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ing this resemblance, a delicacy of taste is with him into a solid friendship, and the as much to be desired and cultivated as a ardours of a youthful appetite into an eledelicacy of palfion is to be lamented, and gant passion.
Hume's Esays. to be remedied if poslible. The good or ill accidents of life are very little at our
$54. Detraction a detefiable Vice. disposal; but we are preity much matters
It has been remarked, that men are gewhat books we shall read, what diversions nerally kind in proportion as they are hapwe shall partake of, and what company we
py; and it is said, even of the devil, that thall keep. Philosophers have endeavour- he is good-humoured when he is pleased. ed to render happiness entirely indepen- Every act, therefore, by which another is dent of every thing external that is im- injured, from whatever inotive, contraéts pollible to be attained: but every wise man
more guilt and expreffes greater maligniwill endeavour to place his happinefs on ty, if it is committed in those feasons which such objects as depend most upon himself; are set apart to pleasantry and good huand that is not to be attained so much by mour, and brightened with enjoyments any other means, as by this delicacy of ser- peculiar to rational and social beings. timent. When a man is possessed of that. Detraction is among those vices which talent, he is more happy by what pleases the most languid virtue has fufficient force his tafte, chan by what gratifies his appe.' to prevent; because by detraction that is tites; and receives more enjoyment from
not gained which is taken away. “ He a poem or a piece of reasoning, than the who filches from me my good name,” says most expensive luxury can afford.
Shakesp-are, “ enriches not himself, but
makes me poor indeed.” As nothing That it reaches us to fele&t our Company. therefore degrades human nature more
Delicacy of tafte is favourable to love than detraion, nothing more di graces and friendihip, by confining our choice to conversation. The detractor, as he is the few people, and making us indifferent to lowelt moral character, reflects greater difthe company and conversation of the great- horour upon his company, than the hangest part of men. You will very feldom man; and he whose disposition is a scandal find that mere men of the world, whatever to his species, should be more diligently strong sense they may be endowed with, avoided, than he who is scandalous only are very nice in diftinguishing of charac- by his offence. ters, or in marking those intensible diffe But for this practice, however vile, some rences and gradations which make one man have dared to apologize, by contending the preferable to another. Any one that has report, by which they injured an absent competent sense, is sufficient for their en- character, was true: this, however, amounts tertainment: they talk to him of their plea- to no more than that they have not comfures and affairs with the same frankness plicated malice with fallhood, and that as they would to any other; and finding there is some difference between detracmany who are fit to supply his place, they tion and flander. To relate all the ill that never feel any vacancy or want in his ab- is true of the bett man in the world, would sence. But, to make use of the allusion of probably render him the object of suspicion a famous French author, the judgment may and distrust; and was this practice univerbe compared to a clock or watch, where fal, mutual confidence and esteem, the the molt ordinary machine is sufficient to comforts of society, and the endearments tell the hours; but the most elaborate and of friendship, would be at an end. artificial can only point the minutes and There is something unspeakably more seconds, and dilinguish the smallest diffe- hateful in those-species of villainy by which rences of time. One who has well digested the law is evaded, than those by which it is his knowledge both of books and men, has violated and defiled. Courage has somelittle enjoyment but in the company of a times preserved rapacity from abhorrence, few sele&t companions. He feels too fen- as beauty has been thought to apologize fibly how much all the rest of mankind fall for prostitution; but the injustice of cowshort of the notions which he has entertain- ardice is universally abhorred, and, like the ed; and his affections being thus confined lewdness of deformity, has no advocate. within a narrow circle, no wonder he car. Thus hateful are the wretches who detract ries them furcher than if they were more with caution, and while they perpetrate the general and undistinguihed. The gaiety wrong, are solicitous to avoid the reproach. and frolis of a bottle companion improves They do not say, that Chloe forfeited her
honour to Lysander ; but they say, that which few can understand or value, and by such a report has been spread, they know skill which they may sink into the grave not how true. Those who propagate these without any conspicuous opportunities of reports, frequently invent them; and it is exerting. Raphael
, in return to Adam's no breach of charity to fuppose this to be enquiries into the courses of the stars and. always the case; because no man who the revolutions of heaven, counsels him to (preads detraction would have scrupled to withdraw his mind from idle speculations, produce ir: and he who should diffuse poi. and, instead of watching motions which he fon in a brook, would scarce be acquitted has no power to regulate, to employ his of a malicious design, though he should faculties upon nearer and more interesting alledge, that he received it of another who objects, the survey of his own life, the subis doing the same elsewhere.
jection of his passions, the knowledge of Whatever is incompatible with the highest duties which muit daily be performed, and dignity of our nature, should indeed be ex the detection of dangers which must daily cluded from our conversation : as compa- be incurred. nions, not only that which we owe to our This angelic counsel every man of letters felves but to others, is required of us; and should always have before him. He that they who can indulge any vice in the pre- devotes himself wholly to retired study, sence of each other, are become obdurate in naturally finks from omission to forgetfulguilt, and insensible to infamy. Rambler. ness of social duties, and from which he
must be sometimes awakened, and recalled $ 55. Learning should be sometimes applied to the general condition of mankind, to cultivate our Morals,
Ibid. Envy, curiosity, and our sense of the imperfection of our present state, inclines
Its Progress. us always to estimate the advantages which It had been observed by the ancients, are in the possession of others above their That all the arts and sciences arose among real value. Every one must have remarked free nations; and that the Persians and what powers and prerogatives the vulgar Egyptians, notwithstanding all their ease, imagine to be conferred by learning. A opulence, and luxury, made but faint efman of science is expected to excel the un forts towards those finer pleasures, which lettered and unenlightened, even on occa were carried to such perfection by the fions where literature is of no use, and Greeks, amidst continual wars, attended among weak minds loses part of his rever- with poverty, and the greatest fimplicity of ence by discovering no superiority in those life and manners. It had also been obparts of life, in which all are unavoidably served, that as soon as the Greeks loft their equal ; as when a monarch makes a pro- liberty, though they encreased mightily in gress to the remoter provinces, the rusticks riches, by the means of the conquests of are said sometimes to wonder that they find Alexander; yet the arts, from that moment, him of the same size with themselves. declined among them, and have never since
These demands of prejudice and folly been able to raise their head in that climate, can never be satisfied, and therefore many Learning was transplanted to Rome, the of the imputations which learning suffers only free nation at that time in the universe; from disappointed ignorance, are without and having met with so favourable a soil, it reproach. Yet it cannot be denied, that made prodigious shoots for above a century; there are some failures to which men of till the decay of liberty produced also a study are peculiarly exposed. Every con- decay of letters, and spread a total bar. dition has its disadvantages. The circle of barism over the world. From these two knowledge is too wide for the most active experiments, of which each was double in and diligent intellect, and while science is its kind, and shewed the fall of learning.in pursued with ardour, other accomplish- despotic governments, as well as its rise ments of equal use are necessarily neglect. in popular ones, Longinus thought himself ed; as a small garrison must leave one part fufficiently justified in asserting, that the arts of an extensive fortress naked, when an and sciences could never flourish but in a free alarm calls them to another.
government; and in this opinion he has The learned, however, might generally been followed by several eminent writers in support their dignity with more fuccefs, if our country, who either confined their view they suffered not themselves to be milled merely to ancient falts, or entertained too by superfluous attainnients of qualification great a partiality in favour of that form of
government which is establihed amongst try, have been so much occupied in the
great disputes of religion, politics, and phiBut what would these writers have said to losophy, that they had no relish for the mithe instances of modern Rome and Flo- nute observations of grammar and criticism. rence? Of which the former carried to And though this turn of thinking must have perfection all the finer arts of sculpture, considerably improved our sense and our painting, and music, as well as poetry, talent of reasoning beyond those of other though they groaned under slavery, and nations, it must be confeft
, that even in under the Navery of prieits : while the latter those sciences above mentioned, we have made the greatest progress in the arts not any standard book which we can transand sciences, after they began to lose their mit to pofterity : and the utmost we have liberty by the usurpations of the family of to boast of, are a few eslays towards a more Medicis. Ariosto, Taffo, Galilæo, no more juít philosophy : which, indeed, promise than Raphael and Michael Angelo, were very much, but have not, as yet, reached not born in republics. And though the any degree of perfection. Lombard school was famous as well as the Roman, yet the Venetians have had the
Useless without Tafe. smallest share in its honours, and seem ra. A man may know exactly all the circles ther inferior to the Italians in their genius and ellipses of the Copernican fyftem, and for the arts and sciences. Rubens eftab- all the irregular spirals of the Ptolemaic, lished his school at Antwerp, not at Amster- without perceiving that the former is more dam ; Dresden, not Hamburgh, is the cen beautiful than the latter. Euclid has very tre of politeness in Germany,
fully explained every quality of the circle, But the most eminent instance of the but has not, in any propofition, said a word flourishing state of learning in despotic go- of its beauty. The reason is evident. Beauvernments, is that of France, which scarce ty is not a quality of the circle. It lies not ever enjoyed an established liberty, and yet in any part of the line, whose parts are all has carried the arts and sciences as near equally diftant from a common centre. IC perfection as any other nation. The En- is only the effect which that figure operates glish are, perhaps, better philosophers; upon the mind, whose particular fabric or the Italians better painters and musicians : structure renders it susceptible of such senthe Romans were better orators; but the timents. In vain would you look for it French are the only people, except the in the circle, or seek it, either by your Greeks, who have been at once philofo- senses, or by mathematical reasonings, in phers, poets, orators, historians, painters, all the properties of that figure. architects, sculptors, and musicians. With The mathematician, who took no other regard to the stage, they have excelled even pleasure in reading Virgil but that of exthe Greeks, who have far excelled the En- amining Eneas's voyage by the map, night glish: and in common life they have in a understand perfectly the meaning of every great measure perfected that art, the most Latin word employed by that divine auuseful and agreeable of any, l'art de vivre, thor, and consequently might have a dirthe art of society and conversation. tinct idea of the whole narration; he would
If we consider the state of sciences and even have a more diftin& idea of it, than polite arts in our country, Horace's obses- they could have who had not studied so exvation with regard to the Romans, may, in actly the geography of the poem. He knew, a great measure, be applied to the Btitish, therefore, every thing in the poem. But Sed in longum tomen vum
he was ignorant of its beauty ; because the Manserunt, hodieque manent veftigia ruris. beauty, properly speaking, lies not in the The elegance and propriety of stile have poem, but the sentiment or taste of the been very much neglected among us. We reader. And where a man has no such dehave no di&tionary of our language, and licacy of temper as to make him feel this Icarce a tolerable grammar. The first po
sentiment, he must be ignorant of the beaulite prose we have, was wrote by a man who ty, though possessed of the science and unis still alive. As to Sprat, Locke, and even derstanding of an angel. Hume's Ejays. Temple, they knew too little of the rules of art to be efteemed very elegant writers.
Its Obftru&tions. The prose of Bacon, Harrington, and Mil So many hindrances may obstruct the ton, is altogether stiff and pedantic; though acquitition of knowledge, that there is little their sense be excellent. Men in this coun. reaton for wondering that it is in a few
hands. To the greater part of mankind Look out of your door, take notice of the duties of life are inconsistent with much that man; see what disquieting, intriguing, ftudy, and the hours which they would and shifting, he is content to go through, spend upon letters must be stolen from their merely to be thought a man of plain-deal. occupations and their families. Many fuf- ing:three grains of honesty would save fer themselves to be lured by more sprightly him all this trouble :---alas! he has and luxurious pleasures from the shades of them not. contemplation, where they find feldom more Behold a second, under a fhew of picty than a calm delight, such as, though greater hiding the impurities of a debauched life: than all others, if its certainty and its dura - he is just entering the house of God: tion be reckoned with its power of gratifi -would he was more pure or less cation, is yet easily quitted for some ex- pious ! —but then he could not gain his temporary joy, which the present moment point. offers, and another perhaps will put out of Observe a third going almost in the same reach.
track, with what an inflexibie fanctity of de. It is the great excellence of learning that portment he sustains himself as he advances! it borrows very little from time or place ; -every line in his face writes abstinence; it is not confined to season or to climate, to -every stride looks like a check upon cities or to the country, but may be culti- his desires : see, I beseech you, how he is vated and enjoyed where no other pleasure cloak'd up with sermons, prayers, and facan be obtained. But this quality, which craments; and fo bemuffled with the exterconstitutes much of its value, is one occasion nals of religion, that he has not a hand to of neglect; what may be done at all times spare for a worldly purpose ;-he has arwith equal propriety, is deferred from day mour at leal - Why does he put it on ? Is to day, till the mind is gradually reconciled there no serving God without all this? to the omission, and the attention is turned to Must the garb of religion be extended fo other objects. Thus habitual idleneis gains wide to the danger of it's rending? Yes, too much power to be conquered, and the truly, or it will not hide the secret foul shrinks from the idea of intellectual and, What is that? labour and intenseness of meditation.
-That the faint has no religión That those who profess to advance learn- at all. ing sometimes obstruct it, cannot be denied; -But here comes GENEROSITY; the continual multiplication of books not giving—not to a decayed artist-but to the only distracts choice, but disappoints en arts and sciences themselves.-.See,- he quiry: To him that has moderately stored builds not a chamber in the wall apart for the his mind with images, few writers afford propbets; but whole schools end colleges for any novelty; or what little they have to add those who come after. LORD! how they to the common stock of learning is so buried will magnify his name !~'tis in capitals in the mass of general notions, that, like already; the first--the higheft, in the giided filver mingled with the ore of lead, it is too rent-roll of every hospital and asylumlittle to pay for the labour of separation; One honelt tear thed in private over the and he that has often been deceived by the unfortunate, is worth it all. promise of a title, at last grows weary of What a problematic set of creatures does examining, and is tempted to consider all fimulation make us! Who would divine as equally fallacious.
Idler. that all the anxiety and concern so visible
in the airs of one half of that great affem56. Mankind, a Portrait of.
bly should arise from nothing else, but that
the other half of it may think them to be Vanity bids all her fons to be generous men of consequence, penetration, parts, and and brave,--and her daughters to be conduct ? - What a noise amongst the chaste and courteous.---- But why do we claimants about it? Behold humility, out want her instructions?--Ask the come. of mere pridemand honesty almost out of dian, who is taught a part he feels not. knavery :-Chastity, never once in harm's
Is it that the principles of religion want way ;--and courage, like a Spanish folftrength, or that the real paffion for what is dier upon an Italian stage-a bladder full good and worthy will not carry us high of wind. enough?
-God! thou knowelt they car. -Hark! that, the sound of that sy us too high-We want not to bem-but trumpet, let not my soldier runto seem,
'tis fome good Christian giving alms. O
ViTy, thou gentleft of human passions! manors to inferior persons to be held of Toft and tender are thy notes, and ill accord themselves; which do therefore now conthey with so loud an instrument. tinue to be held under a superior lord, who
is called in such cases the lord paramount
over all these manors: and his seigniory is § 57 Manors; their Origir, Nature, and frequently termed an honour, not a manor, Services.
especially if it hath belonged to an ancient Manors are in substance, as ancient as feodal baron, or hath been at any time in the Saxon conftitution, though perhaps dif- the hands of the crown. In imitation fering a little, in some immaterial circum- whereof, these inferior lords began to carve ftances, from those that exist at this day: out and grant to others ftill more minute just as was observed of feuds, that they were estates to be held as of themselves, and partly known to our ancestors, even before were so proceeding downwards in infinitum ; the Norman conquest. A manor, manerium, till the superior lords observed, that by this à manendo, because the usual residence of method of subinfeudation they lost all their the owner, seems to have been a district of feodal profits, of wardships, marriages, and ground held by lords or great personages; escheats, which fell into the hands of these who kept in their own hands so much land mesne or middle lords, who were the immeas was necessary for the use of their fami- diate superiors of the terretenant, or him who lies, which were called terra dominicales, or occupied the land. This occasioned the stademesne lands; being occupied by the lord, tute of Westm. 3. or quia emptores, 18 Edw. I. or dominus manerii, and his servants. The to be made; which directs, that upon all other tenemental lands they distributed a- fales or feoffments of land, the fcoffee shall mong their tenants; which, from the differ- hold the same, not of his immediate feoffer, ent modes of tenure, were called and dif- but of the chief lord of the fee, of whom tinguished by two different names. First, such feoffer himself held it. And from hence book land, or charter land, which was held it is held, that all manors existing at this day by deed under certain rents and free-fer- must have existed by immemorial preferipvices, and in effect differed nothing from tion; or at least ever since the 18th Edw. I. free focage lands; and from hence have when the statute of quia emptores was made. arisen all the freehold tenants which hold For no new manor can have been created of particular manors, and owe luit and fer. since that statute : because it is essential to vice to the fame. The other species was a manor, that there be tenants who hold of called folk land, which was held by no aso the lord, and that statute enacts, that for the furance in writing, but distributed among future no subje£ts shall create any new tethe common folk or people at the pleasure nants to hold of himself. of the lord, and resumed at his discretion; Now with regard to the folk land, or ef. being indeed land held in villenage, which tates held in villenage, this was a species of we shall presently describe inore at large. tenure neither strictly feodal, Norman, or The residue of the manor being unculti. Saxon; but mixed and compounded of them vated, was termed the lord's waste, and all: and which also, on account of the heserved for public roads, and for common of riots that attend it, may seem to have somepasture to the lord and his tenants. Manors what Danish in its composition. Under the were formerly called baronies, as they still Saxon government there were, as Sir Wilare lordships : and each lord or baron was liam Temple speaks, a sort of people in a empowered to hold a domestic court, called condition of downright fervitude, used and the court-baron, for redressing misdemean- employed in the most servile works, a.id ors and nuisances within the manor, and belonging, both they, their children, and for settling disputes of property among the effeets, to the lord of the soil, like the rest tenants. This court is an inseparable in- of the cattle or stock upon it. There seem gredient of every manor; and if the num to have been those who held what was called ber of suitors Mould so fail, as not to leave the folk land, from which they were removfufficient to make a jury or homage, that is, able at the lord's pleasure. On the arrival two tenants at the least, the manor itself is of the Normans here, it seems not improloft.
bable, that they, who were ftrangers to any Before the statute of quia emptores, 18 other than a feodal state, might give some Edward I. the king's greater barons, who sparks of enfranchisement to luch wretched had a large extent of icrritory held under persons as fell to their share, by admitting the crown, granted out frequently smaller them, as well as others, to the oath of fealty;