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a meed for these, and all future relics of § 14. The Character of MARIUS. the public conteits. For wherever the The birth of Marius was obscure, greatest rewards are proposed for virtue, though some call it equestrian, and his there the bek of patriots are ever to be education wholly in camps; where he found.—Now, let every one respectively learnt the first rudiments of war, under indulge the decent grief for his departed the greatest master of that age, the younger friends, and then retire. Thucydides. Scipio, who destroyed Carthage; till by
long service, distinguished valour, and a 13. Hamlet to the Players.
peculiar hardiness and patience of disSpeak the fpeech, I pray you, as I cipline, he advanced himself gradually pronounced it to you, trippingly on the through all the steps of military honour, tongue. But if you mouth it, as many of with the reputation of a brave and comour players do, I had as lieve the town plete soldier. The obscurity of his excrier had spoke my lines. And do not traction, which depresied him with the saw the air too much with your hand; but nobility, made him the greater favourite use all gently: for in the very torrent, of the people; who, on all occasions of tempeft, and, as I may fay, whirlwind of danger, thought him the only man fit to your passion, you must acquire and beget be trusted with their lives and fortunes ; a temperance that may give it smoothness. or to have the command of a difficult and Oh! it offends me to the soul, to hear a desperate war: and, in trath, he twice robustous periwig-pated fellow tear a pas- delivered them from the most desperate, fion to tatters, to very rags, to split the with which they had ever been threatened ears of the groundlings; who (for the most by a foreign enemy. Scipio, from the part) are capable of nothing, but inexpli- observation of his martial talents, while cable dumb news and noise. Pray you, he had yet but an inferior command in avoid it.
the army, gave a kind of prophetic tefti. Be not too tame neither: but let your mony of his future glory; for being asked own discretion be your tutor. Suit the by some of his officers, who were supping action to the word, the word to the action; with him at Numantia, what general the with this special observance, that you o'er- republic would have, in case of any acciftep not the modesty of nature; for any dent to himself? That man replied he, thing fo overdone, is from the purpose of pointing to Marius at the bottom of the playing ; whose end is to hold, as 'twere table. In the field he was cautious and the mirror up to nature; to thew Virtue provident; and while he was watching her own feature, Scorn her own image, the molt favourable opportunities of acand the very age and body of the time tion, affected to take all his measures from his form and pressure. Now, this over augurs and diviners; nor ever gave battle, done, or come tardy off, though it make till by pretended omens and divine admothe unskilful laugh, cannot but make the nitions he had inspired his soldiers with a judicious grieve; the cenfure of one of confidence of victory; so that his enemies which must, in your allowance, o'erweigh dreaded him as something more than mora whole theatre of others. Oh! there be tal; and both friends and foes believed players that I have seen play, and heard him to act always by a peculiar impulse others praise, and that highly, that, neither and direction from the gods. His merit having the accent of Christian, nor the however was wholly military, void of gait of Christian, Pagan, nor man, have every accomplishment of learning, which lo frutted and bellowed, that I have he openly affected to despise; so that Arthought some of nature's journeymen had pinum had the fingular felicity to produce made them, and not made them well; they the most glorious contemner, as well as imitated humanity fo abominably. the most illustrious improver, of the arts
And let those that play your clowns, and eloquence of Rome *. He made no speak no more than is fet down for them: figure, therefore, in the gown, nor had for there be of them that will themselves any other way of sustaining his authority laugh, to set on some quantity of barren in the city, than by cherishing the natural fpe&tators to laugh too; though, in the jealousy between the senate and the people; mean time, some necessary question of the that by this declared enmity co the one he. play be then to be considered:--that’s vil- might always be at the head of the other; lainous, and shews a most pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. Sbakespeare.
• Arpinum was also the native city of Cicero. Y y 2
whose favour he managed, not with any shall the legislative power be in the people! view to the public good, for he had no As for me, I shall submit to whatever thing in him of the statesman or the pa. form of administration you shall please to triot, but to the advancement of his private establish. As I think myself not onworthy interest and glory. In short, he was crafty, to command, so neither am I unwilling to cruel, covetous, and perfidious; of a tem. obey. Your having chosen me to be the per and talents greatly serviceable abroad, leader of this colony, and your calling the but turbulent and dangerous at home; an city after my name, are honours sufficient inplacable enemy to the nobles, ever to content me; honours of which, living seeking occasions to mortify them, and or dead, I never can be deprived. ready to facrifice the republic, which he
Hooke. had saved, to his ambition and revenge. After a life spent in the perpetual toils of
$ 16. The Character of SYLLA. foreign or domestic wars, he died at last Sylla died afrer he had laid down the in his bed, in a good old age, and in his dictatorship, and restored liberty to the seventh consulship; an honour that no republic, and, with an uncommon greate Roman before him ever attained.
ness of inind, lived many months as a Middleton. private senator, and with perfect security,
in that city where he had exercised the § 15. Romulus to the People of Rome, most bloody tyranny: but nothing was after building the City.
thought to be greater in his character, If all the strength of cities lay in the than that, during the three years in which height of their ramparts, or the depth of the Marians were masters of Italy, he their ditches, we should have great reason neither dissembled his resolution of purto be in fear for that which we have now fuing them by arms, nor neglected the built. But are there in reality any walls war which he had upon his hands; but too high to be scaled by a valiant enemy: thought it his duty, first to chastise a foand of what use are ramparts in intestine reign enemy, before he took his revenge divisions ? They may serve for a defence upon citizens. His family was noble and against sudden incursions from abroad; patrician, which yet, through the indobut it is by courage and prudence chiefly, lency of his ancestors, had made no figure that the invasions of foreign enemies are in the republic for many generations, and repelled; and by unanimity, sobriety, and was almost funk into obseurity, till he justice, that domestic feditions are pre- produced it again into light, by aspiring vented. Cities fortified by the strongest to the honours of the flate. He was a bulwarks have been often seen to yield to lover and patron of polite letters, having force from without, or to tumults from been carefully instituted himself in all the within. An exact military discipline, and learning of Greece and Rome; but from a steady observance of civil polity, are the a peculiar gaiety of temper, and fondness furelt barriers against these evils.
for the company of mimics and players, But there is Aill another point of great was drawn, when young, into a life of importance to be considered. The prof. luxury and pleasure'; so that when he was perity of some rising colonies, and the sent quæstor to Marius, in the Jugurthine speedy ruin of others, have in a great war, Marius complained, that in lo rough measure been owing to their form of go- and desperate a service chance had given vernment. Were there but one manner him fo soft and delicate a quæftor. But, of ruling states and cities that could make whether soused by the example, or ftung them happy, the choice would not be by the reproach of his general, he behaved difficult; but I have learnt, that of the himself in that charge with the greatest various forms of government among the vigour and courage, suffering no man to Greeks and Barbarians, there are three outdo him in any part of military duty or which are highly extolled by those who labour, making himself cqual and familiar have experienced them; and yet, that even to the lowest of the soldiers, and no one of these is in all respects perfect, obliging them by all his good offices and but each of them has some innate and his money: so that he soon acquired the incurable defect. Chuse you, then, in favour of his army, with the character of what manner this city shall be governed. a brave and skilful commander; and lived Shall it be by one man? ihall it be by a to drive Marius himself, banihed and telect number of the wisest among us?' or proscribed, into that very province where
he had been contemned by him at first as complete conquest, should now come of my his quzftor. He had a wonderful faculty own motion to ask a peace; I am glad that of concealing his paffions and purposes; it is of you, Scipio, I have the fortune to and was so different from himself in dif. alk it. Nor will this be among the least ferent circumstances, that he seemed as it of your glories, that Hannibal, victorious were to be two men in one: no man was over so many Roman generals, submitted ever nuore mild and moderate before vic- at last to you. tory ; none more bloody and cruel after I could wish, that our fathers and we it. In war, he practised the same art had confined our ambition within the that he had seen lo successful to Marius, limits which nature seems to have preof raising a kind of enthusiasm and con- scribed to it; the shores of Africa, and the tempt of danger in his army, by the for- shores of Italy. The gods did not give gery of auspices and divine admonitions; us that mind. On both sides we have for which end, he carried always about been so eager after foreign possessions, with him a little ftatue of Apollo, taken as to put our own to the hazard of war. from the temple of Delphi; and when. Rome and Carthage have had, each in ever he had resolved to give battle, used her turn, the enemy at her gates. But to embrace it in sight of the soldiers, and since errors past may be more easily blamed beg the speedy confirmation of its pro- than corrected, let it now be the work of mises to him. From an uninterrupted you and me to put an end, if posible, to course of success and prosperity, he as the obstinate contention. For my own famed a surname, unknown before to the part, my years, and the experience. I Romans, of Felix, or the Fortunate; and have had' of the instability of fortune, inwould have been fortunate indeed, says clines me to leave nothing to her deterVelleius, if his life had ended with his mination, which reason can decide. But vi&ories. Pliny calls it a wicked title, much I fear, Scipio, that your youth, drawn from the blood and oppression of your want of the like experience, your his country; for which posterity would uninterrupted success, may render you think him more unfortunate, even than averse from the thoughts of peace. He those whom he had put to death. He whom fortune has never failed, rarely had one felicity, however, peculiar to reflects upon her inconstancy. Yet, with himself, of being the only man in history, out recurring to former examples, my own in whom the odium of the most barbarous may perhaps suffice to teach you moderacruelties was extinguished by the glory of tion. I am that same Hannibal
, who his great acts. Cicero, though he had a after my victory at Cannæ, became master good opinion of his cause, yet derefted of the greatest part of your country, and the inhumanity of his victory, and never deliberated with myself what fate I should speaks of him with respect, nor of his decree to Italy and Rome. And now government but as a proper tyranny; see the change! Here, in Africa, I am calling him, “ a master of three molt pef- come to treat with a Roman, for my own “ tilent vices, luxury, avarice, cruelty.” preservation and my country's, Such He was the first of his family whose dead are the sports of fortune. Is she then body was burnt; for, having ordered Ma. to be trusted because the smiles! An adrias's remains to be taken out of his grave, vantageous peace is preferable to the and thrown into the river Anio, he was hope of victory: The one is in your own apprehensive of the same insult upon his power, the other at the pleasure of the own, if left to the usual way of burial. gods. Should you prove victorious, it A little before his death, he made his own would add little to your own glory, or epitaph, the sum of which was, “ that no the glory of your country; if vanquished, “ man had ever gone beyond him, in do. you lose in one hour all the honour and " ing good to his friends, or hurt to his reputation you have been so many years * enemies."
Middleton. acquiring. But what is my aim in all
this?--that you should content yourself 17. HANNIBAL 10 Scipio AFRICA- with our ceffion of Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, NUS, at their Interview preceding the aid all the islands between Italy and Battle of Zama.
Africa. A peace on these conditions will, Since fate has so ordained it, that I, in my opinion, not only secure the future who began the war, and who have been tranquillity of Carthage, but be fufficiently so often on the point of ending it by a glorious for you, and for the Roman name,
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And do not tell me, that some of our citi. § 19. The Character of POMPEY. zens dealt fraudulently with you in the late
Pompey had early acquired the surtreaty—it is I, Hannibal, that now ask a
name of the Great, by that sort of merit peace: I ask it, because I think it expedient which, from the constitution of the refor my country; and, thinking it expedient, public, necessarily made him great; a I will inviolably maintain it.
fame and success in war, superior to what Hooke.
Rome had ever known in the most cele.
brated of her generals. He had tri§ 18. Scipio's Answer. umphed, at three several times, over the
three different parts of the known world, I knew very well, Hannibal, that it was Europe, Asia, Africa; and by his victories the hope of your return which emboldened had almost doubled the extent, as well as the Carthaginians to break the truce with the revenues of the Roman dominion; us, and to lay aside all thoughts of a for, as he declared to the people on his peace, when it was just upon the point of return from the Mithridatic war, he had being concluded; and your present pro- found the lesser Asia the boundary, but posal is a proof of it. You retrench from left it the middle of their empire. He their concessions every thing but what we was about six years older than Cæsar; are, and have been long possessed of. and while Cæsar, immersed in pleasures, But as it is your care that your fellow- oppreffed with debts, and suspected by citizens should have the obligations to you, all honelt men, was hardly able to thew of being eased from a great part of their his head, Pompey was flourishing in the burden, so it ought to be mine that they height of power and glory; and, by the draw no advantage from their perfidiouts content of all parties, placed at the head ness. Nobody is more sensible than I am of the republic. This was the polt that of the weakness of man, and the power of his ambition seemed to aim at, to be the fortune, and that whatever we enterprize first man in Rome; the leader, not the is subject to a thoufand chances. If, be- tyrant of his country; for he more than fore the Romans passed into Africa, you once had it in his power to have made had of your own accord quitted Italy, and himself the master of it without any risk, made the offers you now make, I believe if his virtue, or his phlegm at least
, had they would not have been rejected. But not restrained him: but he lived in a peras you lave been forced out of Italy, and petual expectation of recviving from the we are masters here of the open country, gift of the people, what he did not care the fituation of things is much altered. to seize by force; and, by fomenting the And, what is chiefly to be considered, the disorders of the city, hoped to drive them Carthaginians, by the late trenty which we to the neceflity of creating him di&tator. entered into at their request, were, over It is an observation of all the hisorians, and above what you offer, to have restored that while Cæfar made no differerce of to us our prisoners without ransom, de- power, whether it was conferred or usurplivered up their thips of war, paid us five ed, whether over those who loved, or thcusand talents, and to have given hof- those who feared him; Pompey seemed to tages for the performance of all. The value none but what was offered; nor to senare accepted these conditions, but Car- have any desire to govern, but with the thage failed on her part; Carthage de- gocd-will of the governed. What leisure ceived us. What then is to be done? Are he found from his wars, he employed in tho Carthaginians to be released from the the ftudy of polite leiters, and especially most important articles of the treaty, as of eloquence, in which he would have a reward of their breach of faith? No, acquired great fame, if his genius had certainly. If, to the conditions before not drawn liim to the more dazzling glory agreed upon, you had added fome new
of arms; yet he pleaded several caules articles to our advantage, there would with applause, in the defence of his friends have been matter of reference to the and clients; and some of them in con. Roman people; but when, instead of add- junction with Cicero. His larguage was ing, you retrench, there is no room for copious and elevated; his sentimenis just; delibera:ion. The Carthaginians there. his voice sweet; his action roble, and full fcre must submit to us at discretion, or of dignity. But his talents were better mult vanquish us in battle.
formed for arms than. the
for Hooke. though in both he observed the fame dif
cipline, a perpetual modefty, temperance, Pharfalia, was forced to confess, that he and gravity of outward behaviour; yet in had trusted too much to his hopes; and the licence of camps the example was that Cicero had judged better, and seen more rare and striking. His perfon was farcher into things than be. The resoextremely graceful, and imprinting re- lution of seeking refuge in Egypt fiaihed speet; yet with an air of reserved haugh- the fad catastrophe of this great man; tinels, which became the general better the father of the reigning prince had been than the citizen. His parts were plau. highly obliged to him for his protection at fible, rather than great; specious, rather Roine, and restoration to his kingdom: than penetrating; and his views of politics and the son had sent a coolilerabie fieel to but narrow; for his chief instrument of his assistance in the present war: but in this governing was diflimulation ; yet he had ruin of his fortunes, what gratitude was not always the art to conceal his real there to be expected from a court governed sentiments. As he was a better soldier by eunuclis and mercenary Greeks ? all than a statesman, so what he gained in whose policics turned, not on the honour the camp he usually lost in the city; and of the king, but the establihment of their though adored when abroad, was often own power; which was likely to be eclipsed affronted and mortified at home, till the by the admifiion of Pompey. How happy imprudent opposition of the Senate drove had it been for him to have died in that him to that alliance with Cratius and sickness, when all Italy was pucting up Cæfar, which proved fatal both to himself vows and prayers for his safety! or, if he and the republic. He took in these two, had fallen by the chance of war, on the not as the partners, but the ministers plains of Pharsalia, in the defence of his rather of his power; that by giving them country's liberty, he had died ftill glorious, fome share with him, he might make his though unfortunate; but, as if he had been own authority uncontrollable: - he had no reserved for an example of the instability reason to apprehend that they could ever of human greatness, he, who a few days prove his rivals; fince neither of them before commanded kings and consuls, and had any credit or chara&er of that kind, all the noblest of Rome, was sentenced which alone could raise them above the to die by a council of ilaves; murdered laws; a superior fame and experience in by a bale deserter; cait out naked and war, with the militia of the empire ac headless on the Egyptian ftrand; and their devotion: all this was purely his when the whole earth, as Velleius says, own; till, by cherishing Cæsar, and throw. had scarce been sufficient for his viétories, ing into his hands the only thing which could not find a spot upon it at last for a he wanted, arms, and military command, grave. His body was burnt on the shore he made him at last too itrong for him- by one of his freed-men, with the planks self, and never began to fear him till it of an old filhing-boat; and his ahes, was too late. Cicero warmly dissuaded being conveyed to Rome, were deposited both his union and his breach with Cæsar; privately, by his wife Cornelia, in a vault and after the rupture, as warmly ftill, the by his alban villa. The Egyptians howthought of giving him battle : if any of ever raised a monument to him on the these counsels had been followed, Pompey place, and adorned it with figures of brass, had preferved his life and honour, and which being defaced afterwards by time, the republic its liberty. But he was urged and buried almost in sand and rubbish, was to bis fate by a natural superstition, and fought out, and restored by the cmperor attention to those vain auguries, with Hadrian. which he was flattered by all the Harul
Middleton. pices : he had seen the same temper in Marius and Sylla, and observed the happy 20. Submifion; Complaint; Intrcatingeffects of it: but they assumed it only out
The Speech et SENECA the Philosopher 10 of policy, he out of principle: they used
Nero, complaining of the Envy of his it to animate their soldiers, when they had
Enemies, and requesting the Emperor to found a probable opportunity of fighting :
reduce him back to his former narrow but he, against all prudence and proba
Circumstances, that he might no longer be bility, was encouraged by it to fight to his
an Object of their Malignity. own ruin. He saw his mistakes at last, May it please the imperial majesty of when it was out of his power to correct Cæsar, favourably to accept the huinble them; and in his wretched fight from submitions and grateful acknowledgments
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