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He pleaded still, not guilty, and alleg'd
That was he,
2 Gent. After all this, how did he bear himself?
2 Gent. I do not think, he fears death.
Sure, he does not,
'Tis likely, By all conjectures: First, Kildare's attainder,
7 To him brought divâ voce, to his face :) This is a clear error of the press. We must read- have instead of-him. M. Mason.
8 Was either pitied in him, or forgotten.] Either produced no ef. fect, or produced only ineffectual pity. “Malone.
he sweat extremely,] This circumstance is taken from Holinshed: “ After he was found guilty, the duke was brought to the bar, sore-chafing, and sweat marvelously.” Steevens.
Then deputy of Ireland; who remov'd,
That trick of state
At his return,
All the commons
ham, The mirror of all courtesy; 1 Gent.
Stay there, sir, And see the noble ruin'd man you speak of. Enter BUCKINGHAM from his Arraignment; Tipstaves
before him; the Axe with the Edge towards him; Halberds on each side: with him, Sir Thomas LOVELL, Sir NICHOLAS Vaux, Sir William SANDS,2 and common People. 2 Gent. Let's stand close, and behold him. Buck.
All good people, You that thus far have come to pity me, Hear what I say, and then go home and loose me. I have this day receiv'd a traitor's judgment,
1 The mirror of all courtesy;] See the concluding words of n. 6, p. 224. Steevens. 2 Sir William Sands,] The old copy reads-Sir Walter.
Steevens. The correction is justified by Holinshed's Chronicle, in which it is said, that Sir Nicholas Vaux, and Sir William Sands, re- . ceived Buckingham at the Temple, and accompanied him to the Tower. Sir William Sands was, at this time, (May, 1521,) only a baronet, [rather, a knight; as baronetage was unknown till 1611,] not being created Lord Sands till April 27, 1527. Shak. speare probably did not know that he was the same person whom he has already introduced with that title. He fell into the error by placing the King's visit to Wolsey, (at which time Sir William was Lord Sands) and Buckingham's condemnation, in the same year; whereas that visit was made some years afterwards.
And by that name must die; Yet, heaven bear witness,
Lov. I do beseech your grace, for charity,
Buck. Sir Thomas Lovell, I as free forgive you,
3 Nor build their evils on the graves of great men;] Evils, in this place, are foricæ. So, in Measure for Measure:
Having waste ground enough,
- You few that lov'd me, &c.] These lines are remarkably tender and pathetic. Johnson.
the long divorce -] So, in Lord Sterline's Darius, 1603: “Scarce was the lasting last divorcement made
" Betwixt the bodie and the soule” &c. Steevens. 6 And lift my soul to heaven.] So, Milton, Paradise Lost, Book IV: “Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to heaven."
Malone, no black enoy Shall make my grave.] Shakspeare, by this expression, meant
And, if he speak of Buckingham, pray, tell him,
Lov. To the water side I must conduct your grace;
no more than to make the Duke say, No action expressive of malice shall conclude my life. Envy, by our author, is used for malice and hatred, in other places, and, perhaps, in this.
Again, in the ancient metrical romance of Syr Bevys of Hampton, bl. I. no date:
“ Traytoure, he sayd with great envy,
“ Turne thee now, I thee defye.” Again :
“ They drewe theyr swordes hastely,
« And smot together with great envy. And Barrett, in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, thus interprets it.
To make a grave, however, may mean to close it. So, in The Comedy of Errors:
“Why at this time the doors are made against you." i.e. closed, shut. The sense will then be, (whether quaintly or poetically expressed, let the reader determine) no malicious action shall close my grave, i. e, attend the conclusion of my existence or terminate my life; the last action of it shall not be uncharitable.
Steevens. Envy is frequently used in this sense by our author and his con. temporaries. See Vol. IV, p. 392, n. 9; and p. 441, 1. 31. I have therefore no doubt that Mr. Steevens's exposition is right. Dr. Warburton reads-mark my grave; and in support of the emendation it may be observed that the same error has happened in King Henry V; or at least that all the editors have supposed so, having there adopted a similar correction. See Vol. ix, p. 249, n. 7.
Dr. Warburton's emendation also derives some support from the following passage in The Comedy of Errors:
“ A vulgar comment will be made of it;
Nay, sir Nicholas,
9 Nay, sir Nicholas,
Let it alone; my state now will but mock me.] The last verse would run more smoothly, by making the monosyllables change places:
Let it alone, my state will now but mock me. Whalley.
-poor Erlward Bohun:] The Duke of Buckingham's name was Stafford. Shakspeare was led into this mistake by Holin. shed. Steevens.
This is not an expression thrown out at random, or by mistake but one strongly marked with historical propriety. The name of the Duke of Buckingham, most generally known, was Stafford; but the History of Remarkable Trials, 8vo 1715, p. 170, says: “it seems he affected that surname (of Bohun) before that of Stafford, he being descended froin the Bohuns, earls of Hereford.” His reason for this might be, because he was lord high constable of England by inheritance of tenure from the Bohuns; and as the poet has taken particular notice of this great oilice, does it not seem probable that he had fully considered of the Duke's foundation for assuming the same of Bohun? In truth, the Duke's name was Bago's; for a gentleman of that very ancient family married the heiress of the barony of Stafford, and their son relinquishing his paternal surname, assumed that of his mother, which continued in his posterity. Tollet Of all this probably Sbakspeare knew nothing. Malone.
- I now seal it ; &c.) I now seal my truth, my loyalty, with blood, which blood shall one day make them groan. Johnson.