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evidently, as to be clearly seen by the se- fhould Night the hopes of empire and donate and people of Rome. Accordingly minion, and the advantageous offers of the consuls of that year ordered the ftatue men of pátrician rank, and prefer your to be placed in the manner directed : but fafety to their own intereft

, mult needs be from the slow progress of the work, nei. the effect of a divine interposition ; espe. ther they, nor their suceessors, nor I my cially when they might have gained their felf, could get it finished till that very ends, not by fighting, but by holding day.

Can any man after this be such an ene Wherefore, Romans, since a thankfu my to truth, so rash, so mad, as to deny, giving has been decreed at all the shrines that all things which we see, and above all, of the gods, celebrate the fame religiously that this city is governed by the power with your wives and children. Many are and providence of the gods? For when the proofs of gratitude you have juftly the foothsayers declared, that massacres, paid to the gods on former occasions, but wsflagrations, and the entire ruin of the never surely were more apparently due than fate were then devising ; crimes ! the at present. You have been snatched from a czormity of whose guilt rendered the pre- most cruel and deplorable fate ; and that dićtion to some incredible : yet are you too without slaughter, without blood, withnow sensible, that all this has been by out an army, without fighting. In the wicked citizens not only devised, but even habit of citizens, and under me your only stempted. Can it then be imputed to leader and conductor in the robe of peace, any thing but the immediate interposition you have obtained the victory. For do of the great Jupiter, that this morning, but call to mind, Romans, all the civil dir while the conspirators and witnesses were sensions in which we have been involved ; by my order carried through the foram to not those only you may have heard of, but tbe temple of Concord, in that very mo those too within your own memory and ment the fatue was fixed in its placed knowledge. L. Sylla deftroyed P. SulpiAnd being fixed, and turned to look upon cius; drove Marius, the guardian of this you and the senate, both you and the se empire, from Rome; and partly banished, nate law all the treasonable designs against partly Naughtered, a great number of the the public safety, clearly detected and ex most deserving citizens. Cn. Octavius, pofed. The conspirators, therefore, jully when consul, expelled his colleague by terited the greater punishment and detefta- force of arms, from the city. The forum tica, for endeavouring to involve in impious was filled with carcases, and flowed with dames, not only your houses and habitations, the blood of the citizens. Cinna afterbut the dwellings and temples of the gods wards, in conjunction with Marius, prethemselves : nor can I, without intolera- vailed : and then it was that the very ble vanity and presumption, lay claim to lights of our country were extinguished by the merit of having, defeated their at- the slaughter of her most illustrious men. tempts. It was be, it was Jupiter him. Sylla avenged this cruel vi&tory; with felf, who opposed them: to him the capi what massacre of the citizens, with what tol, to him the temples, to him this city, calamity to the state, it is needless to rea to him you are all indebted for your pre- late. M. Lepidus had a difference with fervation. It was from the immortal Q. Catulus, a man of the moft diftinguithgods, Romans, that I derived my resolu- ed reputation and merit. The ruin brought tion and forefight; and by their provi upon the former was not so afflicting to dence, that I was enabled to make such the republic, as that of the rest who perishimportant discoveries. The attempt to ed upon the same occasion. Yet all thefc engage the Allobrogians in the conspiracy, diffenfions, Romans, were of such a nature, and the infatuation of Lentulus and his as tended only to a change in the governassociates

, in crufting affairs and letters of ment, not to a total destruction of the state, fach moment to men barbarous and un It was not the aim of the persons concernknown to them, can never surely be ac ed, to extinguish the commonwealth, but counted for, but by foppofing the gods to be leading men in it; they desired not to to have confounded their understandings. fee Rome in flames, but to rule in Rome. And that the ambassadors of the Gauls, a And yet all these civil differences, none of aation fo disaffe&ted, and the only one at which tended to the overthrow of the state, present ebat seems both able and willing were so obstinately kept up, that they to make was upon the Roman people, rever ended in a reconciliation of the par



ties, but in a massacre of the citizens. But whose friendship I have for ever fecared in this war, a war the fiercest and most im- by the dignity of the republic itself, which placable ever known, and not to be paral- will never cease to be my silent defender; leled in the history of the most barbarous and by the power of conscience, which all nations ; a war in which Lentulus, Cata- those must needs violate, who fhall at. line, Caffius and Cethegus laid it down as tempt to injure me. Such too is my spia principle, to consider all as enemies who rit, Romans, that I will never yield to ine had any interest in the well being of the audaciousness of any, but even provoke itate ; I have conducted myself in such a and attack all the wicked and the profii. manner, Romans, as to preserve you all. gate : yet if all the rage of our domestic And though your enemies imagined that enemies, when repelled from the people, no more citizens would remain, than what fall at lalt turn singly upon me, you will escaped endless massacre ; nor any more of do well to consider, Romans, what effect Rome be left ftanding, than was snatched this may afterwards have upon those, who from a devouring conflagration; yet have are bound to expose themselves to envy I preserved both city and citizens from and danger for your safety. As to myharm.

self in particular, what have I farther io For all these important services, Romans, wish for in life, fince both with regard to I desire no other reward of my zeal, no the honours you confer, and the reputaother mark of honour, no other monument tion flowing from virtue, I have already of praise, but the perpetual remembrance of reached the highest point of my ambition. this day. It is in your breasts alone, that This however I expressly engage for, RoI would have all my triumphs, all my mans, always to support and defeni in titles of honour, all the monuments of my my private condition, what I have acted glory, all the trophies of my renown, re in my consulship; that if any envy be corded and preserved. Lifeless ftatues, ftirred up against me for preserving the silent testimonies of fame; in fine, what- flate, it may hurt the envious, but adever can be compassed by men of inferior vance my glory. In short, I shall so bemerit, has no charms for me. In your have in the republic, as ever to be mindremembrance, Romans, shall my actions ful of my pait actions, and thew that what be cherished, from your praises shall they I did was not the effect of chance, but of derive growth and nourishment, and in virtue. Do you, Romans, since it is now your annals fall they ripen and be im- night, repair to your several dwellings, mortalized : : por will this day, I flatter and

pray to Jupiter, the guardian of this myself, ever cease to be propagated, to city, and of your lives: and though the the safety of the city, and the honour of danger be now over, keep the same watch my confullhip: but it thall eternally re- in your houses as before. I shall take main upon record, that there were two care to put a speedy period to the necelcitizens living at the same time in the re- fity of these precautions, and to secure public, the one of whom was terminating you for the future in uninterrupted peace. the extent of the empire by the bounds of

I bitworth's Cicero. the horizon itself; the other proíerving the fent and capital of that cmpire.

G 8. Oration against Cataline, But as the fortune and circumstances of my actions are different from those of your generals abroad, in as much as I Though the delign of the conspiracy must live with those whom I have con was in a great measure defeatid, by quered and subdued, whereas they leave the commitment of the most condtheir enemies either dead or enthralled; it derable of those concerned in it, yet is your part, Romans, to take care, that as they had many secret favourers if the good actions of others are beneficial and well-wishers within the city, the to them, mine prove not detrimental to people were alarmed with the rumor

I have baffled the wicked and of fresh plots, formed by the laves bloody purposes formed against you by and dependants of Lentulus and Cethe moit daring offenders ; it belongs to thegus for the rescue of their mas you to bafile their attempts against me; fiers, which obliged Cicero to reinthough as to myself, I have in reality no force his guards; and for the prevencause to fear any thing, since I shall be tion of all such attempts, to put an protected by the guard of all honeft men, end to the whole affair, by bringing






the question of their punilhment, said, was not a punishment, but rewithout farther delay, before the fe lief to the miserable, and left no sense nate; which he accordingly summon either of good or ill beyond it; but as ed for that purpose. The debate new and illegal, and contrary to the was of great delicacy and impor conftitution of the republic : and tance; to decide upon the lives of though the heinousness of the crime citizens of the first rank. Capital would justify any feverity, yet the punishments were rare, and ever example was dangerous in a free odious in Rome, whose laws were of state ; and the falutary use of arbi. all others the least fanguinary; ba trary power in good hands, had been nishment, with confiscation of goods, the cause of fatal mischiefs when it being the ordinary punishment for fell into bad ; of which he produthe greatett crimes. The fenate in ced several instances, both in other deed, as has been said above, in cities and their own; and though no cases of sudden and dangerous tumults, danger could be apprehended from claimed the prerogative of punish these times, or such a consul as Ciing the leaders with death, by the cero ;- yet in other times, and under authority of their own decrees. But another consul, when the sword was this was looked upon as a stretch of once drawn by a decree of the senate, power, and an infringement of the

man could promise what misrights of the people, which nothing chief it might not do before it was could excuse but the necessity of Theathed again : his opinion there. times, and the extremity of danger. fore was, that the estates of the conFor there was an old law of Porcius spirators should be confiscated, and Læca, a tribune, which granted all their persons closely confined in the criminals capitally condemned, an ap strong towns of Italy ; and that it peal to the people ; and a later one should be criminal for any one to move of C. Gracchus, to prohibit the the fenate or the people for any favour taking away the life of any citizens, towards them. These two contrary without a formal hearing before the opinions being proposed, the next people : so that some fenators, who question was, which of them should had concurred in all the previous de take place : Cæsar's had made a bates, withdrew themselves from this, great impression on the assembly, and to fhew their dilike of what they ex. ftaggered even Silanus, who began pected to be the issue of it, and to to excuse and mitigate the severity have no hand in putting Roman citi of his vote ; and Cicero's friends zens to death by a vote of the senate. were going forwardly into it, as Here then was ground enough for likely to create the least trouble to Cicero's enemies to act upon, if ex Cicero himself, for whose future peace tremes methods were pursued : he and safety they began to be solicihimself was aware of it, and saw, that tous : when Cicero, observing the inthe public intereft called for the se clination of the house, and rising up vereit punishment, his private interest to put the question, made this fourth the gentlest: yet he came resolved to speech on the subject of this confpifacrifice all regards for his own quiet, racy; in which he delivers his sentia to the consideration of the public ments with all the kill both of the safety. As soon therefore as he had orator and statesman; and while he moved the question, What was to be seems to thew a perfect neutrality, done with the conspirators ? Silanus, and to give equal commendation to the conful elect, being called upon to both the opinions, artfully labours all speak the first, advised, that those the while to turn the scale in favour of who were then in custody, with the Silanus’s, which he considered as a rest who should afterwards be taken, neceffary example of severity in the fould all be put to death. To this present circumstances of the repuball who spoke after him readily af lic. fented, till it came to Julius Cæsar, then prætor elect, who, in an elegant I PERCEIVI, confcript fathers, that and elaborate sp ech, treated that every look, that eve y eye is fixed upon opinion, not as cruel, since death, he I see you solicitous not only for your

own and your country's danger, but was all the impressions of humanity, as to rethat repelled, for mine also. This proof main indifferent to the grief of a dear and of your affection is grateful to me in for- affectionate brother here present, and the row, and pleasing in distress : but by the tears of all those by whom you see me immortal gods I conjure you! lay it all surrounded. Nor can I forbear to own, alide; and without any regard to my safety, that an aflicted wife, a daughter dispiritthink only of yourselves, and of your faced with fear, an infant son, whom my milies. For should the condition of my country seems to embrace as the pledge consulship be such as to subject me to all of my cousulship, and a son-in-law, whom manner of pains, hardships, and suffer. I behold waiting with anxiety the issue of ings; I will bear them not only resolute. this day, often recal my thoughts home. ly but chearfully, if by my labours I can wards. All these objects affečt me, yet secure your dignity and safety, with that in such a manner, that I am chiefly conof the people of Rome. Such, conscript cerned for their preservation and yours, fathers, has been the fortune of my con- and scruple not to expose myself to any fullhip, that neither the forum, that centre hazard, rather than that they and all of of all equity, nor the field of Mars, con us thould be involved in one general rain. fecrated by consular auspices, nor the se. Wherefore, conscript fathers, apply yournate-house, the principal refuge of all felves wholly to the safety of the state, nations, nor domestic walls, the common guard againt the storms that threaten us asylum of all men ; nor the bed, destined

on every lide, and which it will require to repose ; nay, nor even this honourable your utmost circumspection to avert. It seat, this chair of state, have been free is not a Tiberius Gracchus, caballing for from perils and the snares of death. Many a second tribuneship ; nor a Caius Gracthings have I dissembled, many have I chus, stirring up the people in favour of fuffered, many have I yielded to, and many his Agrarian law ; nor a Lucius Saturni. struggled with in filence, for your quiet. nus, the murderer of Caius Memmius, But if the immortal gods would grant that who is now in judgment before you, and issue to my consullhip, of saving you, exposed to the severity of the law; but conscript fathers, and the people of Rome, traitors, who remained at Rome to fire from a massacre ; your wives, your chil. the city, to massacre the senate, and to dren, and the vestal virgins, from the bit. receive Cataline. Their letters, their terelt perfecution; the temples and altars seals, their hands; in short, their several of the gods, with this our fair country, confessions, are in your custody; and from facrilegious Aames; and all Italy clearly convict them of foliciting the Alfrom war and desolation ; let what fate lobrogians, fpiriting up the Naves, and foever attend me, I will be content with it. fending for Cataline. The scheme proFor if P. Lentulus, upon the report of posed was, to put all, without exception, foothsayers, thought his name portended to the sword,'that not a soul might rethe ruin of the Itate; why should not I main to lament the fate of the commonrejoice, that my consulship has been as it wealth, and the overthrow of so mighty an were reserved by fate for its preserva. empire. tion.

All this has been proved by witnesses, Wherefore, conscript fathers, think of the criminals themselves have confessed, your own safety, turn your whole care and you have already condemned them by upon the state, secure yourselves, your feveral previous acts. First, by returning wives, your children, your fortunes ; guard thanks to me in the most honourable terms, the lives and dignity of the people of Rome, and declaring that by my virtue and vigiand cease your concern and anxiety for me. lance, a conspiracy of desperate men has For first, I have reason to hope, that all been laid open. Next, by depofing Lenthe gods, the protectors of this city, will culas from the prætorship, and commiting reward me according to my deserts. him, with the rest of the conspirators, to Then, should any thing extraordinary custody. But chiefly, by decreeing a happen, I am prepared to die with an thansgiving in my name, an honour which even and conftant mind. For death can was never before conferred upon any man never be dishonourable to the brave, nor in the gown. Lally, you yetterday voted premature to one who has reached the ample rewards to the deputies of the Al. dignity of consul, nor aflicting to the lobrogians, and Titus Vulturcius; all which wife. Not that I am so hardened against p.oceedings are of such a nature, as



o make it appear, that you already with- to find those, who will not think it unsui . est scruple condemn those, whom you have able to their dignity, to comply with whatby came ordered into custody. But I have ever you shall judge necessary for the comrecived, conscript fathers, to propose to won safety. He adds a heavy penalty on on anew the question both of the fact and the municipal towns, if any of the crimipuntament, having first premised what I nals should escape ; he invests them wita turk proper to say as consul. I have long formidable guards; and, as the enormity obferved a spirit of disorder working in of their guilt deserves, forbids, under sethe fate, new projects devising, and per vere penalties, all application to the senate sicious schemes set on foot: but never or people, for a mitigation of their punishcoald I imagine, that a conspiracy so dread- ments. He even deprives them of hope, fal and deftractive, had entered into the the only comfort of unhappy mortals. He ziads of citizens. Now whatever you do, orders their eftates alfo to be confiscated, & which ever way your thoughts and and leaves them nothing but life; which, raices shall incline, you must come to a if he had taken away, he would by one reocation before night. You see the hei-, momentary pang, have eased them of much soas nature of the crime laid before you; anguilh both of mind and body, and all the and if you think that but few are con- suxerings due to their crimes. For it was terned in it, you are greatly mistaken. on this account that the ancients invented The mischief is spread wider than most those infernal punishments of the dead; to people imagine, and has not only infected keep the wicked under some awe in this laly, but crossed the Alps, and, imper- life, who without them would have no dread ceptibly creeping along, seized many pro. of death itself. vices. You can never hope to suppress it Now, conscript fathers, I fee how much b; delay and irresolution. Whatever course my interest is concerned in the present deyou take, you must proceed with vigour bate. If you follow the opinion of C. and expedition.

Cæsar, who has always pursued thofe meaThere are two opinions now before you; sures in the state, which favour most of tize firl, of D. Silanus, who thinks the popularity; I shall perhaps be less exprojectors of so destructive a conspiracy posed to the arrows of public hatred, when worthy of death; the second of C. Cæsar, he is known for the author and adviser of

ko, excepting death, is for every other this vote. But if you fall in with the mothe mot rigorous method of punishing. tion of D. Silanus, I know not what diffiLach, agreeably to his dignity, and the culties it may bring me under. However, importance of the cause, is for treating let the service of the commonwealth sua them with the last severity. The one persede all considerations of my danger. thinks, that those who have attempted to Cæsar, agreeable to his own dignity, and deprive us and the Roman people of life, the merits of his illustrious ancestors, has to abolish this empire, and extinguish the by this proposal given us a perpetual very name of Rome, ought not to enjoy pledge of his affection to che itate, and a moment's life, or breathe the vital air: Thewed the difference between the affected and hath shewed withal, that chis punish- lenity of busy declaimers, and a mind truly ment has often been inficted by this state popular, which seeks nothing but the real of fedijous citizens. The other main. good of the people. I observe that one tains, that death was not designed by the of those, who affects the character of poimmortal gods as a punishment, but either pularity, has absented himself from this 2 a deceitary law of our nature, or a cef day's debate, that he may not give a vote fation of our toils and miseries: so that upon the life of a Roman citizen. Yet the wife never suffer it unwillingly, the but the other day he concurred in fending brave often seek it voluntarily: that bonds the criminals to prison, voted me a thanktand imprisonment, especially if perpetual, giving, and yesterday decreed ample reare contrived for the punishment of de- wards to the informers. Now no one can tettable crimes: that therefore the crimi- doubt what his sentiments are on the me. tals should be distributed among the mu- rits of the cause, who votes imprisonment nicipal towns. In this proposal, there seems to the accused, thanks to the discoverer of to be some injustice, if you impose it upon the conspiracy, and rewards to the in. the towns; or some difficulty, if you only formers. But C. Cæsar urges the Semdefire it. Yet decree fo, if you think fit

. pronian law, forbidding to put Roman ciI will endeavour, and I hope I shall be able tizens to death. Yet here it ought to be


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