strict cabotinente Too ceremonious, and traditional:
abstinent Weigh it but with the"grossness of this age, 3
goodness of his 9- in good time,] De bonne heure. Fr. Steevens.
i Anon expect him here: &c.] The word--anon, may safely be omitted. It only serves to vitiate the measure. Steevens.
.2 Too ceremonious, and traditional:7 Ceremonious for superstitious; traditional for adherent to old customs. Warburton.
3 Weigh it but with the grossness of this age,] But the more gross, that is, the more superstitious the age was, the stronger would be the imputation of violated sanctuary. The question, we see by what follows, is whether sanctuary could be claimed by an infant. The speaker resolves it in the negative, because it could
You break not sanctuary in seizing him.
Card. My lord, you shall o'er-rule my mind for once.
Hast. I go, my lord.
[Exeunt Card. and Hast.
Glo. Where it seems best unto your roval self.
be claimed by those only whose actions necessitated them to fly thither; or by those who had an understanding to demand it; neither of which could be an infant's case: It is plain then, the first line, which introduces this reasoning, should be read thus:
Weigh it but with the greenness of his age, i. e. the young Duke of York's, whom his mother had fled with to sanctuary. The corrupted reading of the old quarto is something nearer the true:
- the greatness of his age. Warburton. This emendation is received by Hanmer, and is very plausible; yet the common reading may stand:
Weigh it but with the grossness of this age,
You break not sanctuary, ..That is, compare the act of seizing him with the gross and li. centious practices of these times, it will not be considered as a violation of sanctuary, for you may give such reasons as men are now used to admit. Johnson.
The truth is, the quarto 1598, and the two subsequent quartos, as well as the folio, all read-grossness. Greatness is the corrupt reading of a late quarto of no authority, printed in 1622. Malone.
4. Oft have I heard of sanctuary men; &c.] These arguments against the privilege of sanctuary are taken from Sir Thomas More's Life of King Edward the Fifth, published by Stowe: " - And rerily, I have heard of sanctuary men, but I never heard earst of sanctuary children," &c. Steevens.
More's Life of King Edward V was published also by Hall and Holinslied, and in the Chronicle of Holinshed Shakspeare found: this argliments. Malone.
If I may counsel you, some day, or two,
Prince. I do not like the Tower, of any place:
Glo. He did, my gracious lord, begin that place; Which, since, succeeding ages have re-edify'd.5
Prince. Is it upon record ? or else reported Successively from age to age, he built it?
Buck. Upon record, my gracious lord.
Prince. But say, my lord, it were not register'd; Methinks, the truth should live from age to age, As 'twere retail'd to all posterity, Even to the general all-ending day. Glo. So wise so young, they say, do ne'er live long.?
. . [Aside.
5 He did &c.] I suppose, this and the following line, (the use. less epithet-gracious, omitted,) should be read thus:
He did, my lord, begin that place; which, since,
Succeeding ages have re-edify'd. Steevens. 6 As 'twere retail'd to all posterity,l And so it is; and, by that means, like most other retail'd things, became adulterated. We should read:
intail'd to all posterity; which is finely and sensibly expressed, as if truth was the natural inheritance of our children: which it is impiety to deprive them of. Warburton.
Retailed may signify diffused, dispersed. Johnson.
Retailed means handed down from one to another.-Goods re. tailed, are those which pass from one purchaser to another.Richard uses the word retailed in the same sense in the fourth Act, where speaking to the Queen of her daughter, he says
"To whom I will retail my conquests won.” M. Mason. Minsheu in his Dictionary, 1617, besides the verb retail in the mercantile sense, has the verb “to retaile or retell, G. renombrer, a Lat. renumerare ;” and in that sense, I conceive, it is employed here. Malone. ? So wise so young, they say, do ne'er live long. ]
“ Is cadit ante senem, qui sapit ante diem," a proverbial line. Steevens.
Bright, in his Treatise on Melancholy, 1586, p. 52, says "I have knowne children languishing of the splene, obstructed and altered in temper, talke with gravitie and wisdome, surpassing those ten. der yeares, and their judgement carrying a marvellous imitation of the wisdome of the ancient, baving after a sorte attained that
Prince. What say you, uncle?
by disease, which other have by course of yeares: whereon I take it, the proverbe ariseth, that they be of short life who are of wit so pregnant.” Reed. 8 Thus, like the formal vice, Iniquity,
I moralize two meanings in one word.] By vice, the author means not a qunlity, but a person. There was hardly an old play, till the period of the Reformation, which had not in it a devil, and a droll character, a jester; (who was to play upon the devil;) and this buffoon went by the name of a Vice. This buffoon was at first accoutred with a long jerkin, a cap with a pair of ass's ears, and a wooden dagger, with which (like another Harlequin) he was to make sport in belabouring the devil. This was the constant en. tertainment in the times of popery, whilst spirits, and witchcraft, and exorcising held their own. When the Reformation took place, the stage shook off some grossities, and encreased in re. finements. The master.devil then was soon dismissed from the scene; and this buffoon was changed into a subordinate fiend, whose business was to range on earth, and seduce poor mortals intỏ that personated vicious quality, which he occasionally supported; as, iniquity in general, hypocrisy, usury, vanity, prodigality, gluttony, &c. Now, as the fiend, (or vice) who personated Iniquity, (or Hypocrisy, for instance,) could never hope to play his game to the purpose but by hiding his cloven foot, and assuming a semblance quite different from his real character; he must certainly put on a formal demeanouir, moralize and prevaricate in his words, and pretend a meaning directly opposite to his genuine and primitive intention. If this does not explain the passage in qllestion, 'tis all that I can at present suggest upon it. Theobald.
That the buffoon, or jester of the old English farces, was called the vice, is certain: and that, in their moral representations, it was common to bring in the deadly sins, is as true. Of these we have yet several remains. But that the vice used to assume the personages of those sins, is a fancy of Mr. Theobald's, who knew nothing of the matter. The truth is, the vice was always a fool or jester: anel, (as the woman, in The Merchant of Venice, calls the Clown, alluding to the character,) a merry devil. Whereas these mortal sins were so many sad serious ones. But what misled our editor was the name, Iniquity, given to this vice: But it was only on account of bis unhappy tricks and rogueries. That it was given to him, and for the reason I mention, appears from the following passage of Jonson's Staple of News, second intermeane:
“ M How like you the vice i' the play?
“ T. Here is never a fiend to carry him away. Besides he has never a wooden dagger.