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He pleaded still, not guilty, and alleg'd
Many sharp reasons to defeat the law.
The king's attorney, on the contrary,
Urg'd on the examinations, proofs, confessions
Of divers witnesses; which the duke desir'd
To him brought, viva voce, to his face:?
At which appear'd against him, his surveyor;
Sir Gilbert Peck his chancellor; and John Court,
Confessor to him; with that devil-monk,
Hopkins, that made this mischief.
2 Gent.

That was he,
That fed him with his prophecies?
I Gent.

The same.
All these accus'd him strongly; which he fain
Would have flung from him, but, indeed, he could not:
And so his peers, upon this evidence,
Have found him guilty of high treason. Much
He spoke, and learnedly, for life; but all
Was either pitied in him, or forgotten.

2 Gent. After all this, how did he bear himself?
I Gent. When he was brought again to the bar,-to

His knell rung out, his judgment-he was stirr'd
With such an agony, he sweat extremely,
And something spoke in choler, ill, and hasty:
But he fell to himself again, and, sweetly,
In all the rest show'd a most noble patience.

2 Gent. I do not think, he fears death.
I Gent.

Sure, he does not,
He never was so womanish; the cause
He may a little grieve at.
2 Gent.

The cardinal is the end of this.
I Gent.

'Tis likely, By all conjectures: First, Kildare's attainder,


7 To him brought divâ voce, to his face :) This is a clear error of the press. We must read- have instead of-him. M. Mason.

8 Was either pitied in him, or forgotten.] Either produced no ef. fect, or produced only ineffectual pity. Malone.

he sweat extremely,] This circumstance is taken from Holinshed: “ After he was found guilty, the duke was brought to the bar, sore-chafing, and sweat marvelously.Steevens.

Then deputy of Ireland; who remov'd,
Earl Surrey was sent thither, and in haste too,
Lest he should help his father.
2 Gent.

That trick of state
Was a deep envious one.
I Gent.

At his return,
No doubt, he will requite it. This is noted,
And generally; whoever the king favours,
The cardinal instantly will find employment,
And far enough from court too.
2 Gent.

All the commons
Hate him perniciously, and, o' my conscience,
Wish him ten fathom deep: this duke as much
They love and dote on; call him, bounteous Bucking-

ham, The mirror of all courtesy; 1 Gent.

Stay there, sir, And see the noble ruin'd man you speak of. Enter BUCKINGHAM from his Arraignment; Tipstaves

before him; the Axe with the Edge towards him; Halberds on each side: with him, Sir Thomas LOVELL, Sir NICHOLAS Vaux, Sir William SANDS,2 and common People. 2 Gent. Let's stand close, and behold him. Buck.

All good people, You that thus far have come to pity me, Hear what I say, and then go home and loose me. I have this day receiv'd a traitor's judgment,

1 The mirror of all courtesy;] See the concluding words of n. 6, p. 224. Steevens. 2 Sir William Sands,] The old copy reads-Sir Walter.

Steevens. The correction is justified by Holinshed's Chronicle, in which it is said, that Sir Nicholas Vaux, and Sir William Sands, re- . ceived Buckingham at the Temple, and accompanied him to the Tower. Sir William Sands was, at this time, (May, 1521,) only a baronet, [rather, a knight; as baronetage was unknown till 1611,] not being created Lord Sands till April 27, 1527. Shak. speare probably did not know that he was the same person whom he has already introduced with that title. He fell into the error by placing the King's visit to Wolsey, (at which time Sir William was Lord Sands) and Buckingham's condemnation, in the same year; whereas that visit was made some years afterwards.


And by that name must die; Yet, heaven bear witness,
And, if I have a conscience, let it sink me,
Even as the axe falls, if I be not faithful!
The law I bear no malice for my death,
It has done, upon the premises, but justice:
But those, that sought it, I could wish more christians :
Be what they will, i heartily forgive them:
Yet let them look they glory not in mischief,
Nor build their evils on the graves of great men;3
For then my guiltless blood must cry against them.
For further life in this world I ne'er hope,
Nor will I sue, although the king have mercies
More than I dare make faults. You few that lov'd me,
And dare be bold to weep for Buckingham,
His noble friends, and fellows, whom to leave
Is only bitter to him, only dying,
Go with me, like good angels, to my end;
And, as the long divorces of steel falls on me,
Make of your prayers one sweet sacrifice,
And lift my soul to heaven.e-Lead on o'God's name.

Lov. I do beseech your grace, for charity,
If ever any malice in your heart
Were hid against me, now to forgive me frankly.

Buck. Sir Thomas Lovell, I as free forgive you,
As I would be forgiven: I forgive all;
There cannot be those numberless offences
'Gainst me, I can't take peace with: no black envy
Shall make my grave.? Commend me to his grace;


3 Nor build their evils on the graves of great men;] Evils, in this place, are foricæ. So, in Measure for Measure:

Having waste ground enough,
« Shall we desire to raze the sanctuary,
“ And pitch our evils there?" Steevens.

- You few that lov'd me, &c.] These lines are remarkably tender and pathetic. Johnson.

the long divorce -] So, in Lord Sterline's Darius, 1603: “Scarce was the lasting last divorcement made

" Betwixt the bodie and the soule” &c. Steevens. 6 And lift my soul to heaven.] So, Milton, Paradise Lost, Book IV: “Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to heaven."

Malone, no black enoy Shall make my grave.] Shakspeare, by this expression, meant


their songs

And, if he speak of Buckingham, pray, tell him,
You met him half in heaven: my vows and prayers
Yet are the king's; and, till my soul forsake me, 8
Shall cry for blessings on him: May he live
Longer than I have time to tell his years!
Ever beloy'd, and loving, may his rule be!
And, when old Time shall lead him to his end,
Goodness and he fill up one monument!

Lov. To the water side I must conduct your grace;
Then give my charge up to sir Nicholas Vaux,
Who undertakes you to your end.

no more than to make the Duke say, No action expressive of malice shall conclude my life. Envy, by our author, is used for malice and hatred, in other places, and, perhaps, in this.

Again, in the ancient metrical romance of Syr Bevys of Hampton, bl. I. no date:

“ Traytoure, he sayd with great envy,

“ Turne thee now, I thee defye.” Again :

“ They drewe theyr swordes hastely,

« And smot together with great envy. And Barrett, in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, thus interprets it.

To make a grave, however, may mean to close it. So, in The Comedy of Errors:

“Why at this time the doors are made against you." i.e. closed, shut. The sense will then be, (whether quaintly or poetically expressed, let the reader determine) no malicious action shall close my grave, i. e, attend the conclusion of my existence or terminate my life; the last action of it shall not be uncharitable.

Steevens. Envy is frequently used in this sense by our author and his con. temporaries. See Vol. IV, p. 392, n. 9; and p. 441, 1. 31. I have therefore no doubt that Mr. Steevens's exposition is right. Dr. Warburton reads-mark my grave; and in support of the emendation it may be observed that the same error has happened in King Henry V; or at least that all the editors have supposed so, having there adopted a similar correction. See Vol. ix, p. 249, n. 7.

Dr. Warburton's emendation also derives some support from the following passage in The Comedy of Errors:

“ A vulgar comment will be made of it;
“ And that supposed by the common rout
Against your yet ungalled estimation,
" That may with foul intrusion enter in,
And dwell upon your grave, when you are dead.” Malone.
- forsake me,] The latter word was added by Mr Rowe,



Prepare there,
The duke is coming: see, the barge be ready;
And fit it with such furniture, as suits
The greatness of his person.

Nay, sir Nicholas,
Let it alone; my state now will but mock me.9
When I came hither, I was lord high constable,
And duke of Buckingham; now, poor Edward Bohun:1
Yet I am richer than my base accusers,
That never knew what truth meant: I now seal it;2
And with that blood will make them one day groan for’t.
My noble father, Henry of Buckingham,
Who first rais'd head against usurping Richard,
Flying for succour to his servant Banister,
Being distress’d, was by that wretch betray’d,
And without trial fell; God's peace be with him!
Henry the seventh succeeding, truly pitying
My father's loss, like a most royal prince,
Restor'd me to my honours, and, out of ruins,
Made my náme once more noble. Now his son,


9 Nay, sir Nicholas,

Let it alone; my state now will but mock me.] The last verse would run more smoothly, by making the monosyllables change places:

Let it alone, my state will now but mock me. Whalley.

-poor Erlward Bohun:] The Duke of Buckingham's name was Stafford. Shakspeare was led into this mistake by Holin. shed. Steevens.

This is not an expression thrown out at random, or by mistake but one strongly marked with historical propriety. The name of the Duke of Buckingham, most generally known, was Stafford; but the History of Remarkable Trials, 8vo 1715, p. 170, says: “it seems he affected that surname (of Bohun) before that of Stafford, he being descended froin the Bohuns, earls of Hereford.” His reason for this might be, because he was lord high constable of England by inheritance of tenure from the Bohuns; and as the poet has taken particular notice of this great oilice, does it not seem probable that he had fully considered of the Duke's foundation for assuming the same of Bohun? In truth, the Duke's name was Bago's; for a gentleman of that very ancient family married the heiress of the barony of Stafford, and their son relinquishing his paternal surname, assumed that of his mother, which continued in his posterity. Tollet Of all this probably Sbakspeare knew nothing. Malone.

- I now seal it ; &c.) I now seal my truth, my loyalty, with blood, which blood shall one day make them groan. Johnson.


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