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* RING DOVE Cools. 14. WOOD LARK fings.
Several plants fill in flower, as panly, white bebin, black nonesuch, bawereld, bu
glofs, gentian, small stitchwort, &c. in grounds not broken up. A great mift and perfect calm ; not so much as a leaf falls. Spiders zuebs innume
rable appear every where. Woodlarklings. Rooks do not ftir, tut fit quietly
their neft trees. 16. GEESE, WILD, 136.4 Anas, anser, leave the fens and go to the
lands, 22. WOODCOCK, 104. Scolopax rufticoia, returns.
Some ash-trees ftill green. 24. LARK, SKY, 63.1. Alauda arvensis, fings.
Privet, 465.1. Ligustrum vulgare, F. R. 26. Thermom. 7. Lowest this month.
Honeysuckle, 458.1,2. Lomicera periclymen. fill in flower in the bedges, and
mallow and feverfew.
Now from the north
Ilere ends the Calendar, being interrupted by my going to London. During the
whoie time it was kept, the barometer fluctuated between 29.1. and 29.9. except a few days, when it sunk to 28.6. and rose to 301.
N A T U R A L
H I S T O R Y.
Extracts from Mr. PENNANT's British is an amazing instance of rapidity, his Zoology.
speed having been more than once exerted
equal to 82 feet in a second, or near a § 1. The Horse.
mile in a minute : the same horse has also HE breed of horses in Great Britain run the round course at Newmarket (which
the frequent introduction of foreign horses minutes and forty seconds ; in which cale has given us a variety, that no single coun his fleetness is to that of the swifteft Barb, try can boast of: most other kingdoms as four to three; the former according to produce only one kind, while ours, by a Doctor Mary's coinputation, covering at jucicious mixture of the several species, every bound a space of ground equal in by the happy difference of our foils, and length to twenty-three feet royal, the latter by our superior fill in management, may only that of eighteen feet and a half royal
. triumph over the rest of Europe, in having Horses of this kind, derive their origin brought each quality of this noble animal from Arabia; the seat of the purett, and to the highest perfection.
molt generous breed. In the annals of Newmarket, may be The species used in hunting, is a happy found instances of horses that have literally combination of the former with others fu. out-stripped the wind, as the celebrated perior in strength, but inferior in point of M. Condamine has lately shewn in his re- speed and lineage: an union of both is nemarks on those of Great Britain. Childers cessary: for the fatigues of the chace must
Arisotle says, that this bird does not cooe in the winter, unless the weather happens to be mill.
be supported by the spirit of the one, as or for the draught, are an offspring of the well as by the vigour of the other. German or Flemish breed, meliorated by
No country can bring a parallel to the our soil, and a judicious culture. strength and size of our hories destined for The English were ever attentive to an the draught; or to the activity and strength exact culture of these animals; and in very united of those that form our cavalry. early times set a high value on their breed.
In our capital there are instances of sin. The esteem that our horses were held in gle horses that are able to draw on a plain, by foreigners so long ago as the reign of for a small space, the weight of three tons; Athelitan, may be collected from a law of but could with ease, and for a continuance that monarch prohibiting their exportation, draw half that weight, The pack-horses, except they were designed as presents. of Yorkshire, employed in conveying the These mult have been the native kind, or manufactures of that country to the most the prohibition would have been needless, remote parts of the kingdom, usually carry for our commerce was at that time too lia burden of 420 pounds; and that indiffe- mited to receive improvement from any rently over the highest hills of the north, but the German kind, to which country as well as the mort level roads; but the their own breed could be of no value. most remarkable proof of the strength of But when our intercourse with the other our British horses, is to be drawn from that parts of Europe was enlarged, we foon laid of our mill-horses: some of these will carry hold of the advantages this gave of inat one load thirteen measures, which at a proving our breed. Roger de Bellesme, moderate computation of 70 pounds each, Earl of Shrewsbury, is the first that is on will amount to 910; a weight superior to record : he introduced the Spanish stallions that which the Jeffer sort of camels will into his estate in Powisland, from which bear: this will appear less surprising, as that part
of Wales was for many ages cethese horses are by degrees accustomed to lebrated for a swift and generous race of the weight; and the distance they travel horses. Giraldus Cambrensis, who lived no greater than to and from the adjacent in the reign of Henry 11. takes notice of hamlets.
it; and Michael Drayton, cotemporary Our cavalry in the late campaigns (when with Shakespeare, fings their excellence in they had opportunity) Thewed over those the fixth part of his Polyolbion. This kind of our allies, as well as of the French, a was probably destined to mount our galgreat superiority both of strength and ac lant nobility, or courteous knights for feats tivity: the enemy was broken through by of chivalry, in the generous contests of the impetuous charge of our squadrons; the tilt-yard. From these sprung, to speak while the German horses, from their great the language of the times, the Flower of weight and inactive make, were unable to Coursers, whose elegant form added charms second our efforts; though those troops to the rider; and whose activity and mawere actuated by the noblest ardour. naged dexterity gained him the palm in
The present cavalry of this island only that field of gallantry and romantic hosupports its ancient glory; it was eminent in the earliest times : our scythed chariots, Notwithstanding my former fuppofition, and the activity and good discipline of our races were known in England in very early horses, even ftruck terror into Cæsar's le times. Fitz-Stephen, who wrote in the gions : and the Britains, as soon as they days of Henry 11. mentions the great debecame civilized enough to coin, took care light that the citizens of London took in to represent on their money the animal for the diversion. But by his words, it apwhich they were so celebrated.
It is now
pears not to have been designed for the imposible to trace out this species; for purposes of gaming, but merely to have those which exist among the indigenæ of sprung from a generous emulation of thew. Great Britain, such as the little horses of ing a superior skill in horsemanship. Wales and Cornwall, the hobbies of Ire. Races appear to have been in vogue in land, and the shelties of Scotland, though the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have admirably well adapted to the uses of those been carried to such excess as to injure the countries, could never have been equal to fortunes of the nobility. The famous the work of war; but probably we had George Earl of Cumberland is recorded even then a larger and itronger breed in to have wasted more of his estate than any the more fertile and luxuriant parts of the of his ancestors; and chiefly by his exilland. Those we employ for that purpose treme love to horse-races, tiltings, and
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other expensive diversions. It is probable well formed, and such as might be opposed that the parliinonious queen did not ap to lo formidable an enemy as was then exprove of it; for races are not among the pected: but such is their present increase, diversions exhibited at Kennelworth by her that in the late war, the number employed favourite Leicester. In the following reign, was 13,575; and such is our improvement were places allotted for the sport: Croy- in the breed of horses, that moit of those don in the South, and Garterly in York- which are used in our waggons and carThire, were celebrated courses. Camden riages of different kinds, might be applied also says, that in 1607 there were races near to the same purpose: of those, our capital York, and the prize was a little golden alone employs near 22,000. bell.
The learned M. de Buffon has almoft ex. Not that we deny this diversion to be haufted the subject of the natural history known in these kingdoms in earlier times; of the horse, and the other domestic aniwe only assert a different mode of it, gen- mals; and left very little for after-writers tlemen being then their own juckies, and to add. We may observe that this moft riding their own horses. Lord Herbert of noble and useful quadruped, is endowed Cherbury enumerates it among the sports with every quality that can make it fobthat gallant philosopher thought unworthy servient to the uses of mankind; and those of a man of honour. “ The exercise (says qualities appear in a more exalted, or in a “ he) I do not approve of, is running of less degree, in proportion to our various
horses, there being much cheating in that necessities. “ kind; neither do I see why a brave man Undaunted courage, added to a docility “ should delight in a creature whose chief half reasoning, is given to some, which fits « use is to help him to run away.” them for military services. The spirit and
The increase of our inhabitants, and the emulation so apparent in others, furnish us extent of our manufactures, together with with that species, which is admirably adapithe former neglect of internal navigation ed for the course; or, the more noble and to convey those manufactures, multiplied generous pleasure of the chaçe. the number of our horses: an excels of Patience and prefervance appear ftrongwealth, before unknown in these islands, ly in that not useful kind destined to bear increased the luxury of carriages, and add- the burdens we impofe on them; or that ed to the neceslity of an extraordinary cul- employed in the slavery of the draught. ture of these animals: their high reputa Though endowed with vart itrength, and tion abroad, has also made them a branch great powers, they very rarely exírt either of commerce, and proved another cause of to their maller's prejudice; but on the their valt increase.
contrary, will endure fatigues even to As no kingdom can boast of parallel death, for our benefit. Providence has circumstances, fo none can vie with us in implanted in them a benevolent disposition, the number of these noble quadrupeds, it and a fear of the human race, together would be extremely difficult to guess at the with a certain consciousness of the services exact amount of them, or to form a peri we can render them. Most of the hoofed odical account of their increase: the nuni. quadrupeds are domestic, because neceflity ber seems very fluctuating: William Fitz- compels them to seek our protection : wild Stephen relates, that in the reign of king beatis are provided with feet and claws, Stephen, London alone poured out 20,000 adapted to the forming dens and retreats horlemen in the wars of those times: yet from the inclemency of the weather; but we find that in the beginning of Queen the former, destitute of these advantages, Elizabeth's reign, the whole kingdom are obliged to run to us for artificial shelcould not supply 2000 horses to form our ter, and harvested provifions: as nature, cavalry: and even in the year 1588, when in these climates, does not throughout the the nation was in the most imminent dan- year supply them with necessary food. ger from the Spanish invasion, all the ca But still, many of our tame animals muft valry which the nation could then furnith by accident endure the rigour of the feaamounted only to 3000; to account for són: to prevent which inconvenience their this difference we must imagine, that the feet (for the extremities fuffer first by cold) number of horses which took the field in are protected by strong hoofs of a horny Stephen's reign, was no more than an un substance. disciplined rabble; the few that appeared The tail too is guarded with long bushy under the banners of Elizabeth, a corps hair, that protects it in both extremes of
weather ; during the summer it serves, by making the bottoms of chairs, floor-cloths, its pliancy and agility, to brush off the and cords; and to the angler in making swarms of insects which are perpetually lines. attempting either to sting them, or to de
§ 2. The Ox. posit their eggs in the re&tum; the same length of hair contributes to guard them The climate of Great Britain is above from the cold in winter. But we, by the all others productive of the greatest variety absurd and cruel custom of docking, a
and abundance of wholesome vegetables, practice peculiar to our country, deprive which, to crown our happiness, are almost these animals of both advantages: in the equally diffused through all its parts: this last war our cavalry suffered so much on general fertility is owing to those clouded that account, that we now seem sensible of skies, which foreigners mistakenly urge as the error, and if we may judge from some a reproach on our country; but let us chearrecent orders in respect to that branch of fully endure a temporary gloom, which the service, it will for the future be cor clothes not only our meadows but our hills rected.
with the richest' verdure. To this we owe Thus is the horse provided against the the number, variety, and excellence of our two greatest evils he is subject to from the cattle, the richness of our dairies, and in. seasons: his natural diseases are few: but numerable other advantages. Cæsar (the our ill usage, or neglect, or, which is very earliest writer who describes this island of frequent, our over care of him, bring on a Great Britain) speaks of the numbers of numerous train, which are often fatal. our cattle, and adds that we neglected tilAmong the distempers he is naturally sub- lage, but lived on milk and flesh. Strabo ject to, are the worms, the bots, and the takes notice of our plenty of milk, but says stone : the species of worms that infect we were ignorant of the art of making him are the lumbrici, and afcarides; both
cheese, Mela informs us, that the wealth these resemble those found in human bo. of the Britons consisted in cattle: and in dies, only larger: the bots are the erucæ, his account of Ireland reports that such or caterpillars of the oestrus, or gadily:
was the richness of the pastures in that these are found both in the rectum, and in kingdom, that the cattle would even burst the stomach, and when in the latter bring if they were suffered to feed in them long on convulsions, that often terminate in at a time. death.
This preference of pasturage to tillage The stone is a disease the horse is not was delivered down from our British an. frequently subject to; yet we have seen cestors to much later times; and continutwo examples of it; the one in a horse near ed equally prevalent during the whole High Wycombe, that voided fixteen calculi, riod of our feodal government: the chiefeach of an inch and a half diameter ; the tain, whose power and safety depended on other was of a stone taken out of the blad. the promptness of his vafials to execute der of a horse, and deposited in the cabinet his commands, found it his interest to enof the late Dr. Mead; weighing eleven courage those employments that favoured ounces. These stones are formed of fe- that disposition; that vassal, who made it veral crusts, each very simooth and gloffy; his glory to fly at the first call to the stantheir form triangular; but their edges dard of his chieftain, was sure to prefer that rounded, as if by collision against each employ, which might be transacted by his other.
family with equal success during his abThe all-wise Creator hath finely limited fence. Tillage would require an attendthe several services of domestic animals to ance incompatible with the services he wards the human race; and ordered that owed the baron, while the former occupathe parts of such, which in their lives have tion not only gave leisure for those duties; been the most useful, should after death but furnished the hospitable board of his contribute the least to our benefit. The lord with ample provision, of which the chief use that the exuviæ of the horse can vaslal was equal partaker. The reliques be applied to; is for collars, traces, and of the larder of the elder Spencer are eviother parts of the harness; and thus, even dent proofs of the plenty of cattle in his after death, he preserves some analogy with days; for after his winter provisions may his former employ. The hair of the mane
have been supposed to have been mostly is of use in making wigs; of the tail in consumed, there were found, so late as the
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month of May, in salt, the carcases of not would give fix.pence per stone more for fewer than 80 beeves, 600 bacons, and 600 them. These cattle were wild as any deer : muttons. The accounts of the several on being approached would inftantly take great feasts in after times, afford amazing to flight and gallop away at full speed : Deinstances of the quantity of cattle that were ver mix with thc tame species; nor come consumed in them. This was owing part near the house unless constrained by hunly to the continued attachment of the peo- ger in very severe weather. When it is ple to grazing ; partly to the preference necessary to kill any they are always shot: that the Englilh at all times gave to ani. if the keeper only wounds the beait, he muit mal food. The quantity of cattle that ap- take care to keep behind tome tree, or his fear from the latest calculation to have life would be in danger from the furious been consumed in our metropolis, is a suf. attacks of the animal; which will never de. ficient argument of the vast plenty of these fift till a period is put to its life. times; particularly when we consider the Frequent mention is made of our savage great advancement of tillage, and the num- cattle by historians. One relates that berless variety of provisions, unknown to Robert Bruce was (in chasing these anipaft ages, that are now introduced into mals) preserved from the rage of a wild these kingdoms from all parts of the Bull by the intrepidity of one of his courworld.
tiers, from which he and his lineage acOur breed of horned cattle has in gene- quired the name of Turn-Bull.
Fitz. ral been so much improved by a foreign Stephen names these animals (Uri Syluef. mixture, that it is difficult to point out the tres) among those that harboured in the original kind of these islands. Those which great forest that in his time lay adjacent may be supposed to have been purely Bri. to London. Another enumerates, among tish, are far inferior in size to those on the the provisions at the great feast of Nevil northern part of the European continent; archbishop of York, lix wild Bulls; and the cattle of the highlands of Scotland are Sibbald aliures us, that in his days a wild exceeding small, and many of them, males and white species was found in the moun. as well as females, are hornless: the Wellh tains of Scotland, but agreeing in form runts are much larger; the black cattle of with the common fort. I believe these to Cornwall are of the same size with the last. have been the Bijontes jubati of Pliny, found The large species that is now cultivated then in Germany, and might have been through most parts of Great Britain are ei. common to the continent and our islands ; ther entirely of foreign extraction, or our the loss of their favage vigour by confineown improved by a cross with the foreign ment might occafion fome change in the kind. The Lincoln hire kind derive their external appearance, as is frequent with dize from the Holilein breed; and the large wild animals deprived of liberty; and to hornless cattle that are bred in some parts of that we may ascribe their loss of mane. England come originally froin Poland, The Urus of the Hercynian forest, described
About two hundred and fifty years ago by Cæsar, book VI. was of this kind, thę there were found in Scotland a wild race of fame which is called by the modern Ger. cattle, which were of a pure white colour, mans, Aurachs, i. e. Bas syiveftris. and had (if we may credit Boethius) manes The ox is the only horned animal in like lions. I cannot bu! give credit to the these islands that will apply his strength to relation; having seen in the woods of the service of mankind. It is now geneDrumlanrig in North Britain, and in the rally allowed, that in many cases oxen arę park bcionging to Chillingham castle in more profitable in the draught than horses; Northumberland, herds of cattle probably their food, harness, and moes being cheapderived from the savage breed. They er, and mould they be lamed or grow old, have lost their manes; but retain their co an old working beast will be as good meat, lour and fierceness: they were of a middle and fatten as well as a young one. fize; long legged; and had black muzzles, There is scarce any part of this animal and ears; their horns fine, and with a bold without its use. The blood, fat, marrow, and elegant bond. The keeper of those hide, hair, horns, hoofs, milk, cream, butat Chillingham said, that the weight of the ter, cheese, whey, urine, liver, gall, spleen, ox was 38 stones: of the cow 28: that bones, and dung, have each their particu. their hides were more esteemed by the tan- lar use in manufactures, commerce, and aers than thor: of the came ; and they medicine.