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The skin has been of great use in all in dressing and cleaning harnes, and all ages. The ancient Britons, before they trappings belonging to a coach, and the knew a better method, built their boats bones calcined afford a fit matter for tests with osiers, and covered them with the for the use of the refiner in the sinelting hides of bulls, which served for short coaft. trade. ing voyages.

The blood is used as an excellent ma

nure for fruit-trees; and is the basis of Primum cana salix madefacto vimine parvam that fine colour, the Prussian blue. Texitur in Puppim, cæloque induta juvenco,

The fat, tallow, and suet, furniih us with Vectoris patiens, tumidum super emicat amnen :

light; and are also used to precipitate the Sc Venetus fta,nante Pado, fufoque Britannus Navigat oceano.

falt that is drawn from briny springs. The Lucax. lib. iv. 131.

gall, liver, spleen, and urine, have also their The bending willow into barks they twine ; place in the materia medica. Then line the work with spoils of laughter'd kine. The uses of butter, cheese, cream, and Such are che fats Venctian fibers know,

milk, in domestic economy; and the exWhere in dull marshes ftands the settling Po; On such to neighbouring Gaul, allured by gain,

cellence of the latter, in furnishing a palaThe bolder Britons cross the swelling main. table nutriment for most people, whose or


gans of digestion are weakened, are too

obvious to be insisted on. Vefsels of this kind are still in use on the Irish lakes; and on the Dee and Suvern:

§ 3. The SHEEP. in Ireland they are called Curach, in England Coracles, from the British Cwrwgl, It does not appear from any of the a word signifying a boat of that structure. early writers, that the breed of this aniinal

At present, the hide, when tanned and was cultivated for the sake of the wool curried, serves for boots, shoes, and num among the Britons; the inhabitants of the berless other conveniencies of life. inland parts of this island either went en

Vellum is made of calves skin, and gold tirely naked, or were only cloathed with beaters skin is made of a thin vellum, or a skins. Those who lived on the sea.coalls,

of the ox's guts. The hair mix- and were the most civilized, affected the ed with lime is a necessary article in build- manners of the Gauls, and wore like them ing. Of the horns are made combs, boxes, a sort of garments made of coarse wool, handles for knives, and drinking vessels; called Brachæ. These they probably had 2nd when foftened by water, obeying the from Gaul, there not being the least traces manufacturer's hand, they are formed into of manufactures among the Britons, in the pellucid laminæ for the fides of lanthorns. histories of those times. These last conveniencies we owe to our On the coins or money of the Britons great king Alfred, who first invented them

are seen impreffed the figures of the horse, to preserve his candle time - measurers the bull, and the hog, the marks of the trifrom the wind; or (as other writers will butes exacted from them by the conquer. have it) the tapers that were set up before The Reverend Mr. Pegge was so the reliques in the miserable tattered kind as to inform me, that he has seen on churches of that time.

the coins of Cunobelin that of a sheep. In medicine, the horns were employed Since that is the case, it is probable that as alexipharmics or antidotes againit poi. our ancestors were poflefled of the animal, son, the plague, or the small-pox; they but made no farther use of it than to itrip have been dignified with the title of Eng- off the skin, and wrap themselves in it, and lith bezoar; and are said to have been with the wool inmost obtain a comfortable found to answer the end of the oriental protection against the cold of the winter kind: the chips of the hoofs, and paring season. of the raw hides, serve to make carpenters This neglect of manufacture may be glue.

easily accounted for, in an uncivilized naThe bones are used by mechanics, tion whose wants were few, and those easily where ivory is too expensive; by which satisfied : but what is more surpriling, the common people are lerved with many when after a long period we had cultivated neat conveniencies at an easy rate. From a breed of sheep, whose fleeces were fupethe tibia and carpus bones is procured an rior to those of other countries, we still neqil much used by coach-makers and others glected to promote a woollen manufacture


finer part

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at home. That valuable branch of business tain; and though the sheep of these islands lay for a considerable time in foreign afford Aeeces of different degrees of goodhands; and we were obliged to import the ness, yet there are not any

but what may cloth manufactured from our own materials. be used in some brarch of it. Hereford. There seems indeed to have been many thire, Devonshire, and Coteswold downs, unavailing efforts made by our monarchs are noted for producing Meep with reto preserve both the wool and the manu- markably fine Heeces; the Lincolnshire facture of it among ourselves: Henry the and Warwickshire kind, which are very Second, by a patent granted to the weavers large, exceed any for the quantity and in London, directed that if any cloth was goodness of their wool. The former coenfound made of a mixture of Spanish wool, ty yields the largest Meep in these islands, it should be burnt by the mayor : yet so where it is no uncommon thing to give fiflittle did the weaving busineis advance, ty guineas for a ram, and a guinea for the that Edward the Taird was obliged to per- admision of a ewe to one of the valuable mit the importation of foreign cloth in the males; or twenty guineas for the use of it beginning of his reign; but soon after, by for a certain number of ewes during one encouraging foreign artificers to settle in fearon. Suffolk also breeds a very valuEngland, and instruct the natives in their abie kind. The fleeces of the northern trade, the manufacture increased so greatly parts of this kingdom are inferior in fineas to enable him to prohibit the wear of neis to those of the south; but still are of foreign cloth. Yet, to new the uncom great value in different branches of our mercial genius of the people, the effects of inanufactures. The Yorkshire hills furthis prohibition were checked by another nith the looms of that county with large law, as prejudicial to trade as the former quantities of wool; and that which is taken was salutary; this was an act of the same from the neck and shoulders is used (mixreign, againit exporting woollen goods ed with Spanish wool) in some of their manufactured at home, under heavy penal. finest cloths. ties; while the exportation of wool was Wales yields but a coarse wool; yet it not only allowed but encouraged. This is of, more extensive use than the finest oversight was not soon re&tihed, for it ap- Segovian fleeces; for rich and poor, age pears that, on the alliance that Edward the and youth, health and infirmities, all conpourth made with the king of Arragon, he fef the universal benefit of the flannel mapresented the latter with fome ewes and nufa&ture. rams of the Coteswold kind; which is a The Theep of Ireland vary like those of proof of their excellency, since they were Great Britain. Those of the fouth and ihought acceptable to a monarchi, whose east being large, and their felh rank, dominions were lo noted for the fineness Those of the north, and the mountainous of their fireces.

parts, small, and their feth sweet. The In the firit year of Richard the Third, fleeces in the same manner differ in deand in the two fucceeding reigns, our

grees of value. woollen manufactures received fome im Scoriand breeds a small kind, and their provements; but the grand rise of all its fleeces are coarse. Sibbald (after Boethius) prosperity is to be dated fro:n the reign of speaks of a breed in the isle of Rona, coqueen Elizabeth, when the tyranny of the vered with blue wool; of another kind in duke of Alva in the Netherlands drove the ille of Hirta, larger than the biggest numbers of artificers for refuge into this he-goat, with tails hanging almost to the country, who were the founders of that ground, and horns as thick, and longer immense manufacture we carry on at pre

than those of an ox. He mentions another fent. We have strong inducements to be kind, which is cloathed with a mixture of more particular on the modern itate of our wool and hair; and a fourth fpecies, whofe uoollen manufactures; but we delikt, from fieh and ficeces are yellow, and their teeth a fear of digrelling too far; our enquiries of the colour of gold; but the truth of must be limited to points that have a these relations ought to be enquired into, more immediate reference to the iludy of as no other writer has mentioned them, ex. Zoology.

cept the credulous Boetlius. Yet the latt No country is better supplied with ma- particular is not to be rejected: for notterials, and those adapted in every species withsanding I cannot instance the teeth of of the clothing business, than Great Brie sheer, yet I saw in the summer of 1772,


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at Athol house, the jaws of an ox, with insects which deposit their eggs in diffeteeth thickly incrusted with a gold-colour- rent parts of the animal; others are caused ed pyrites; and the same might have hap- by their being kept in wet pastures; for as pened to those of theep had they fed in the the sheep requires but little drink, it is nasame grounds, which were in the valley turally fond of a dry foil. The dropsy, beneath the house.

vertigo, (the pendro of the Welth) the phthiBesides the feece, there is scarce any fic, jaundice, and worms in the liver, anpart of this animal but what is useful to nually make great havoc among our mankind. The flesh is a delicate and focks: for the firit diseale the Ah pherd wholesome food. The skin dressed, forms finds a remedy by turning the infected into different


of our apparel; and is used fields of broom; which plant has been also
for covers of books. The entrails, pro found to be very efficacious in the same
perly prepared and twisted, serve for disorder among the hunan species.
Itrings for various musical instruments. The sheep is also infested by different
The bones calcined (like other bones in sorts of insects: like the horse it has its
general) form materials for tests for the peculiar cestrus or gadily, which deposits its
refiner, The milk is thicker than that of eggs above the nose in the fronted finuses;
cows, and consequently yields a greater when those turn into maggots they be-
quantity of butter and cheese ; and in come excessive painful, and cause those
some places is so rich, that it will not pro. violent agitations that we so often see the
duce the cheese without a mixture of water animal in. The French shepherds make
to make it part from the whey. The dung a common practice of easing the sheep, by
is a remarkably rich manure; insomuch trepanning and taking out the maggot;
that the folding of sheep is become too this practice is sometimes used by the
useful a branch of husbandry for the far- English Mepherds, but not always with the
mer to neglect. To conclude, whether fame success: besides these insects, the
we consider the advantages that result sheep is troubled with a kind of tick and
from this animal to individuals in particu- louse, which magpies and Itarlings contri-
lar, or to these kingdoms in general, we bute to ease it of, by lighting on its back,
may with Columella consider this in one

and picking the insects off.
sense, as the first of the domestic animals.
Poft majores quad, upedes ovilli pecoris fecun-

§ 4. The Doc.
da ratio ejl; quæ prima fit si ad utilitatis
magnitudinem referas. Nam id præcipue Dr. Caius, an English physician, who
contra frigoris violentiam protegit, corpori- flourished in the reign of queen Elizabeth,
busque noftris liberaliora præbet velamina; has left, among several other tracts relating
et etiam elegantium menfas jucundis et nume to natural history, one written expressly
rolis dapibus exornat.

on the species of British dogs: they were The sheep, as to its nature, is a most in- wrote for the use of his learned 'friend nocent, mild, and simple animal; and, con Gesner; with whom he kept a strict correscious of its own defenceless state, remark- spondence; and whose death he laments in ably timid: if attacked when attended by a very elegant and pathetic manner. its lamb, it will make some few of de. Besides a brief account of the variety of fence, by stamping with its feet, and push- dogs then existing in this country, he has ing with its head: it is a gregarious ani- added a systematic table of them: his memal, is fond of any jingling noise, for thod is so judicious, that we shall make use which reason the leader of the flock has of the same; explain it by a brief account in many places a bell hung round its neck, of each kind; and point out those that are which the others will constantly follow: it no longer in use among us. is subject to many diseases: fome arise from


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The first variety is the Terrarius or Ter- i cease its pursuit, tillit had taken the felon. sier, which takes its name from its lubter- They were likewise used by Wallace and raneous employ; being a small kind of Bruce during the civil wars. The poetihound, used to force the tox, or other cal historians of the two heroes frequently heaits of prey, out of their holes; and (in relate very curious passages on this subject; former times) rabbets out of their burrows of the service these dogs were of to their into nets.

malters, and the escapes they had from The Leverarius, or Harrier, is a species those of the enemy. The blood-hound was well known at present; it derives its name in great requelt on the confines of Engiand from its ule, that of hunting the hare: but and Scotland; where the borderers were under this head may be placed the fox- continually preying on the herds and flocks hound, which is only a Itronger and fleeter of their neighbours. The true blood-hound variety, applied to a different chafe.

was large, strong, muscular, broad breatThe Sanguinarius, or Blood-hound, or ed, of a stern countenance, of a deep tanthe Sleuthounde of the Scots, was a dog of colour, and generally marked with a black great use, and in high esteem with our an- spot above each eye. cestors: its employ was to recover any The next division of this species of dogs, game that had escaped wounded from the comprehends those that bunt by the eye: hunter; or been killed and stole out of the and whose success depends either upon the forest. It was remarkable for the acute- quickness of their fight, their swiftness, or ness of its fimell, tracing the lost beast by the their subtilty. blood it had spilt: from whence the name The Agafeus, or Gaze-hound, was the is drived : This species could, with the first: it cha!ed indifferently the fox, hare, utmost certainty, discover the thief by fol. or buck. It would select from the herd lowing his footiteps, let the difance of his the fatteft and faireft deer; pursue it by might be ever so great, and through the the eye: and if loft for a time, recover it moit secret and thickert coverts: nor would again by its fingular distinguishing facul


ty; and should the bealt rejoin the herd, The third ipecies is the Levinarius or this dog would fix unerringly on the lame. Lorarius; the Leviner or Lyemmer : the This fpecies is now loft, or at least un first pame is derived from the lightness of known to us.

the kind, the other from the old word It must be observed that the Agafæus of Lyemme, a thong; this species being used Dr. Caius, is a very different species from to be led in a thong, and Nipped ac the the Agasseus of Oppian, for which it might game. Our author says, that this dog was be miltaken from the fimilitude of names; a kind thac hunted both by scent and light; this he describes as a small kind of dog, and in the form of its body observed a peculiar to Great Britain ; and then goes medium between the hound and the gre. on with these words;

hound. This probably is the kind now

known to us by the name of the Irish Γυρον, άσαρκότατον, λασιότριχον, όμμασι gre-hound, a dog now extremely scarce whis.

in that kingdom, the late king of Poland Curvum, macilentum, hifpidum, oculis pigrum. having procured from them as many as what he adds afterwards, still marks the politle. I have seen two or three in the difference more strongly;

whole illand : they were of the kind called

by M. de Buffon Le grand Danois, and Ρίνεσι δ' αύτε μάλιςα πανέξσκος εσιν probably imported there by the Danes, who αγασσεις. .

long poflefled that kingdom. Their use

deems originally to have been for the chase Naribus autem longè præftantiffimus est ajaseus. of wolves, with which Ireland (warmed till

From Oppian's whole description, it is the latter end of the lalt century. As soon plain he meant our Beagle.

as those animals were extirpated, the numThe nexe kind is the Leporarius, or bers of the dogs decreased; for from that Grey-hou d. Dr. Caius informs us, that period they were kept only for state. ir takes its name quod præcipui gradus fit The Vertagus, or Tumbler, is a smooth iæter canes, the frét in rank among dogs: species; which took its prey by mere fubthat it was formerly esteemed fo, appears tilty, depending neither on the sagacity of fiom the foreft laws of king Canuce; who its nore, nor its swiftness: if it came into enacted, that no one under the degree of a warren, it neither barked, nor ran on the a gentleman thould presume to keep a rabbets; but by a seeming neglect of them, gre-hound; and still more strongly from or attention to something else, deceived an old Welf saying; Wrth ei W'alcb, ei the object till it got within reach, so as to Farch, a'i Filgi, yr adwaenir Bonheddig : take it by a sudden spring. This dog was which fignilies, that you may know a gen- less than the hound; more scraggy, and tleman by his hawk, his horse, and his gie. had prickt-up ears; and by Dr. Caius's hound.

description seems to answer to the modern Froissart relates a fact not much to the lurcher. credit of the fidelity of this species; when The third division of the more generous that unkappy prince, Richard the Second, dogs, comprehends those which were used, was taken in Flint castle, his favourite in fowling; first the Hispaniolus, or spagre-hound immediately deserted him, and · niel: from the name it may be suppoled, fawned on his rival Bolingbroke; as if he that we were indebted to Spain for this understood and foresaw the misfortunes of breed : there were two varieties of this the former,

kind, the first used in hawking, to spring The variety called the Highland gre- the game, which are the same with our hound, and now become very Icarce, is of farters. a very great size, trong, deep-chested, The other variety was used only for the and covered with long and rough hair. net, and was called Index, or the letter ; a This kind was much efteemed in former kind well known at present. This kingdom days, and used in great numbers by the has long been remarkable for producing powerful chieftains in their magnificent dogs of this fort, particular care having hunting matches. It had as sagacious nof- been taken to preserve the breed in the trils as the Blood - hound, and was as fierce. utmost purity. They are ftill dittinguished This seems to be the kind Boethius styles by the name of English spaniels ; so that gerus venaticum cum celerrimum tum auda- notwithstanding the derivation of the name, ciffimum : nec modo in feras, fed in hoftes etiam it is probable they are natives of Greatlatronesque : prafertim fi dominum ductoremve Britain. We may strengthen our suspicion injuriam cfici ornat aut in cos consiretur. by saying, that the first who broke a dog

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