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of the weak though faithful guide of his would kindly ease me of the trouble of my youth.
unwieldy wealth. I beseech him to restore It is now a great many years since I to the imperial treasury, from whence it first had the honour of attending your came, what is to me superfluous and cumimperial majesty as i receptor. And your brous. The time and the attention, which bounty has rewarded my labours with such I am now obliged to beltow upon my villa aihuence, as has drawn upon me, what I and my gardens, I shall be glad to apply to had reason to expect, the envy of inany of the regulation of my mind. Cæsar is in those persons, who are always ready to the flower of life ; long may he be equal prescribe to their prince where to beítow, to the toils of government ! 'His goodness and where to withhold his favours. It will grant to his worn-out servant leave to is well known, that your illustrious an retire. It will not be derogatory from cellor, Auguftus, bestowed on his deserv- Cæsar's greatness to have it said, that he ing favourites, Agrippa and Mæcenas, ho- bestowed favours on some, who, so far from nours and emoluments, suitable to the dig- being intoxicated with them, shewed nity of the benefactor, and to the services that they could be happy, when (at their of ihe receivers: nor has his conduét been
own request) diverted of them. blamed. My employment about your im
Corn. Tacit. perial majeity has, indeed, been purely domestic: I have either headed your § 21. Speech of CHARIDEMUS, an Ac armies, nor afitted at your councils. But THENIAN Exile at the Court of Da, you know, Sir, (though there are soine who RIUS, 01 being alked his Opinion of the do not seem to attend to it) that a prince warlike Preparations making by that Prince may be served in different ways, some against ALEXANDER. more, others less conspicuous: and that
Perhaps your Majesty may not bear the the latter may be to him as valuable as the truth from the mouth of a Grecian, and an former.
exile: and if I do not declare it now, I “ But what!” say my enemies, “ shall
never will, perhaps I may never have “ a private person, of equestrian rank, another opportunity. - Your Majesty's “ and a provincial by birth, be advanced
numerous army, drawn from various na“ to an equality with the patricians ? Shall tions, and which unpeoples the east, may “ an upilart, of no name nor family, rank seem formidable to the neighbouring á with those who can, by the statues which countries. The gold, the purple, and the “ make the ornament of their palaces, splendour of arms, which strike the eyes of “ reckon backward a line of ancestors, beholders, make a show which surpasies the
long enough to tire out the fafti*? Shall imagination of all who have not seen it. “ a philosopher who has written for others The Macedonian army, with which your
precepts of moderation, and contempt Majesty's forces are going to contend, is, " of all that is external, himfeif live in
on the contrary, grim, and horrid of af. “ afluence and luxury? Shall he purchase pect, and clad in iron. The irrefikible “ estates and lay out money, at intereft? phalanx is a body of men who, in the “ Shall he build palaces, plant gardens, field of battle, fear no onset, being prac; “ and adorn a country at his own expence, tised to hold together, man to man, ihield « and for his own pleasure?” Cæfar has given royally, as became brazen wall might as soon be broke
to shield, and 1pear to spear; so that a imperial magnificence. Seneca has re- through. In advancing, in wheeling to ceived what his prince bestowed; nor did right or left, in attacking, in every exerhe ever ask : he is only guilty of not cite of arms, they act as one man. They refusing, Cæfar's rank places him above answer the fightest sign from the comthe reach of invidious malignity. Seneca mander, as if his soul animated the whole is not, nor can be, high enough to despise army. Every soldier has a knowledge the envious. As the overloaded soldier, of war fufficient for a general. And this or traveller, would be glad to be relieved discipline, by which the Macedonian army of his burden, so 1, in this last stage of the is become lo formidable, was first eftajourney of life, now that I find myself un blished, and has been all along kept up, equal to the rightest cares, beg, that Cæfarby a fixed contempt of what your Ma.
The fafti, or calendars, or, if you please, als jetty's troops are fo vain of, I mean gold manacks, of the ancients, had, as our almanacks, and silver. The bare earth serves them tables of kings, contuls, &c.
for beds. Whatever will satisfy nature,
is their luxury. Their repose is always his friends, he should draw praises from the shorter than the night. Your Majesty same fountain from which he had been may, therefore, judge, whether the Thel- aspersed. His capital paflions were amfalian, Acarnanian and Ætolian cavalry, bition, and love of pleasure ; which he inand the Macedonian phalanx-an army dulged in their turns to the greatest exthat has, in spite of all opposition, over- cess; yet the first was always predominant; run half the world are to be repelled by to which he could easily sacrifice all the a multitude (however numerous) armed charms of the second, and draw pleasure with slings, and stakes hardened at the even from toils and dangers, when they points by fire. To be upon equal terms ministered to his glory. For he thought with Alexander, your Majesty ought to Tyranny, as Cicero says, the greatest of have an army composed of the same sort goddesses; and had frequently in his mouth of troops : and they are no where to be a verse of Euripides, which expressed the had, but in the fame countries which pro- image of his soul, that if right and justice duced those conquerors of the world. It were ever to be violated, they were to be is therefore my opinion, that, if your Ma- violated for the sake of reigning. This jefty were to apply the gold and silver, was the chief end and purpose of his life; which now fo fuperfluously adorns your the scheme that he had formed from his men, to the purpose of hiring an army early youth; so that, as Cato truly defrom Greece, to contend with Greeks, you clared of him, he came with sobriety and might have some chance for success; other meditation to the subversion of the repubwile I see no reason to expect any thing lic. He used to say, that there were two else, than that your army Ihould be de- things necessary, to acquire and to supfeated, as all the others have been who port power-soldiers and money ; which have encountered the irresistible Macedo- yet depended mutually upon each other ; nians.
2. Curtius, with money therefore he provided fol.
diers, and with soldiers extorted money; § 22. The Charakter of Julius CÆSAR. and was, of all men, the most rapacious
Cæsar was endowed with every great in plundering both friends and foes; fpar. and noble quality, that could exalt human ing neither prince, nor state, nor temple, nature, and give a man che ascendant in nor even private persons, who were known society; formed to excel in peace, as well to possess any share of treasure. His great as war; provident in council; fearless in abilities would necessarily have made him a&ion; and executing what he had re one of the first citizens of Rome; but, diffolved with an amazing celerity : gene- daining the condition of a subject, he could rous beyond measure to his friends; pla- never rest, till he made himself a monarch. cable to his enemies; and for parts, learn- In acting this last part, his usual prudence ing, eloquence, scarce inferior to any man. seemed to fail him ; as if the height to His orations were admired for two quali. which he was mounted had turned his ties, which are seļdom found together, head, and made him giddy: for, by a vain trength and elegance; Cicero ranks him oftencation of his power, he destroyed the among the greatest orators that Rome ftability of it: and as men shorten' life by ever bred; and Quinctilian says, that he living too fast, fo by an intemperance of spoke with the same force with which he reigning, he brought his reign to a viofought; and if he had devoted himself to lent end.
Middleton. the bar, would have been the only man capable of rivalling Cicero. Nor was he $ 23. CALISTHENES's Reproof of CLE. a master only of the politer arts; but on's Flattery 10 ALEXANDER, on whom conversant also with the most abstruse and he had proposed to confer Divinity by critical parts of learning; and, among Vote. other works which he published, addressed two books to Cicero, on the analogy of If the king were present, Cleon, there language, or the art of speaking and writ. would be no need of my answering to what ing corre&ly. He was a most liberal pa- you have just proposed': he would himself tron of wit and learning, wheresoever they reprove you for endeavouring to draw him were found ; and out of his love of those into an imitation of foreign absurdities, talents, would readily pardon those who and for bringing envy upon him by such had employed them against himself; right- unmanly flattery. As he is absent, í take ly judging, that by making such men upon me to tell you, in his name, that no
praise is lafting, but what is rational ; and public. This was his general behaviour ; that you do what you can to lessen his yet from some particular facts, it appears glory, instead of adding to it. Heroes that his strength of mind was not always have never, ainong us, been deified till impregnable, but had its weak places of after their death; and, whatever may be pride, ambition, and party zeal : which, your way of thinking, Cleon, for my part, when managed and flattered to a certain I wish the king may not, for many years point, would betray him sometimes into to come, obtain that honour.
measures contrary to his ordinary rule of You have mentioned, as precedents of right and truth. The last act of his life what you propose, Hercules and Bacchus. was agreeable to his nature and philolo. Do you imagine, Cleon, that they were phy: when he could no longer be what he deified over a cup of wine? and are you had been; or when the ills of life overand I qualified to make god? Is the balanced the good, which, by the princiking, our sovereign, to receive his divinity ples of his fect, was a just cause for dying; from and me, who are his fubjects? he put an end to his life with a spirit and First try your power, whether you can resolution which would make one imagine, make a king. It is, surely, easier to make that he was glad to have found an occasion a king than a god; to give an earthly do. of dying in his proper character. On the minion, than a throne in heaven. I only whole, his life was rather admirable than with that the gods may have heard, with- amiable; fit to be praised, rather than iniiout offence, the arrogant proposal you tated.
Middleton. have made of adding one to their number; and that they may ftill be fo propitions to $ 25. Brutus's Speech in Vindicatien of us, as to grant the continuance of that
CÆSAR's Miura'er. success to our affairs with which they have hitherto favoured us. For my part,
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! not ashamed of my country; nor do I ap- Hear me, for my cause; and be filent, that prove of our adopting the rites of foreign you may hear. Believe me, for mine honations, or learning from them how we nour; and have respect to mine honour, ought to reverence our kings. To receive that you may believe. Cenfure me, in laws or rules of conduct from them, what your wisdom; and awake your senses, that is it but to confess ourselves inferior to you may the better judge. them?
If there be any in this assembly, any
dear friend of Cziar's, to him I say, that § 24. The Character of CATO.
Brutus's love to Cæsar was no less than his.
If, then, that friend demand why Brutus If we consider the character of Cato rose againit Cæsar? this is my answer, without prejudice, he was certainly a great Not that I loved Cæsar less, but that I and worthy man; a friend to truth, virtue, loved Rome more. Had you rather Cæsar liberty; yet, falsely measuring all dusy by were, and die all slaves; than that Cæfar the absurd rigour of the tłoical rule, he were dead, to live all freemen? As Cæsar was generally disappointed of the end loved me, I weep for him; as he was forwhich he fought by it, the happiness both tunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, of his private and public life. In his pri- I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I vate conduct he was severe, morose, inex. New him. There are tears for his love, orable; banishing all the fofter affections, joy for his fortune, honour for his valour, as naiural enemies to justice, and as sug- and death for his ambition. Who's here gesting false motives of acting, from tà- so base, that would be a bond-man?-1f vour, clemency, and compaflion: in public any, speak; for him have I offended. affairs he was the same; had but one rule Who's here fo rude, that would not be a ef policy, to adhere to what was right, Roman ?-If any, speak; for him have. I without regard to time or circumstances, offended. Who's here so vile, that will or even to a force that could controul him; not love his country? If any, speak; for, instead of managing the power of the for him have I offended. I pause for a great, so as to mitigate the ill, or extract reply: any good from it, he was urging it always None? -Then none have I offended. to acts of violence by a perpetual defance; I have done no more to Cæsar, than you so that, with the best intentions in the hould do to Prutus. The quellion of his world, he often did great harm to the re death is inrolled in the capitol; his glory
the behaviour of thole who stand candidates where would be the wisdom of giving fuch for places of power and truit, before and a command to one of their honourable
not extenuated, wherein he was worthy; after their obtaining them. They solicit nor his offences inforced, for which he them in one manner, and execute them in fuffered death.
another. They set out with a great apHere comes his body, mourned by Mark pearance of activity, humility, and modera. Antony; who, though he had no hand in tion; and they quickly fall into Noth, pride, his death, shall receive the benefit of his and avarice. It is, undoubtedly, no easy dying, a place in the common-wealth; as, matter to discharge, to the general fatiswhich of you shall not? With this I depart faction, the duty of a supreme commander, --That
, as I flew my best lover for the in troublesome times. I am, I hope, duly good of Rome, I have the same dagger sensible of the importance of the office s for myself, when it shall please my country propose to take upon me for the service of to need
Shakespeare. my country. To carry on, with effect, an § 26. A Comparison of Cæsar with Caro. expensive war, and yet be frugal of the $ 26. A Comparison of CÆSAR with Cato. public money; to oblige those to serve,
As to their extraction, years, and elo- whom it may be delicate to offend; to quence, they were pretty nigh equal. Both conduct, at the same time, a complicated of them had the lame greatness of mind, variety of operations; to concert measures both the same degree of glory, but in dif- at home, answerable to the state of things
ways: Cæsar was celebrated for his abroad; and to gain every valuable end, great bounty and generosity; Cato for his in spite of opposition from the envious, the unfullied integrity: the former became re- factious, and the disaffected to do all this, nowned by his humanity and compassion; my countrymen, is more dificult than is an auftere severity heightened the dignity generally thought. of the latter. Cæfar acquired glory by a
But belides the disadvantages which are liberal, compassionate, and forgiving tem common to me with all others in emis per; as did Cato, by never beltowing any nent stations, my case is, in this respect, pething. In the one, the miserable found a culiarly hard that whereas a commander fanctuary; in the other, the guilty met of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of a newith a certain destruction. Cæsar was ad- glect or breach of duty, has his great conmired for an eafy yielding temper; Cato nections, the antiquity of his family, the for his immoveablé firmness; Cæsar, in a important services of his ancestors, and the word, had formed himself for a laborious multitudes he has, by power, engaged in active life; was intenc upon promoting the his interest, to screen him from condign interest of his friends, to the neglect of his punishment, my whole safety depends own; and refused to grant nothing that was upon myself; which renders it the more worth accepting; what he desired for him indispensably neceflary for me to take care felf, was to have fovereign command, to be that my condu&t be clear and unexceptionat the head of armies, and engaged in new
able. Besides, I am well aware, my counwars, in order to display his military la. trymen, that the eye of the public is upon lents. As for Cato, his only study was me; and that, though the impartial, who moderation, regular conduct, and, above prefer the real advantage of the commons all
, rigorous feverity: he did not vie with wealth to all other considerations, favour
Salluft, by Mr. Roje. with toils and with dangers. I was faith-
ful to your interest, my countrymen, when jbewing the Absurdity of their belitating honour. It is not my design to betray you, to confer on bim the Rank of General, now that you have conferred upon me a kerely on Account of his Extraction.
place of profit. You have committed to It is but too common, my countrymen, my conduct the war against Jugurtha. to observe a material difference between The Patricians are offended at this
body ? a person of illustrious birth, of an- of their ancestors : and they imagine they cient family, of innumerable statues, but honour themselves by celebrating their -of no experience! What service would forefathers; whereas they do the very conhis long line of dead ancestors, or his mul- trary: for, as much as their ancestors were titude of motionless statues, do his coun- distinguished for their virtues, so much are try in the day of battle? What could such they disgraced by their vices. The glory a general do, but in his trepidation and in- of ancestors casts a light, indeed, upon their experience, have recourse to some inferior pofterity; but it only serves to fhew what commander, for direction in difficulties to the descendants are. It alike exhibits to which he was not himself equal? Thus public view their degeneracy and their your Patrician general would, in fact, have worth. I own, I cannot boast of the deeds a general over him; so that the acting of my forefathers; but I hope I may an. commander would still be a Plebeian. So swer the cavils of the Patricians, by standtrue is this, my countrymen, that I have, ing up in defence of what I have myself myself, known those who have been chosen done. consuls, begin then to read the history of Observe now, my countrymen, the in their own country, of which, till that justice of the Patricians. They arrogate time, they were totally ignorant; that is, to themselves honours, on account of the they first obtained the employment, and exploits done by their forefathers; whilft then bethought themselves of the qualifi- they will not allow me the due praise, for cations necessary for the proper discharge performing the very same sort of actions in of it.
my own person. He has no ftatues, they I submit to your judgment, Romans, on cry, of his family. He can trace no ve. which fide the advantage lies, when a nerable line of ancestors. What then? comparison is made between Patrician Is it matter of more praise to disgrace haughtiness and Plebeian experience. The one's illuftrious ancestors, than to become very actions, which they have only read, I illustrious by one's own good behaviour? have partly seen, and partly myself atchiev. What if I can shew no ftatues of my faed. What they know by reading, I know mily! I can shew the standards, the ar. by action. They are pleased to flight my mour, and the trappings, which I have mymean birth; I despise their mean charac- felf taken from the vanquished: I can hew ters. Want of birth and fortune is the ob- the scars of those wounds which I have rejection against me; want of personal worth ceived by facing the enemies of my counagainst them. But are not all men of the try. These are my statues. These are the jame species? What can make a difference honours I boast of. Not left me by inhebetween one man and another, but the en ritance, as theirs : but earned by toil, by dowments of the mind ? For my part, abstinence, by valour; amidst clouds of I Thall always look upon the bravest man as duit, and seas of blood : scenes of action, the noblest man. Suppose it were enquir- where those effeminate Patricians, who ened of the fathers of such Patricians as Al- deavour by indirect means to depreciate binus and Bestia, whether, if they had their me in your esteem, have never dared to choice, they would defire sons of their cha- shew their faces.
Salluft. racter, or of mine ; what would they an. fwer but that they should with the worthi
$ 28. The Character of CATALINE. est to be their sons? If the Patricians have Lucius Cataline was descended of an ilreason to despise me, let them likewise lustrious family: he was a man of great despise their ancestors; whose nobility was vigour, both of body and mind, but of a the fruit of their virtue. Do they envy disposition extremely profligate and de. the honours bestowed upon me ? Let them praved. From his youth he took pleasure envy likewise, my labours, my abstinence, in civil wars, massacres, depredations, and and the dangers I have undergone for my intestine broils; and in these he employed country, by which I have acquired them. his younger days. His body was formed But those worthless men lead such a life of for enduring cold, hunger, and want of inactivity, as if they despised any honours reit, to a degree indeed incredible: his you can bestow, whilst they aspire to ho- spirit was daring, subtle, and changeable: nours as if they had deserved them by the he was expert in all the arts of fimulation most industrious virtue. They lay claim and diflimulation; covetous of what be. to the rewards of activity, for their having longed to others, lavish of his own;
vioenjoyed the pleasures of luxury; yet none lent in his passions; he had eloquence can be mo. e lavish than they arc in praise enough, but a linall share of wisdom. His