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2234 The celestial observations are begun at Babylon, the city which first gave birth to

learning and the sciences. 2188 Misraim, the son of Ham, founds the kingdom of Egypt, which lasted 1663 years,

down to the conquest of Cambyses, in 525 before Christ. 2059 Ninus, the son of Belus, founds the kirgdom of Allyria, which lasted above icoo

years, and out of its ruins were formed the Assyrians of Babylon, those of Ni

neveh, and the kingdom of the Medes. 1921 The covenant of God made with Abram, when he leaves Haran to go into Canaan,

which begins the 430 years of sojourning, 1897 The cities of Sodom and Gomerrah are destroyed for their wickedness, by fire

from Heaven. 1856 The kingdom of Argos, in Greece, begins under Inachus. 1822 Memnon, the Egyptian, invents the letters. 1715 Prometheus first Itruck fire from flints. 1635 joseph dies in Egypt, which concludes the book of Genesis, containing a period

of 2:69 years. 1574 Aaron born in Egypt: 1490, appointed by God first high-priest of the Israelites. 1571 Moses, brother to Aaron, born in Egypt, and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, who

educates him in all the learning of the Egyptians. 1556 Cecrops brings a colony of Saites from Egypt into Attica, and begins the king

dom of Athens, in Grecce. 1546 Scamander comes from Crete into Phrygia, and begins the kingdom of Troy. 1493 Cadmus carried the Phænician letters into Greece, and built the citadel of Thebes. 1491 Moses performs a number of miracles in Egypt, and departs from that kingdom,

together with 600,000 liraelites, besides children; which completed the 433 years of sojourning. They miraculously pass through the Red Sca, and come to the desert of Sinai, where Mofes receives from God, and delivers to the people, the Ten Commandments, and the other laws, and sets up the tabernacle,

and in it the Ark of the covenant. 1485 The firit thip that appeared in Greece was brought from Egypt by Danaus, who

arrived at Rhodes, and brought with him his fifty daughters. 1453 The first Olympic games celebrated at Olympia, in Greece. 1452 The Pentateuch, or five first books of Mofes, are written in the land of Moab,

where he died the year following, aged 110. 1451 The Ifraelites, after fojourning in the wilderness forty years, are led under Joshua

into the land of Canaan, where they fix themselves, after having fubdued the

natives; and the period of the fabbatical year commences. 1406 Iron is found in Greece from the accidental burning of the woods. 1198 The rape of Helen by Paris, which, in 1193, gave rise to the Trojan war, and

fiege of Troy by the Greeks, which continued ten years, when that city was

taken and burnt. 1048 David is lole king of Israel. 1004 The Temple is folemnly dedicated by Solomon. 896 Elijah, the prophet, is translated to Heaven. 894 Money first made of gold and silver at Argos. 869 The city of Carthage, in Africa, founded by queen Dido. 824 The kingdom of Macedon begins. 753 Æra of the building of Rome in Italy by Romulus, first king of the Romans. 720 Samaria taken, after three years fiege, and the kingdom of Israel finished, by Sal

manasar, king of Aflyria, who carries the ten tribes into captivity.

The first eclipse of the moon on record. 658 Byzantium (now Conftantinople) built by a colony of Athenians. 604 By order of Necho, kirg of Egypt, fome Phænicians failed from the Red Sea

round Africa, and returned by the Mediterranean. 600 Thales, of Miletus, travels into Egypt, consults the priests of Memphis, acquires

the knowledge of geometry, astronomy, and philosophy; returns to Greece, calculates eclipses, gives general notions of the universe, and maintains that one Supreme In elligence regulates all its motions.

600 Maps,

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600 Maps, globes, and the figns of the Zodiac, invented by Anaximander, the scholar

of Thales. 597 Jehoiakin, king of Judah, is carried away captive, by Nebuchadnezzar, to Ba

bylon. 587 The city of Jerusalem taken, after a fiege of 18 months. 562 The first comedy at Athens acted upon a moveable scaffold. 559 Cyrus the first king of Persia, 538 The kingdom of Babylon finished; that city being taken by Cyrus, who, in 536,

issues an edict for the return of the Jews. 534 The first tragedy was acted at Athens, on a waggon, by Thespis. 526 Learning is greatly encouraged at Athens, and a public library first founded. 515 The second Temple at Jerufalem is finished onder Darius. 509 Tarquin the seventh and last king of the Romans, is expelled, and Rome is go

verned by two consuls, and other republican magistrates, till the battle of Phar

falia, being a space of 461 years. 504 Sardis taken and burnt by the Athenians, which gave occasion to the Persian inva

sion of Greece. 486 Æschylus, the Greek poet, first gains the prize of tragedy. 481 Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, begins his expedition against Greece. 458 Ezra is fent from Babylon to Jerusalem, with the captive Jews, and the vessels of

gold and silver, &c. being leventy weeks of years, or 490 years before the cru

cifixion of our Saviour.
454 The Romans send to Athens for Solon's laws.
451 The Decemvirs created at Rome, and the laws of the twelve cables compiled and

ratified.
430 The history of the Old Testament finishes about this time.

Malachi the lait of the prophets.
400 Socrates, the founder of moral philosophy among the Greeks, believes the immore

tality of the soul, and a state of rewards and punishments, for which, and other sublime doctrines, he is put to death by the Athenians, who soon after repent,

and erect to his memory a statue of brass. 331 Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, conquers Darius king of Persia, and other

nations of Aga. 323, Dies at Babylon, and his empire is divided by his gene

rals into four kingdoms. 285 Dionysius, of Alexandria, began his astronomical æra on Monday, June 26, being

the first who found the exact solar year to consist of 365 Days, 5 hours, and 49

minutes. 284 Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. employs' seventy-two interpreters to trans

late the Old Testament into the Greek language, which is called the Sep

tuagint. 269 The first coining of filver at Rome. 264 The first Punic war begins, and continues 23 years. The chronology of the Arun.

delian marbles composed. 260 The Romans firit concern themselves in naval affairs, and defeat the Carthaginians

at sea.. 237 Hamilcar, the Carthaginian, causes his son Hannibal, at nine years old, to swear

eternal enmity to the Romans. 218 The second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years. Hannibal passes the Alps,

and defeats the Romans in several battles; but, being amused by his wonen, doe

not improve his victories by the storming of Rome. 190 The first Roman army enters Asia, and from the spoils of Antiochus brings the

Afiatic luxury first to Rome. 168 Perseus defeated by the Romans, which ends the Macedonian kingdom. 167 The first library erected at Rome, of books brought from Macedonia. 163 The government of Judea under the Maccabees begins, and continues 126 years. 146 Carthage, the rival to Rome, is razed to the ground by the Romans. 135 The history of the Apocrypha ends. 52 Julius Cæsar makes his first expedition into Britain.

47 The battle of Pharsalia between Cæsar and Pompey, in which the latter is de

feated. The Alexandrian library, consisting of 400,000 valuable books, burnt by accident, 45 The war of Africa, in which Cato kills himself.

The solar year introduced by Cæsar. 44 Cæsar, the greatest of the Roman conquerors, after having fought fifty pitched

battles, and slain 1,192,000 men, and overturned the liberties of his country,

is killed in the senate-house. 35 The battle of Actium fought, in which Mark Antony and Cleopatra are totally

defeated by Octavius, nephew to Julius Cæsar. 30 Alexandria, in Egypt, is taken by O&avius, upon which Antony and Cleopatra

put themselves to death, and Egypt is reduced to a Roman province. 27 Oétavius, by a decree of the fenate, obtains the title of Augustus Cæsar, and an ab

solute exemption from the laws, and is properly the firt Reman emperor. 8 Rome at this time is fifty miles in circumference, and contains 463,000 men fit to

bear arms.

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The temple of Janus is fhut by Augustus as an emblem of universal peace, and

JESUS CHRIST is born on Monday, December 25. A. C.

disputes with the doctors in the Temple; 27

is baptized in the Wilderness by John; 33

is crucified on Friday, April 3, at 3 o'clock P. M.

His Resurrection on Sunday, April 5 : his Ascension, Thursday, May 14. 36 St. Paul converted. 39 St. Matthew writes his Gospel.

Pontius Pilate kills himself. 40 The name of Christians first given at Antioch to die followers of Christ. 43 Claudius Cæsar's expedition into Britain. 44 St. Mark writes bis Gospel. 49 London is founded by the Romans; 368, surrounded by ditto with a wall, some

parts of which are itill obfervable. 51 Caractacus, the British king, is carried in chains to Rome. 52 The council of the Apostles at Jerusalem. 55 St. Luke writes his Golpel. 59 The emperor Nero puts his mother and brothers to death.

persecutes the Druids in Britain. 61 Boadicea, the British queen, def:ats the Romans; but is conquered foon after

by Suetonius, governor of Britain. 62 St. Paul is sent in bonds to Roine-writes his Epislles between 51 and 65. 63 The Acts of the Apostles written. Christianity is supposed to be introduced into Britain by St. Paul, or fome of his

disciples, about this time. 64 Rome fet on fire, and burned for six days; upon which began (under Nero) the

first perseurion against the Christians. 67 St. Peter and St. Paul put to death. 70 Whilst the factious Jews are destroying one another with mutual fury, Titus, the

Roman general, takes Jerusalem, which is razed to the ground, and the plough

made to pass over it, 83 The philosophers expelled Rome by Domitian. 85 Julius Agricola, governor of South Britain, to protect the civilized Britons from

the incursions of the Caledonians, builds a line of forts between the rivers Forth and Clyde; defeats the Caledonians under Galgacus on the Grampian hills; and

first fails round Britain, which he discovers to be an island. 96 St. John the Evangelift wrote his Revelation-his Gospel in 97. 121 The Caledonians reconquer from the Romans all the fouthern parts of Scotland ;

upon which the emperor Adrian builds a wall between Newcastle and Carlisle ; but this also proving ineffectual, Pollius Urbicus, the Roman general, about the

year 144, repairs Agricola's forts, which he joins by a wall four yards thick. 135 The second Jewish war ends, when they were all banished Judæa.

139 Justin

331

39 Juftin writes his first Apology for the Christians. 141 A number of heresies appear about this time. 152 The emperor Antoninus Pius stops the perfecution against the Chriftians. 217 The Septuagint said to be found in a calk. 222 About this time the Roman empire begins to fiak under its own weight. The

Barbarians begin their irruptions, and the Goths have annual tribute not to mo

left she empire. 260 Valerius is taken prisoner by Sapor, king of Perfia, and fayed alive. 274 Silk firit brought from India: the manufactory of it introduced into Europe by some

monks, 551: first worn by tie clergy in England, 1534, 291 Two emperors, and two Cæsars, march to defend the four quarters of the empire. 3c6 Conftantine the Great begins his reign. 308 Cardinals first began, 313 The teneb persecution ends by an edict of Conftantine, who favours the Christians,

and gives full liberty to their religion 314 Three bilhops, or fathers, are sent froin Britain to affift at the council of Arles. 325 The first general council at Nice, when 318 fathers attended, against Arius, where

was composed the famous Nicene Creed, which we attribute to them. 328 Conftantine removes the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, which is thence.

forwards called Conftantinople.

- orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed. 363 The Roman emperor Julian, surnamed the Apoltate, endeavours in vain to rebuild

the temple of Jerusalem. 364 The Roman empire is divided into the eastern (Constantinople the capital) and

wettein (of which Rome continued to be the capital) each being now under the

government of different emperors. 400 Bells invented by bishop Paulinus, of Campagnia. 404 The kingdom of Caledonia, or Scotland, revives under Fergus. 405 The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, pread into France and Spain, by a conceffion of

Honorius, emperor of the West. 410 Rome taken and plundered by Alaric, king of the Vifi-Goths. 412 The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain. 420 The kingdom of France begins upon the Lower Rhine, under Pharamord. 426 The Romans, reduced to extremities at home, withdraw their troops from Britain,

and never return; advising the Britons to arm in their own defence, and trust to

their own valour. 446 The Britons, now left to themselves, are greatly harafied by the Scots and Picts,

upon which they once more make their conplaint to the Romans, but receive no

aliilance from that quarter. 447 Attila ('urnamed the Scourge of God) with his Huns, ravages the Roman empire. 449 Vortigern, king of the Britons, invites the Saxons into Britain, against the Scots

and Picts. 455 The Saxons having repulsed the Scots and Piets, invite over more of their coun

trymen, and begin to establish themselves in Kent, under Hengist. 476 The western empire is finished, 523 years after the battle of Pharsalia; upon the

ruins of which several new itates arise in Italy and other parts, consisting of Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other Barbarians, under whom literature is exuin

guished, and the works of the learned are destroyed. 496 Clovis, king of France, baptized, and Christianity begins in that kingdom. 508 Prince Arthur begins his reign over the Britons. 513 Conítantinople belieged by Vitalianus, whose f.ect is burned by a speculum of

brass. 516 The computing of time by the Christian æra is introduced by Dionysius the monk. 529 The code of Juftinian, the eastern emperor, is published. 557 A terrible plague all over Europe, Asia, and Africa, which continues near 50

years. 581 Latin ceased to be spoken about this time in Italy. 596 Auguftine the monk comes into England with 'forty monks.

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6c6 Here begins the power of the popes, by the concessions of Phocas, emperor of the

east. 622 Mahomet, the faire prophet, flies from Mecca to Medina, in Arabia, in the 44th

year of his age, and 10th of his ministry, when he laid the foundation of the Saracen empire, and from whom the Mahometan princes to this day claim their descent. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is

called Hegira, i. e. the Flight. 637 Jerusalem is taken by the Saracens, or followers of Mahomet. 640 Alexandria in Egypt is taken by ditto, and the grand library there burnt by order

of Omar their caliph or prince. 653 The Saracens now extend their conquests on every side, and retaliate the barba

rities of the Goths and Vandals upon their pofterity. 664 Glass invented in England by Benalt, a mork. 685 The Britons, after a brave firuggle of near 150 years, are totally expelled by the

Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall. 713 The Saracens conquer Spain. 726 The controversy about images begins, and occasions many insurrections in the

eastern empire. 748 The computing of years from the birth of Christ began to be used in hifory. 749 The race of Abbas became caliphs of the Saracens, and encourage learning. 262 The city of Bagdad upon the Tigris is made the capital for the caliphs of the

house of Abbas. 800 Charlemagne, king of France, begins the empire of Germany, afterwards calied

the western empire; gives the present names to the winds and months; endeavours to restore learning in Europe; but mankind are not yet disposed for it,

being solely engrofied in military enterprizes. 826 Harold, king of Denmark, d-chroned by his subjects, for being a Christian. 828 Egbert, king of Wessex, unites the Heptarchy, by the name of England. 836 The Flemings trade to Scotland for fish. 838 The Scots and Picts have a decisive battle, in which the former prevail, and both

kingdoms are united by Kenneth, which begins the second period of the Scot

tish history. 867 The Danes begin their ravages in England. 896 Alfred the Great, after subduing the Danish invaders (against whom he fought

56 battles by sea and land), composes his body of laws; divides England into counties, hundreds, and tythings; erects county courts, and founds the univer

fity of Oxford about this tine. 915 The university of Cambridge founded. 936 The Saracen empire is divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms. 975 Pore Boniface VII. is déposed and banished for his crimes. : 979 Coronation oaths said to be first used in England. 991 The figures in arithmetic are brought into Europe by the Saracens from Arabia.

Letters of the alphabet were hitherto used. . 996 Otho III. makes the empire of Germany elective.

999 Boleslaus, the firit king of Poland. 1000 Paper made of cotton rags was in use; that of linen rags in 1170: the manufac

tory introduced into England at Dartford, 1588. 1005 All the old churches are rebuilt about this time in a new manner of architecture. 1015 Children forbidden by law to be fold by their parents in England. 1017 Canute, king of Denmark, gets poffefsion of England. 1040 The Danes, after several engagements with various success, are about this time

driven out of Scotland, and never again return in a hostile manner. 1041 The Saxon line restored under Edward the Confeflor. 1043 The Turks (a nation of adventurers from Tartary, serving hitherto in the armies

of contending princes) become formidable, and take pofleflion of Persia. 1054 Leo IX. the first pope that kept up an army. 1057 Malcolm III. king of Scotland, kills the tyrant Macbeth at Dunsinane, and mar

ries the princes Margaret, fister to Edgar Atheling. 1065 The Turks take Jerusalem from the Saracens.

1066 The

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