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Leonard Maschal, about the year 1514 *, The carp is a prodigious breeder: its to whoin we were alio indebted for that quantity of roe has been sometimes found excellent apple the pepin. The many good so great, that when taken out and weighed things that our island wanted before that againit the fish itself, the former has been period, are enumerated in this old distich: found to preponderate. From the fpawn

of this fish caviare is made for the Jews, Turkies, carps, hops, pickered, and beer, Came into England all in one year.

who hold this iturgeon in abhorrence.

These fish are extremely cunning, and As to the two lait arricles we have some

on that account are by loine ilyled the ridoubts, the others we believe to be true. ver fox. They will sometimes leap over Rullia wants there fish at this day; Sweden the nets, and escape that way; at others, has then only in the ponds of the people will immerse themselves so deep in the mud, of fathion : Polish Prullia is the chief seat of as to let the net pass over them. They are the carp; they abound in the rivers and also very shy of taking a bait; yet at the lakes of that country, particularly in the spawning time they are so simple, as to Frich and Curisch-haff, where they are fuffer themselves to be tickled, handled, taken of a valt lize. They are there a great and caught by any body that will attempt article of commerce, and fentia well-Doats it. to Siveden and Rusia. The merchants pur This file is apt to mix its milt with the chase them out of the waters of the noblesse roe of other fish, from which is produced a of the country, who draw a good revenue fpurious breed: we have seen the offspring from this article. Neither are there wants of the carp and tench, which bure the ing among our getry, instances of some greatert resemblance to the first: have also who make good prorit of their ponds. heard of the same mixture between the carp

The ancients do not separate the carp and bream. from the sea fiih. We are credibly informed The carp is of a thick shape: the scales that they are sometimes found in the har- very large, and when in best season of a fine bour of Dantzick, between the town and gilded hue. a small placed called Hela.

The jaws are of equal length; there are Carp are very long lived. Gesner brings two teeth in the jaws, or on the tongue ; an instance of one that was an hundred years but at the entrance of the gullet, above old. They also grow to a very great fize. and below, are certain bones that act on On our own knowledge we can speak of each o:her, and comminute the food before none that exceeded twenty pounds in weight; it pafies down. but Jovius says, that they were sometines On each side of the mouth is a single taken in the Lacus Larius (the Lago di beard; above those on each side another, Como) of two hundred pounds weight; and but shorter: the dorsal fin extends far toRzaczynski mentions others taken in the wards the tail, which is a lictie biturcated; Dniester that were five fect in length. the third ray of the dorsal fin is very strong,

They are also extremely tenacious of life, and armed with sharp teeth, pointing down. and will live for a most remarkable time wards; the third ray of the anal fin is conout of water. An experiment has been structed in the same manner. made by placing a carp in a net, well wrapped up in wet moss, the mouth only re

§ 27. The BARBEL. maining out, and then hung up in a cellar,

This filh was so extremely coarse, as to
or some cool place: the filh is frequently be overlooked by the ancients till the time
fed with white bread and milk, and is be- of Ausonius, and what he says is no pane-
fides often plunged into water. Carp thus gyric on it; for he lets us know it loves
managed have been known, not only to deep waters, and that when it grows old it
have lived above a fortnight, but to grow was not absolutely bad.
exceedingly fat, and far luperior in taste

Laxos exerces BARBE natatus,
to those that are immediately killed from
the pond to

Tu melior pejore ævo, tibi contigit uni

Spirantum ex numero non inlaudata senectus. • Fuller's British Worthies, Sussex, 113.

It frequents the ftill and deep parts of + This was told me by a gentleman of the ut- rivers, and lives in fociety, rooting like mot veracity, who had twice made the experiment. fwine with their noles in the soft banks. It The fame fact is related by that pious philosopher is so tame as to suffer itself to be taken with Doctor Derbam, in his Physico-Theology, edit. geho the hand; and people have been known to 737 ch. I. P: 7 n.c.

4 A 4


take numbers by diving for them. In vouch for, but its flesh is a wholesome and summer they move about during night in delicious food to those of the earth. The search of food, but towards autumn, and Germans are of a d'fferent opinion. By during winter, confine themselves to the way of contempt, they call it Shoemaker. deepelt holes.

Gerner even says, that it is insipid and They are the worst and coarsest of fresh unwholesome. water fish, and seldom eat but by the poorer It does not commonly exceed four or sort of people, who sometimes boil them five pounds in weight, but we have heard with a bit of bacon to give them a relish. of one that weighed ten pounds; Saiviarus The roe is very noxious, affecting those speaks of some that arrived at twenty who unwarily eat of it with a nausea, vo- pounds. miting, purging, and a slight swelling. They love still waters, and are rarely

It is sometimes found of the length of found in rivers : they are very foolish, three feet, and eighteen pounds in weight: and easily caught. it is of a long and rounded form: the scales The tench is thick and short in propornot large.

tion to its length: the cales are very imall, Its head is smooth: the nostrils placed and covered with sime. near the eyes: the mouth is placed below: The irides are red: there is sometimes, on each corner is a single beard, and an but not always, a small beard at each corother on each side the nose.

ner of the mouth. The dorsal fin is armed with a remark The colour of the back is duky; the able frong spine, Tharply ferrated, with dor al and ventral fins of the fame colour: which it can inflict a very severe wound the head, fides, and belly, of a greenith on the incautious handler, and even do cast, most beautifully mixed with gold, much damage to the nets.

which is in its greatest splender when the The pectoral fins are of a pale brown fish is in the highest season. colour; the ventral and anal tipped with The tail is quite even at the end, and yellow: the tail a little bifurcated, and very broad. of a deep purple: the side line is ftrait. The scales are of a pale gold colour,

§ 29. The GUDGEON. edged with black: the belly is white.

Aristotle mentions the gudgeon in two § 28. The TENCH.

places; once as a river fith, and again as The tench underwent the same fate with a species that was gregarious : in a third the barbel, in respect to the notice taken of place he describes it as a lea fish: we must it by the early writers; and even Ausonius,

therefore consider the Kabias he mentions, who first mentions it, treats it with such

lib. ix. C. 2. and lib. viii. c. 19. as the difrespect as evinces the great capricious. fame with our species. ness of taste; for that fish, which at pre

This fith is generally found in gentle sent is held in such good repute, was in

streams, and is of a small size : those few, his days the repast only of the canaille.

however, that are caught in the Kennet,

and Cole, are three times the weight of Quis non et virides vulgi solatia Tincas those taken elsewhere. The largest we Norit?

ever heard of was taken near Uxbridge, It has been by some called the Physician and weighed half a pound. of the fish, and that the slime is healing,

They bite eagerly, and are assembled by that the wounded apply it as a ftyptic. The raking the bed of ihe river; to this spot ingenious Mr. Diaper, in his pifcatory they immediately crowd in shoals, expecteclogues, says, that even the voracious ing food from this disturbance. pike will spare the tench on account of its The shape of the body is thick and healing powers:

round: the irides tinged with red: the gill The Tench he spares a medicinal kind :

covered with green and silver: the lower For when ly wounds distrett, or sore disease,

jaw is shorter than the upper : at each corHe courts the ralu rary fifth for ease;

ner of the mouth is a single beard: the Clule to his scales the kind phyfician glides, back olive, spotted with black: the fide And sweats a healing balsam from his lides.

line frait; the sides beneath that silvery: Ecl. II,

the belly white. Whatever virtue its flime may have to The tail is forked; that, as well as the the inhabiiants of the water, we will not dorsal fin, is fpotted with black.

$ 30.

back is much elevated, and sharply ridged: § 30. The Bream.

the scales large, and fall off very easily. The bream is an inhabitant of lakes, or Side lines bend much in the middle towards the deep parts of ftill rivers. It is a filh

the beliy that is very little esteemed, being extremely insipid.

§ 33. The Dace. It is extremely deep, and thin in propor. haunts the same piaces, is a great breeder,

This, like the roach, is gregarious, tion to its length.

The back rises very much, and is very harp at the top. The

The very lively, and during summer is very head and mouth are small: on some we

fond of frolicking near the surface of the

water. This fish and the roach are coarse examined in the spring, were abundance of minute whitish tubercles; an accident

and infipid meat. which Pliny seems to have observed betals

Its head is small: the irides of a pale the fish of the Lago Maggiore, and Lago yellow: the body long and flender: its di Conio. The scales are very iarge: the

length seldom above ten inches, though in fides flat and thin.

the above-mentioned life is an account of The dorsal fin has eleven rays, the se

one that weighed a pound and an half: the cond of which is the longest : that fin, as

scales smaller than those of the roach. well as all the rest, are of a dusky colour;

The back is varied with dusky, with a the back of the same hue : the sides yel.

cast of a yellowih green : the sides and lowish.

belly filvery: the dorsal fin dulky: the The tail is very large, and of the form

ventral, anal, and caudal fins red, but less of a crescent.

so than those of the former: the tail is

very much forked. § 31. The CRUCIAN. This species is common in many of the

$ 34. The CHUB. fish ponds about London, and other parts

Salvianus imagines this fith to have been of the south of England; but I believe is the squalus of the ancients, and grounds not a native fish.

his opinion on a supposed error in a certain It is very deep and thick: the back is passage in Columella and Varro, where he much arched: the dorsal fin consists of

would substitute the word squalus instead nineteen rays; the two first strong and

of scarus : Columella says no more than serrated. The pectoral fins have (each) that the old Romans paid much attention thirteen rays; the ventral nine; the anal

to their stews, and kept even the sea-fish seven or eight: the lateral line parallel with

in fresh-water, paying as much respect to the belly: the tail almost even at the end.

the mullet and scarus, as those of his days The colour of the fiih in general is a

did to the muræna and bass. dcep yellow : the meat is coarse, and little

That the scarus was not our chub, is very esteemed.

evident; not only because the chub is en

tirely an inhabitant of fresh waters, but $32. The Roach.

likewise it seems improbable that the Ro• Sound as a roach,' is a proverb that ap- mans would give themselves any trouble pears to be but indifferently founded, that about the worst of river fish, when they negfilh being not more distinguished for its vi. lected the most delicious kinds; all their vacity than many others; yet it is used by attention was directed towards those of the the French as well as us, who compare sea: the difficulty of procuring them seems people of strong health to their gardon, to have been the criterion of their value, our roach.

as is ever the case with effete luxury. It is a common fish, found in many of The chub is a very coarse fish, and full our deep still rivers, affecting, like the of bones : it frequents the deep holes of others of this genius, quiet waters. It is rivers, and during summer commonly lies gregarious, keeping in large shoals. We on the surface, beneath the shade of some have never seen them very large. Old tree or bush. It is a very timid fith, sinkWalton speaks of some that weighed two ing to the bottom on the lealt alarm, even pounds. In a list of fish sold in the Lon at the passing of a shadow, but they will don markets, with the greatest weight of foon resume their situation. It feeds on each, communicated to us by an intelligent worms, caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles, filhmonger, is mention of one whole weight and other coleopterous insects that happen was five pounds.

to fall into the water; and it will even feed The roach is deep but thin, and the on cray-fiíh. This filh will rise to a fly.


$ 35


This fiih takes its name from its head, fins pellucid: the scales fall off very easily: not only in our own, but in other languages; the tail much forked. we call it chub, according to Skinner, from the old English, cop, a head; the French,

§ 36. The White BAIT. teftard; the Italians, capitone.

During the month of July there appear It does not grow to a large fize; we in the 'Thames, near Blackwall and Greinhave known fome that weighed above five wich, innumerable inultitudes of small pounds, but Salvianus speaks of others filh, which are known to the Londoners that were eight or nine pounds in weight. by the name of White Bait. They are

The body is oblong, rather round, and elieemed very delicious when fried with of a pretty equal thickne's the greatest fine fiour, and occafion, during the sealon, part of the way: the scales are large. a vait resort of the lower order of epi

The irides silvery ; the cheeks of the to the taverns contiguous to the fame.colour: the head and back of a deep places they are taken at. dulky green; the sides filvery, but in the There are various conjectures about this summer yellow: the belly white: the pec. species, but all terminate in a fupposition toral fins of a pale yellow: the ventral and that they are the fry of foine fish, but few anal fins red: the tail a little forked, of a agree to which kind they owe thcir origin. brownish hue, but tinged with blue at the Some attribute it to the firad, others to the end.

sprat, the smelt, and the bleak. That they The BLEAK.

neither belong to the shad, nor the fprat, is The talking of these, Ausonius lets us

evident from the number of branchioste. know, was the sport of children, gous rays, which in those are eight, in

this only three. That they are not the ALBURNOS prædam puerilibus hamis.

young of smelts, is as clear, because they They are very common in many of our want the pinna adipoja, or rayle's fin; and rivers, and keep together in large shoals. that they are not the offspring of the bleak These fish seem at certain reasons to be in is extremely probable, since we great agonies; they tumble about near the heard of the white bait being found in furface of the water, and are incapable of any other river, notwithitinding the bleak swimming far froin the place, bnt in abo:it is very common in several of the Britih two hours recover, and disappear. Fiih itreams: but as the white bait bears a thus affected, the Thames fithermen cail greater similarity to this fish than to any med bleaks. They seem to be troubled with other we have mentioned, we give it a a species of gordius or hair-worm, of the place here as an appendage to the bleak, fame kind with those which Aristotle * lays rather than form a distinct article of a film that the ballerns and tills are infeited with, which it is impoflible to class with cr. which torments them so that they rise to tainty. the surface of the water and then die. It is evident that it is of the carp or

Artificial pearls are made with the scales cyprinies genus; it has only three branof this fill, and we think of the dace, chiollegous rays, and only one dorsal tr; They are beat into a fine powder, then and in relpect to the form of the body, is diluted with water, and introduced into a compressed like that of the bleak. thin glass bubble, which is afterwards filled Its usual length is two inches: the under with wax. The French were the inventors jaw is the longest: the irides silvery, the of this art. Doctor Lister + tells us, that pupil black: the dorsal fi is placed nearer when he was at Paris, a certain artist used to the head than to the tail, and consists of in one winter thirty hampers full of fiih in about fourteen rays: the side line is itrait : this manufacture.

the tail forked, the tips black. The bleak seldom exceeds five or fix The head, fides, and belly, are filvery; inches in length: their body is sender, the back tinged with green. greatly compressed fideways, not unlike that of the sprat.

$ 37. The Minow. The eyes are large; the irides of a pale

This beautiful fish is frequent in many yellow: the under jaw the longest: the of our small gravelly streams, where they late al line crooked: the gills filvery: the keep in shoals. backgreen : the sides and belly silvery: the The body is sender and smooth, the * Hift. an. lib. viii. c. 20.

scales being extremely small. It seldom t Journey to Paris, 142. exceeds three inches in length.


The lateral line is of a golden colour : reason of the cruel policy of that country, the back fat, and of a deep olive: the are extremely limited. fides and belly vary greatly in different In form of the body they bear a great fish; in a few are of a rich crimson, in resemblance to a carp. They have been others bluish, in others white. The tail is known in this isiand to arrive at the length forked, and marked near the base with a of eight inches; in their native place they duly spot.

are said * to grow to the size of our largest

herring § 38. The Gold Fisk.

The noftri's are tubular, and form a sort These fiih are now quite naturalized in of appendage above the nose : the dorsal this country, and breed as freely in the fin and the tail vary greatly in shape: the open waters as the common carp.

tail is naturally bifid, but in many is triThey were first introduced into England fid, and in some even quadrifid: the anal about the year 1691, but were not gene- fins are the strongest characters of this spe. rally known till 1728, when a great num cies, being placed not behind one another ber were brought over, and presented first like those of other fish, but opposite each to Sir Mathew Dekker, and by him circu- other like the ventral fins. lated round the neighbourhood of London, The colours vary greatly; some are from whence they have been distributed to marked with a fine blue, with brown, with most parts of the country.

bright silver; but the general predominant In China the most beautiful kinds are colour is gold, of a most amazing fplentaken in a small lake in the province of dor ; but their colour and form need not Che-Kyang. Every person of fashion keeps be dwelt on, since those who want oppor. them for amusement, either in porcelaine tunity of seeing the living fish, may survey veftels, or in the small basons that decorate them expressed in the most animated manthe courts of the Chinese houses. The ner, in the works of our ingenious and beauty of their colours and their lively honest friend Mr. George Edwards. motions give great entertainment, espe

Pennant, cially to the ladies, whose pleasures, by

Du Halde, 316.

A New CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE of Remarkable Events,

Discoveries, and Inventions :

Also, the Æra, the Country, and Writings of Learned Men.

The whole comprchending, in one View, the Analysis or Outiines of General History from the.

Creation to the present Time.


Before Chrift. 4004

HE creation of the world, and Adam and Eve. 4003

The birth of Cain, the first who was born of a woman. 3017 Enoch, for his.piety, is translated into Heaven. 2348 The old world is destroyed by a deluge which continued 377 days. 2247 The tower of Babel is built about this time by Noah's pofterity, upon which God

miraculously confounds their language, and thus disperses them into different

rations. About the same time Noah is, with great probability, supposed to have parted

from his rebellious offspring, and to have led a colony of some of the more tractable into the East, and there either he or one of his successors to have founded the ancient Chinese monarchy.

2234 The

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