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fosed the freedom of its cities, without dolence, seduced by pleasure, nor diverted the recommendation of merit, upon per- by Sleep, from doing good offices to others ? ions of little consideration, and those who Wo then can censuie me, or in jullie be had either tio employment at all, or very angry with me, if those hours which otheis mean ones, is it to be imagined that the employ in businesi, in p'easures, in celeinhabitants of Rhegium, Locris, Naples, brating public folemnities, in refreshing or Tarentum, would deny to a man to the body and unbending the mind; if the highly celebrated for his genius, what time which is spent by fome in midnight they conferred even upon comedians ? banquetings, in diversions, and in gaming, When others, root only after Silanus's I employ in reviewing these iludies? And law, but even after the lapian la:v, în:11 this application is the more exculable, as have found means to creep into the regi- I derive no finall advantages from it in iters of the municip.:l cities, full he be my profesion, in which, whatever abilities rejected, who, because he was always de- I posteli

, they have always been employed frous of paling for an Heraclean, never when the dangers of my friends cailed for availed hintelf of his being enrolled in their aliistance. If they thould appear to other cities ? But you desire to see the en any to be but small, there are full other rolment of our estate ; as if it were not advantages of a muc!: higher niture, ani well known, that under the last ceniorship I am very sensible where I derive them. the defendant was with the army com For lad I not been convinced from my marded by that renowned general L. Lu- youth, hy much instruction and much study, culus; that under the conforthip imme- that nothing is greatly desirable in life but diately preceding, he was with the same g'ory and virtue, and that, in the pariuit lucullus then quzitor in Afia; and that, of these, all bodily tortures, and the perils when Juiius and Craffus :vere censors, the:e of death and exile, are to be slight:d and was no enrolment made ? But, as an en- despised, never Should I have exposed my-, rolinent in the cenors books does not con self to so many and so great cont:cts for firm the right of citizenship, and only your preservation, nor to the daily rage fnews that the person enrolled asianied the and violence of the moił worthleis of men. character of a citizen, I must tell you that But on this head books are ful!, the voice Archias made a will according to our laws, of the wife is full, antiquity is full; all fucceeded to the citates of Roman citizens, which, were it not for the lamp of learnand was recommended to the treasury by ing, would be involved in thick ebfcurity. L. Lucullus, both when prætor and con How many pictures of the braveit of mea ful; as one who deserved well of the state, have the Greek and Latin wiers iett us, at the very time when you alledge that, by not only to contemplate, but likewise to his own confetion, he had no right to the imitate? These illustrious anodels I always freedom of Rome.

set before me in the government of the Find out whatever arguments you can, state, and formed my conduct by contemArchias will never be convicted for his plating their virtues. own conduct, nor that of his friends. But But were those great men, it will be you'll no doubt ask the reason, Gracchus, alked, who are celebrated in history, dillin. of my being so highly delighted with this guilhed for that kind of learning, which man? Why, it is because he furnillies me you extol so highly? It were difticuit, inwith what relieves my mind, and charms deed, to prove this of them all; but what my ears, after the fatigue and noise of the I Mall answer is, however, very certain. forum. Do you imagine that I could pof- I own, then, that there have been many fibly plead every day on such a variety men of excellent dispositions ani dilinof lubjects, if my mind was not cultivated guished virtue, who, without learning, and with science; or that it could bear being by the almost divine force of nature herself

, Aretched to such a degree, if it were not have been wise and moderate; nav, sometimes unbent by the amusements of ther, that nature without learning is of learning. I am fond of these studies, I greater efficacy towards the attainment of own: let those be ashamed who have hu- glory ant vircuc, than learning without ried themselves in learning so as to be of nature ; but then, I afirm, that when to ko vse to society, nor able to produce any

an excellent natural disposition the emthing to public view; but why hould í bellisments of learning are added, there be alhamed, who for so many years, my results from this union something great, lords, have never been prevented by in- and extraordinary. Such was thai divine

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man Africanus, whom our fathers faw; formed by the plastic hand of nature here
such were C. Lælius and L. Furius, per self, is quickened by the native fire of
fons of the greatest temperance and mo genius, and animated as it were by a kind
deration ; such was old Cato, a man of of divine enthusiasm. It is with justice,
great bravery, and, for the times, of great therefore, that our Ennius bestows upon
learning; who, surely, would never have poets the epithet of venerable, because they
applied to the study of learning, had they seem to have some peculiar gifts of the
thought it of no service towards the ac- gods to recommend them to us. Let the
quisition and improvement of virtue. But name of poet then, which the most bar-
were pleasure only to be derived from barous nations have never prophaned, be
learning, without the advantages we have revered by you, my lords, who are so great
mentioned, you must fill, I imagine, al- admirers of polite learning. Rocks and
low it to be a very liberal and polite amuse- desarts re-echo sounds; savage beasts are
ment. For other studies are not suited to often soothed by music, and listen to its
every time, to every age, and to every charms; and shall we, with all the advan-
place; but these give strength in youth, tages of the best education, be unaffected
and joy in old age: adorn prosperity, and with the voice of poetry? The Calopho-
are the support and consolation of adver- nians give out tha Homer is their country:
fity; at home they are delightful, and man, the Chians declare that he is theirs,
abroad they are easy; at night they are the Salaminians lay claim to him, the peo-
company to us; when we travel they at ple of Smyrna affirm that Smyrna gave him
tend us; and, in our rural retirements breath, and have accordingly dedicated a
they do not forsake us. Though we temple to him in their city : besides these,
ourselves were incapable of them, and many other nations contend warmly for this
had no relish for their charms, still we
Thould admire them when we see them in Do they then lay claim to a stranger

even after his death, on account of his Was there any of us so void of taste, being a poet; and shall we reject this livand of so unfeeling a temper, as not to be ing poet, who is a Roman both by inclinaaffected lately with the death of Rofcius ? tion and the laws of Rome; especially as For though he died in an advanced age, he has employed the utmost efforts of his yet such was the excellence and inimitable genius to celebrate the glory and grandeur beauty of his art, that we thought him of the Roman people? For, in his youtil, worthy of living for ever. Was he then he song the triumphs of C. Marius over so great a favourite with us all on account the Cimbri, and even pleased that great of the graceful motions of his body; and general, who had but little relish for the shall we be insensible to the surprising charms of poetry. Nor is there any perenergy of the mind, and the sprightly fal- fon so great an enemy to the Muses, as lies of genius? How often have I seen this not readily to allow the poet to blazon his Archias, my lords, (for I will presume on fame, and consecrate his actions to imyour goodness, as you are pleased to fa- mortality. Themistocles, that celebrated vour me with so much attention in this Athenian, upon being asked what music, unusual manner of pleading) how often, I or whose voice was molt agreeable to him, say, have I seen him, without using his pen, is reported to have answered, that man's and without any labour or iludy, make a who could best celebrate his virtues. The great number of excellent verses on oc same Marius too had a very high regard casional subjects? How often, when a sub- for L. Plotius, whose genius, he thought, ject was resumed, have I heard him give was capable of doing justice to his actions. it a different turn of thought and expres. But Archias has described the whole fion, whilst those compositions which he Mithridatic war; a war of such danger finished with care and exactness were as and importance, and so very memorable highly approved as the most celebrated for the great variety of its events both by writers of antiquity. And shall not I sea and land. Nor does his poem reflect love this man? Shall I not admire him? honour only on L. Lucullus, that very Shall I not defend him to the utmost of brave and renowned man, but likewise my power? For men of the greatest emi- adds lustre to the Roman name. For, nence and learning have taught us, that under Lucullus, the Roman people peneother branches of science require educa- trated into Pontus, impregnable till then tion, art, and precept; but that a poet is by mcans of its situation and the arms


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of its monarchs; under him, the Romans, were equal to his fortune, confer the freewith no very considerable force, routed doin ot' Rome, in the presence of a milithe numberless troops of the Armenians; tary asembly, upon Theophanes of Mityunder his conduct too, Rome has the glory lene, who sung his triumphs ? And these of delivering Cyzicum, the city of our Romans of ours, men brave indeel, but unfaithful allies, from the rage of a monarch, polished and mere soldiers, inoved with the and rescuing it from the devouring jaws charnis of glory, gave fouts of applaute, of a mighty war. The praises of our fleet as if they had shared in the honour of ihall ever be recorded and celebrated, for their leader. Is it to be suppoled then, the wonders performed a: Tenedos, where that Archias, if our laws hai not made the enemy's ships were sunk, and their him a citizen of Rome, could not have commanders lain : such are our trophies, obtained his fieedom from tomc general ? such our monumenis, sueil our triumphs. Would Sylla, who conferred the rights of Those, therefore, whose genius describes citizenship on Gauls and Spaniards, have these exploits, celebrate likewise the praises refused the suit of Archias? That Sylla, of the Roman namc. Our Ennius was whom we saw in an assembly, when a bad greatly beloved by the elder Africanus, poet, of obscure birth, presunted him a and accordingly he is thought to have a petition upon the merit of having written marble statue amongst the monuments of an epigrain in his praise of unequal hob. the Scipio's. But those praises are not bling vertes, order him to be initantly reappropriated to the immediate subjects of warded out of an eftate he was selling at them; the whole Roman people have a the time, on condition he should write no ihare in them. Cato, the ancestor of the more verses. Would he, who even thought judge here present, is highly celebrated the industry of a bad poet worthy of some for his virtues, and from this the Romans reward, not have been fond of the themselves derive great honour : in a nius, the spirit, and eloquence of Archias? word, the Maximi, the Marcelli, the Ful Could our poet, neither by his own invii, cannot be praised without praising terest, nor that of the Luculli

, have obe every Roman.

tained from his intimate friend Q. MetelDid our ancestors then confer the free- lus Pius the freedom of Rome, which he dom of Rome on him who sung the praises bestowed so frequently upon others ? Espeof her heroes, on a native of Rudiæ; and cially as Metellus was so very desirous of shall we thrust this Heraclean out of Rome, having his actions celebrated, that he was who has been courted by many cities, and even fomewhat pleased with the dull and whom our laws have made a Roman? For barbarous verses of the poets born at Corif any one imagines that less glory is de- duba. rived from the Greek, than from the Latin Nor ought we to diffemble this truth, poet, he is greatly inistaken ; the Greek which cannot be concealed, but declare it language is understood in almost every na- openly: we are all influenced by the love tion, whereas the Latin is confined to La- of praise, and the greatest minds have the tin territories, territories extremely nar. greatest pasion for glory. The philosorow, Ifour exploits, therefore, have reach- phers themselves prefix their names to ed the utmost limits of the earth, we ought those books which they write upon the to be desirous that our glory and fame contempt of glory; by which they few should extend as far as our arms; for as that they are desirous of praise and fame, these operate powerfully on the people while they affect to despise them. Deciwhose actions are recorded ; so to those mus Brutus, that great commander and exwho expose their lives for the sake of cellent man, adorned the monuments of glory, they are the grand motives to toils his family, and the gates of his temples, and dangers. How many persons is Alex- with the verses of his intimale friend Atander the Great reported to have carried tius: and Fulvius, who made war with the along with him, to write his history! And Ætolians attended by Ennius, did not scruyet, when he stood by the tomb of Achilles plc to consecrate the spoils of Mars to the at Sigæum, “ Happy youth," he cried, Muses. In that city, therefore, where ge“ who could find a Homer to blazon thy nerals, with their arms almost in their fame!” And what he said was true ; for hands, have reverenced the shrines of the had it not been for the Iliad, his ashes and muses and the name of poets, furely mafame had been buried in the same tomb. gistrates in their robes, and in times of Did not Pompey the Great, whose virtues peace, ought not to be averse to honour



ing the one, or protecting the other. And ing behaviour, and the affections of his to engage you the more readily to this, friends, so strongly recommended; the my lords, I will lay open the very senti- greatness of whole genius may be estimarments of my heart before you, and freely ed from this, that he is courted by the most confess my passion for glory, which, though eminent men of Rome; and whose plea is too keen, perhaps, is however virtuous. For such, that it has the law in its favour, the what I did in conjunction with you during authority of a municipal town, the tellimy consulship, for the safety of this city mony of Lucullus, and the register of Meand empire, for the lives of my fellow- tellus. This being the case, we beg of citizens, and for the interelts of the state, you, my lords, fince in matters of such Archias intends to celebrate in verfe, and importance, not only the intercession of has actually begun his poem. Upon read men but of gods is necessary, that the ing what he has wrore, it appeared to me man, who has always celebrated your virfo sublime, and gave me so much pleasure, tues, those of your generals, and the vicio. that I encouraged hiin to go on with it. ries of the Roman people; who declares For vi:tuz delires no other reward for her that he will raise eternal monuments to toils and dangers, but praise and glory: your praile and mine for our condu& in take but this away, my lords, and what is our late domestic dangers; and who is of there left in this short, this scanty career the number of those that have ever been of human life, that can tempt us to en accounted and pronounced divine, may be gige in so many and so great labours ? lo protetied by you, as to have greater Surely, if the mind had no thought of fu- reason to applaud your generosity, ihan to turity, if the confined all her views within coinplain of your rigour. What I have thore linits which bound our present exist- faid, my lords, concerning this cause, with ence, she would neither waite her strength my usual brevity and finplicity, is, I am in so great toils, nor harnis herself with confident, approved by all : what I have to many cares and watchings, ror strug- advanced upon poetry in general, and the gle so often for life itself: but there is a genius of the defendant, contrary to the certain principle in the breast of every usage of the forum and the bar, will, i good man, which both diy and night hope, be taken in good part by you ; by quickens him to the pursuit of glory, and him who prelides upon the bench, I am puts him in mind that his fame is not to convinced it will. be measured by the extent of his present

Whitworth's Cicero. life, but that it runs parallel with the line of poiterity.

$10. Oration for T. Annius Milo. Can we, who are engaged in the affairs of the late, and in so many toils and dangers, think so meanly as to imagine that, This beautiful oration was made in the after a life of uninterrupted care and trou 55th year of Cicero's age, upon the ble, nothing Mall remain of us after death? following occasion. In the year of If many of the greatest men have been Rome 701, T. Annius Milo, Q Mecareful to leave their tatues and pictures, tellus Scipio, and P. Plauius Hypthese reprefentations not of their minds faus, stood candidates for the consul. but of their bodies; ought not we to be hip; and, according to Plutarch, much more desirous of leaving the por pushed on their several interests with traits of our enterprizes and virtues drawn such open violence and bribery, as if and finihed by the most eminent artist:: it had been to be carried only by As for me, I have always imagined, whilst

muncy or arms. P. Clodius, Milo's I was engaged in doing whatever I have

profefied enemy, stood at the same done, that I was spreading my actions time for the prætorship, and used all over the whole earth, and that they would his interest to disappoint Milo, by be held in eternal remembrance. But whofe obtaining the consulship he was whether I shall lose my consciousness of sure to be controuled in the exercise this at death, or whether, as the wiselt of his magistraçy. The senate and men have thought, I Mall retain it after, the better fort' were generally in at present the thought delights me, and my Milo's interest; and Cicero, in pas. mind is fi!led with pleasing hopes. Do ticular, served him with distinguished not then deprive us, my lords, of a man, zeal: three of the tribunes were vioWhom modelty, a graceful manner, engag: lent against him, the other seven were




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bis fait friends ; above all M. Cælius, an extraordinary judge, of consular who, out of regard to Cicero, was rank, to preside in it. He attended very active in his service. But whilst Milo's trial himself with a strong matters were proceeding in a very guari, to preserve peace. The ac-. favourable train for him, and nothing culers were young Appius, the nephew seemed wanting to crown his succeiš, of Clodius, M. Antonius, and P. V1but to bring on the election, which lerius. Ciccro was the only advocate his adversaries, for that realon, en on Milo's fide; but as foon as he rose deavoured to keep back; all his hopes up to speak, he was received with lo and fortunes were blasted at once by rude a clamour by the Clodians, that an unhappy rencounter with Clodius, he was much discomposed and daucted in which Clodius was killed by his at his firit feruing out: he recovered servants, and by his command.

His fpirit enough, however, to go through body was left in the Appian road, his speech, which was taken down ia where it fell, but was taken up

foon writing, and published as it was deafter by Tedius, a senator, who hap livered; though the copy of it now pened to come by, and brought to extant, is supposed to have been reRome; where it was exposed, all co touched, ard corrected by him aftervered with blood and wounds, to the wards, for a present to Milo, who was view of the populace, who flocked condemned, and went into exile et about in crowds to lainent the mise Marseilles, a few days after his conrable fate of their leader. The next deinpation. day, Sextus Clodius, a kinsman of the decepied, and one of his chief incen THOUGH I am apprehensive, my diaries, together with the three tri- lords, it may seem a reflection on a pera bunes, Mio's enemies, employed all fon's character to discover any lignis of the arts of party and faction to in- fear, when he is entering on the defence Aame the mob, which they did to of so brave a man, and particularly un. such a height of fury, that, inatching becoming in me, that when T. Annius up the body, they ran away with it Milo himself is more concerned for the into the senate-house, and tearing up fafuty of the state than his own, I should the benches, tables, and every thing no: be able to maintain an equal greatness combustible, drelied up a funeral pile of wird in pleading his caule; yet I must upon the spot; and, togther with the own, the unusual manner in which this body, burnt the house itself, with a new kind of trial is conducted, strikes me tallica or public hall adjoining. Se- with a kind of terror, while I ain looking veral other outrages were committedo around me, in vain, for the ancient usages so that the senate were obliged to p.315 of the forum, and the forms that have been a decree, that the inter-rex, ailed by hitherto observed in our courts of judicaibe tribunes and Pompey, should take Your bench is not surrounded with care that the republic received no di- the usual circle; nor is the crowd such as triment; and that Pompey, in parti- used to throng us. For those guards you cular, fhould raise a body of troops for fee planted before all the temples, however the common security, which he pre- intended to prevent all violence, yet strike lently drew together from all parts of the orator with terror; so that even in the Italy. Amidit this confusion, the ru forum and during a trial, though attended mour of a dictator being industriously with an useful and neceffary guard, I can. spread, and alarming the senate, they not help being under some apprehensions, resolved presently to create Pompey at the same time I am sensible they are the single consul, whose election was without foundation. Indeed, if I imagined accordingly declared by the inter-rex, it was stationed there in opposition 10 after an inter-regnum of near two Milo, I mould give way, my lords, to the months. Pompey applied himself times; and conclude there was no room immediately to quiet the public dif- for an orator in the midst of such an armed orders, and published several new force. But the prudence of Pompey, a lavs, prepared by him for that pur man of such distinguished wisdom and poie; one of them was, to appoint a equity, both chears and relieves me; whose special commission to enquire into jutice will never fufler him to leave a Clodius's death, &c. and to appoint person exposed to the rage of the soldiery,



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