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to the net was an English nobleman of a Gratius speaks in high terms of the exmost distinguished character, the great Ro- cellency of the British dogs: bert Du lley, duke of Northumberland. The Pointer, which is a dog of a foreign o quarta eft merces et quancum impendia supra!
Atque ipfos libeat penetrare Britannos? extraction, was unknown to our ancestors.
Si non ad fpeciem mentiturolque decores The Aquaticus, or Fynder, was another Protinus: hæc una est catulis jactura Britannis. species ned in fowling; was the same as At magnum cum venit opis, promendaque vistus. our water spaniel; and was used to find or
Et vocat extremo præceps difcrimine Mavors.
Non tunc cgregios tantum admirese Molulos. recover the game that was shot. The Melitæus, or Fotor; the spaniel If Britain's diftant coast we dare explore,
How much beyond the cost the valued store; gentle or comforter of Dr. Caius (the mo
If Mape and beauty not alone we prize. dern lap dog) was the last of this division.
Which nature to the British houns denies: The Maltese little dogs were as much es. But when the mighty toil the huntsman warms, teemed by the fine ladies of part times, as
And all the luul is rous'd by fierce alarms,
When Mars calls furious to th' enfanguin'd field, those of Bologna are among the modern.
Even bold Moloflians then to these muít yield. Old Hollingshed is ridiculously severe on the fair of his days, for their excessive Strabo tells us, that the mastiffs of Bri. passion for these little animals ; which is tain were trained for war, and were used sufficient to prove it was in his time a no- by the Gauls in their battles : and it is velty.
certain a well trained mastiff might be of The second grand division of dogs com- congderable use in distressing such balfprehends the Ruftici; or those that were armed and irregular combatants as the adused in the country.
versaries of the Gauls seem generally to The first species is the Pastoralis, or
have been before the Romans conquered Thepherd's dog; which is the same that is them. uled at present, either in guarding our The last division is that of the Dege. flocks, or in driving herds of cattle. This neres, or Curs. The first of these was the kind is so well trained for those purposes, Wappe, a name derived from its note: its as to attend to every part of the herd be only use was to alarm the family by bark. it ever so large; confine them to the road, ing, if any person approached the house, and force in every straggler without doing of this class was the Versator, or turnspit; it the least injury:
and lastly the Saltator, or dancing dog, or The next is the Villaticus, or Catena. such as was taught variety of tricks, and tius; the mastiff or band dog; a species of carried about by idle people as a fhew. great fize and ftrength, and a very loud Those Degeneres were of no certain shape, barker. Manhood says, it derives its name being mongrels or mixtures of all kindsor from maje thefes, being supposed to fright dogs. en away robbers by its tremendous voice. We should now, according to our plan, Caius tells us that three of these were after enumerating the several varieties of reckoned a match for a hear; and four for British dogs, give its general natural hisa lion: but from an experiment made in tory; but since Linnæus has already perthe tower by James the First, that noble formed it to our hand, we fall adopt his quadruped was found an unequal match sense, translating his very words (wherever to only three. Two of the dogs were dis we may) with literal exactness. abled in the combat, but the third forced “ The dog cats fieth, and farinaceous the lion to seck for safety by fight. The “ vegetables, but not greens : its stomach English bulldog seems to belong to this « digests bones : it uses the tops of grafs species: and probably is the dog our au as a vomit. It voids its excrements on thor mentions under the title of Laniarius. “ a stone : the album græcum is one of the Great Britain was so noted for its mastiffs, “ greatest encouragers of putrefaction. It that the Roman emperors appointed an
laps up its drink with its tongue: it officer in this island with the ticle of Pro os voids its urine sideways, bx lifting up curator Cynegii, whose fole busine's was to “ one of its hind legs; and is most diuretic breed, and transmit from hence to the am “ in the company of a strange dog. Oda. phitheatre, such as would prove equal to rai anum alterius : its scent is most ex. the combats of that place.
“ quisite, when its nose is moilt: it treads
lightly on its toes; scarce ever sweats; Magnuque taurorum fracturi colla Britanni. “ but when hot lolls out its tongue. lc And British dogs subdue the stoutest bulls. “ generally walks frequently round the
< place it intends to lie down on : its sense enemy. Wild cats were formerly reckon“ of hearing is very quick when asleep: ed among the beatts of chace; as appears « it dreams. Procis rixant bus crudelis : by the charter of Richard the Second, to “ catulit cum variis : mordet illa illos: cohæret the abbot of Peterborough, giving him
copula jun&us: it goes with young fixty- leave to hunt the hare, fox, and wild car. “ three days; and commonly brings trom The use of the fur was in lining of robes; “ four to eight at a time : the male pup- but it was esteemed not of the moit luxu
pies resemble the dog, the female the rious kind; for it was ordained • that no “ bitch. It is the moit faithful of all ani- ' abbess or nun thould use more collly apst mals; is very docible: hates itrange parel than such as is made of lambs or “ dogs : will snap at a stone thrown at it:
In much earlier times it at will howl at certain musical notes: all was all the object of the sportsman's di
(except the South American kind) will verfion. « bark at Atrangers: dogs are rejected by
Felemque minacem " the Mahometans."
Arboris in trunco longis prietigere telis.
Nemefiani Cynegeticon, L. 55. § 5. The Wild Cat. This animal does not differ specifically
$ 6. I'be DOMESTIC CAT. from the came cat; the latter being origi This animal is so well known as to make nally of the same kind, but altered in co a defcription of it unnecessary. It is an lour, and in some other trifling accidents, useful, but deceitful domestic; active, neat, as are common to animals reclaimed from sedate, intent on its When pleased the woods and domesticated.
purrs and moves its tail: when angry The cat in its favage state is three or ipits, hisses, and strikes with its foot. When four times as large as the house-cat; the walking, it draws in its claws: it drinks lithead larger, and the face flatter. The tle: is fond of fish: it walhes its face with teeth and claws tremendous : its muscles its fore-foot, (Linnæus says at the approach very strong, as being formed for rapine: of a storm :) the female is remarkably fa. the tail is of a moderate length, but very lacious; a piteous, squalling, jarring lover. thick, marked with alternate bars of black Its eyes shine in the night: its hair when and white, the end always black: the hips rubbed in the dark emits fire; it is even and hind part of the lower joints of the proverbially tenacious of life: always lights leg, are always black, the fur is very soft on its feet: is fond of perfumes, marum, and fine. The general colour of these ani. cat-mint, valerian, &c. mals is of a yellowish white, mixed with a Our ancestors seem to have had a high deep grey: these colours, though they ap- sense of the utility of this animal. That pear at first sight confusedly blended toge- excellent prince Hoel dda, or Howel the Ther, yet on close inspection will be found Good, did not think it beneath him (a. to be disposed like the streaks on the skin mong his laws relating to the prices, &c. of the tiger, pointing from the back down. of animals) to include that of the cat; wards, rising from a black list that runs and to describe the qualities it ought to from the head along the middle of the have. The price of a kitling before it could back to the tail.
fee, was to be a penny; till it caught a This animal may be called the British mouse two-pence; when it commenced tiger : it is the fierceit, and most deftruc- mouser four-pence. It was required betive beast we have ; making dreadful ha- fides, that it shonld be perfect in its senses vock among our poultry, lambs, and kids. of hearing and seeing, be a good mouser. It inhabits the most mountainous and woody have the claws whole, and be a good nurse : parts of these islands, living mostly in trees, but if it failed in any of these qualities, the and feeding only by night. It multiplies feller was to forfeit to the buyer the third as faft as our common cats; and often the part of its value. If any one stole or killed females of the latter will quit their domes- the cat that guarded the prince's granary, tic mates, and return home pregnant by he was to forfeit a milch ewe, its fleece the former.
and lamb; or as much wheat as when They are taken either in traps, or by poured on the cat suspended by its tail shooting : in the latter case it is very dan- (the head touching the foor) would form gerous only to wound them, for they will a heap high enough to cover the tip of attack the person who injured them, and the former. This last quotation is not have frength enough to be no despicable only curious, as being an evidence of the 4
fimplicity of ancient manners, but it al. der the high value of specie at that time) mcit proves to a demonstration that cats and the great care taken of the improveare not aborigines of these islands; or ment and brecd of an animal that multiphes known to the earliest inhabitants. The fo falt, are almost certain proofs of their large price set on them, (if we consi- being little known at that period.
$ 7. EXPLANATION of some TECHNICAL TERMS in ORNITHOLOGY. Fig. Cere. Cera
The naked kin that covers the base of the bill in the Hawk
kind. 2. Capistrum
A word used by Linnæus to express the short feathers on the forehead just above the bill. In Crows these fall forwards
over the nostrils. 3. Lorum
The space between the bill and the eye, generally covered with feathers, but in some birds naked, as in the black and
white Grebe. 4. Orbits. Orbita
The skin that surrounds the eye, which is generally bare,
particularly in the Heron and Parrot. 5. Emarginatum A bill is called rostrum emarginatum when there is a small
notch near the end : this is conipicuous in that of Butcherbirds
and Tbrukes. 6. Vilrilie
Vibrisjæ pectinatæ, fliff hairs that grow on each side the mouth, formed like a double coinb, to be seen in the Goat
fucker, Flycatcher, &c. 7. Baflard wing. A small joint rising at the end of the middle part of the wing.
or the cubitus; on which are three or five feathers. 8. Liljer coverts of the The imall feathers that lie in several rows on the bones of
cuings. T'ecirices the wings. The under coverts are those that line the inside of primce
the wings. 9.
Greater coverts. The feathers chat lie immediately over the quill-feathers and
Tetrices fecundae fecondary feathers. 10. Quill-feathers. The largeft feathers of the wings, or those that rise from the
Primores ' first bone. 11. Secondary feathers. Those that rise from the second.
Secondaria 12. Cotirls of the tail. Those that cover the base of the tail.
Uroposium 13. Vent-tealers
Those that lie from the vent to the tail. Crisum Linnai, 14.
The tail. Rietrices 15. Sapular feathers Tiat rise from the shoulders, and cover the sides of the
back. 26. Nucha
The hind part of the head. 17. Roftrum fubulatum
A term Linnæus uses for a strait and sender bill. 18.
To sew the structure of the feet of the King fiber. 19. Pes scanforius
The foot of the Woodpecker formed for climbing. Climb
ing feet. Finned foot. Pes Such as those of the Grebes, &c. Such as are indented lobatus, pinnatus are called scalloped; such are those of Coots and scallop-toed
Sandpipers. Pes tridactylus Such as want the back toe. 23. Semi-palmated. Pes
When the webs only reach half way of the toes. femi-palmatus 24, Ungue poftico feffili
When the hind claw adheres to the leg without any toe, as
in the Petrels. 25. Digitis 4 omnibus
All the four toes connected by webs, as in the Corverants, dalmatis.
EXPLANATION of other LINNEAN TERMS.
When the edges of the bill are very sharp, such as in that of
the Crow. Unguiculatum
A bill with the nail at the end, as those of the Goosanders
and Ducks. Lingua ciliata
When the tongue is edged with fine bristles, as in Ducks.
When quite plain or even.
When the tongue is long, round, and sender, like a worm,
as that of the Woodpecker. Pedes compedes
When the legs are placed so far behind as to make the bird walk with difficulty, or as if in fetters; as is the case with the
Acks, Grebes, and Divers.
When the noftrils are very narrow, as in Sea Gulls.
With a rim round the noitrils, as in the Stare.
Multitudes of these birds are observed The tame pigeon, and all its beautiful to migrate into the south of England; and varieties, derive their origin from one spe. while the beech woods were suffered to cies, the Stock Dove: the English name cover large tracts of ground, they used to implying its being the stock or fem from haunt then in myriads, reaching in strings whence the other domestic kinds sprung. of a mile in length, as they went out in These birds, as Varro observes, take their the morning to feed. They visit us the (Latin) name, Columba, from their voice latest of any bird of passage, not appear. or cooing ; and had he known it, he might ing till November; and retire in the have added the British, &c. for K’lommen, Spring. I imagine that the summer haunts Kylobmen, Kulm, and Kolm, signify the same of these are in Sweden, for Mr. Eckmark bird. They were and still are, in molt makes their retreat thence coincide with parts
of our inand, in a state of nature; their arrival here. But many breed here, but probably the Romans taught us the as I have observed, on the cliffs of the coast method of making them domestic, and of Wales, and of the Hebrides. contructing pigeon-houses. Its characters The varieties produced from the doin the state nearest that of its origin, is a meltic pigeon are very numerous, and exdeep bluish ath-colour; the breait dashed tremely elegant; these are distinguished by with a fine changeable green and purple ; names expressive of their several properthe sides of the neck with thining copper ties, such as Tumblers, Carriers, Jacobines, colour; its wings marked with two black Croppers, Powters, Runts, Turbits, Owls, bars, one on the coverts of the wings, Nuns, &c. The mof celebrated of these the other on the quill-feathers. The back is the Carrier, which, from the fuperior white, and the tail barred near the end with attachment that pigeon Thews to its native black. The weight fourteen ounces. place, is employed in many countries as
In the wild ftate it breeds in holes of the most expeditious courier: the letters rocks, and hollows of trees, for which rea are tied under its wing, it is let loose, and son soine writers ftile it columba cawrnalis, in a very short space returns to the home in opposition to the Ring Dove, which it was brought from, with its advices, makes its nest on the boughs of trees. Na. This practice was much in vogue in the ture ever preserves some agreement in the East : and at Scanderoon, till late years, manners, characters, and colours of birds used on the arrival of a ship, to give the reclaimed from their wild state. This fpe- merchants at Aleppo a more expeditious cies of pigeon foon takes to build in arti- notice than could be done by any other ficial cavities, and from the temptations of means. In our own country, these aërial a ready provision becomes easily domefti- meflengers have been employed for a very cated. The drakes of the tame duck, fingular purpose, being let loofe at Tyburn however they may vary in colour, ever at the moment the fatal cart is drawn away, retain the mark of their origin from our to notify to distant friends the departure of English mallard, by the curled feathers of the unhappy criminal. the tail: and the tame goose betrays its In the East, the use of these birds seems descent from the wild kind, by the invari- to have been improved greatly, by having, able whiteness of its rump, which they if we may use the expression, relays of them always retain in both states.
ready to spread intelligence to all parts of 3 Z
the country. Thus the governor of Da. § 9 The BLACKBIRD. miata circulated the news of the death of
This bird is of a very retired and soli. Orrilo:
tary nature; frequents hedges and thickets, Tofto che'l Castellan di Damiata
in which it builds earlier than any other Certificolli, ch'era morto Orrilo,
bird : the next is formed of moss, dead La Colemba lasciò, ch'avea legata
grass, fibres. &c. lined or plaistered with Sotto l'aia ál lattera col fila.
clay, and that again covered with hay or Quelle andò al Cairn, ed indi fu lasciata
small straw. It lays four or five eggs of a Un' altra altrove, come quivie stilo: Si, che in pochissime ore andò l'avviso
bluish green colour, marked with irreguPer tutto Egitto, ch'era Orrilo ucciso*. lar dulky spots. The note of the male is But the fimple use of them was known in extremely fine, but too loud for any place
except the woods : it begins to sing early, very early times: Anacreon tells us, he conveyed his billet-doux to his beautiful the summer, denfts in the moulting feason;
in the spring, continues its music part Bathyllus by a dove.
but resumes it for some time in September, Εγω ' 'Ανακρέοντο
and the first winter months. Διάκονο τοσαύτα '
The colour of the male, when it has at. Και νυν οίας εκείνα
tained its sull age, is of a fine deep ack, 'Επισολας κομίζω ή"
and the bill of a bright yellow; the edges I am now Anacreon's slave,
of the eye-lids yellow. When young the And to me entrusted have
bill is dusky, and the plumage of a rally Ali the o'crflowings of his heart
black, so that they are not to be diftin. To Bathyllus to impart;
guished from the females; but at the age Each soft line, with nimble wing, To the lovely boy I bring.
of one year they attain their proper co
lour. Taurosthenes also, by means of a pi
§ 10. The BULLFINCH. geon he had decked with purple, sent advice to his father, who lived in the isle The wild note of this bird is not in the of Ægina, of his victory in the Olympic least musical ; but when tamed it becomes games, on the very day he had obtained remarkably docile, and may be taught any it. And, at the siege of Modena, Hirtius tune after a pipe, or to whistle any notes without, and Brutus within the walls, kept, in the justest manner : it feldom forgets by the help of pigeons, a constant corre
what it has learned ; and will become to fpondence; baffling every stratagem of tame as to come at call, perch on its mas.
the besieger Antony to intercept their ter's shoulders, and (at command) go couriers. In the times of the crusades, through a dificult musical lesion. They there are many more instances of these may be taught to speak, and some thus birds of peace being employed in the fer instructed are annually brought to London vice of war; Joinville relates one during
from Germany. the crusade of Saint Louis; and Tasio an. The male is distinguished from the feother, during the fiege of Jerusalem. male by the superior blackness of its crown,
The nature of pigeons is to be grega. and by the rich crimson that adorns the rious ; to lay only two eggs; to breed cheeks, breast, belly, and throat of the many times in the year : to bill in their male: those of the female being of a dirty couriship; for the male and female to fit colour: the bill is black, short, and very by turns, and also to feed their young; to
thick : the head large: the hind part of cast their provision out of their craw into
the neck and the back are grey: the co.the young one's mouths; to drink, not verts of the wings are black; the lower like other birds by fipping, but by con crossed with a white line: the quill-feathers tinual draughts like quadrupeds; and to dusky, but part of their inner webs white: have notes mournful or plaintive.
the coverts of the tail and vent-feathers
white: the tail black. * « As soon as the commandant of Damiata heard that Orrilo was dead, he let loose a pic garden's, and are very dettructive to our
In the spring these birds frequent our geon, under witoke wing he had tied can letters fruit-trees, by eating the tender buds. dispatched to another place, as is usual; fo that They breed about the latter end of May, C in a very few hours al! Egypt was acquainted o with the death of Orrilo.' AKIUSTO, canto 15.
or beginning of June, and are seldom seen
at that time near houses, as they chuse some * Anacreon, ode g. 8's marisipáx.
very retired place to breed in. These