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were allotted to purchase tea, fome to buy change to the next customer, gave me this fnuff, and I myself was immediately truck- opportunity of relating my adventures to ed away at the door for the Swectheart's you.”
" It is not my design to enumerate every $65. Hiftory, our natural Fondness for it, little accident that has befallen me, or to
and its true Use. dwell upon trivial and indifferent circum The love of history seems inseparable fances, as is the practice of thole im- from human nature, because it seems inseportant egotiits, who write narratives, me- parable from felf-love. The same princimoirs, and travels. As useless to commu- ple in this instance carries us forward and nity as my single self may appear to be; backward, to future and to paft ages. We I have been the instrument of much good imagine that the things which affect us, and evil in the intercourse of mankind: I muit affect posterity: This sentiment runs have contributed no small sum to the reve- through mankind, from Cæsar down to the nues of the crown, by my share in each parish-clerk in Pope's Miscellany. We news-paper; and in the consumption of are fond of preserving, as far as it is in tobacco, spirituous liquors, and other taxa our frail power, the memory of our own ble commodities. If I have encouraged adventures, of those of our own time, and debauchery, or supported extravagance; I of those that preceded it. Rude heaps of have also rewarded the labours of industry, ftones have been raised, and ruder hymns and relieved the neceflities of indigence. have been composed, for this purpose, by The poor acknowledge me as their constant nations who had not yet the use of arts and friend; and the rich, though they affect letters. To go no further back, the tri. to slight me, and treat me with contempt, umphs of Odin were celebrated in Runic are often reduced by their follies to dif- songs, and the feats of our British ancestors tresses which it is even in my power to were recorded in those of their bards. The relieve.
savages of America have the same custom “ The present exact scrutiny into our at this day: and long historical ballads of constitution has, indeed, very much ob- their hunting and wars are sung at all their structed and embarrassed my travels; tho' festivals. There is no need of saying how I could not but rejoice in my condition last this passion grows among all civilized naTuesday, as I was debarred having any tions, in proportion to the means of gratishare in maiming, bruising, and destroying fying it: but let us observe, that the same the innocent vidims of vulgar barbarity: principle of nature directs us as strongly, I was happy in being confined to the mock and more generally as well as more early, encounters with feathers and stuffed lea- to indulge our own curiosity, instead of ther; a childish sport, rightly calculated to preparing to gratify that of others. The initiate tender minds in acts of cruelty, and child hearkens with delight to the tales of prepare them for the exercise of inhuma- his nurse; he learns to read, and he de. nity on helpless animals.
vours with eagerness fabulous legends and I shall conclude, Sir, with informing novels. In riper years he applies to histoyou by what means I came to you in the ry, or to that which he takes for history, to condition you
see. A choice spirit, a mem authorized romance: and even in age, the ber of the kill-care-club, broke a link- defire of knowing what has happened to boy's pate with me last night, as a reward other men, yields to the desire alone of refor lighting him across the kennel; the lad lating what has happened to ourselves. wasted half his tar flambeau in looking for Thus history, true or false, speaks to our me, but I escaped his search, being lodged pafsions always. What pity is it, that even snugly against a post. This morning a pa- the best fhould speak to our understandings rith girl picked me up, and carried me with so feldom! That it does so, we have none raptures to the next baker's ihop to pur to blame but ourselves. Nature has done chase a roll. The master, who was church- her part. She has opened this study to warden, examined me with great attention, every man who can read and think: and and then grofly threatening her with Bride- what she has made the most agreeable, well for putting off bad money, knocked a reason can make the most useful applicanail through niy middle, and fattened me tion of to our minds. But if we consult our to the counter: but the moment the poor reason, we shall be far from following the hungry child was gone, he whipt me up examples of our fellow-creatures, in this as again, and sendirg me away with others in in moit other cases, who are so proud of
being rational. We shall neither read to is a kind of appeal, with which we are flatfooth our indolence, nor to gratify our va- tered, made to our senses, as well as our nity: as little shall we content ourselves to understandings. The instruction comes then drudge like grammarians and critics, that upon our own authority: we frame the preothers may be able to study, with greater cept after our own experience, and yield ease and profit, like philosophers and states to fact when we refilt speculation. But this men: as little shall we affect the slender is not the only advantage of instruction by merit of becoming great scholars at the ex- example; for example appeals not to our pence of groping all our lives in the dark understanding alone, but to our passions mazes of antiquity. All these mistake the likewile. Example affuages there or ani. true drift of study, and the true use of his- mates them; sets passion on the side of tory: Nature gave us curiosity to excite judgment, and makes the whole man of the industry of our minds; but she never a-piece, which is more than the strongest intended it to be made the principal, much reasoning and the cleareft demonftration less the fole, object of their application. can do; and thus forming habits by repetiThe true and proper object of this appli- tions, example fecures the observance of cation, is a constant improvement in private those precepts which example insinuated. and in public virtue. An application to
Bolingbroke. any study, that tends neither directly nor indirectly to make us better men, and bet
§ 66. Human Nature, its Dignity. ter citizens, is ac best but a specious and In forming our notions of human nature ingenious sort of idleness, to use an ex we are very apt to make comparison bepression of Tillotson: and the knowledge twixt men and animals, which are the only we acquire is a creditable kind of igno- creatures endowed with thought, that fall rance, nothing more. This creditable kind under our senses. Certainly this compariof ignorance is, in my opinion, the whole son is very favourable to mankind; on the benefit which the generality of men, even one hand, we see a creature, whole thoughts of the most learned, reap from the study of are not limited by any narrow bounds either history: and yet the study of history seems of place or time, who carries his researches to me, of all other, the most proper to train into the most distant regions of this globe, us up to private and public viriue. and beyond this globe, to the planets and
We need but to cast our eyes on the heavenly bodies; looks backward to conworld, and we shall see the daily force of fider the first origin of the human race; casts example: we need but to turn them inward, his eyes forwards to see the influence of his and we shall soon discover why example has actions upon pofterity, and the judgments this force. Pauci prudentia, says Tacitus, which will be formed of his character a bonefta ab deterioribus, utilia ab noxiis discer- thousand years hence: a creature who nunt: plures aliorum eventis docentur. Such traces causes and effects to great lengths is the imperfection of human understand and intricacy; extracts general principles ing, such the frail temper of our minds, from particular appearances : improves that abstract or general propositions, though upon his discoveries, corrects his mistakes, never so true, appear obscure or doubtful and make his very errors profitable. On to us very often, till they are explained by the other hand, we are presented with a examples; and that the wiselt lessons in creature the very reverse of this; limited favour of virtue go but a little way to con- in its observations and reasonings to a few vince the judgment and determine the will, sensible objects which surround it; without unless they are enforced by the same means, curiosity, without a foresight, blindly conand we are obliged to apply to ourselves ducted by instinct, and arriving in a very that we fee happen to other men. Instruc- short time at its utmost perfection, beyond tions by precept have the further disadvan.. which it is never able to advance a single tage of coming on the authority of others, step. What a difference is there betwixt and frequently require a long deduction of these creatures; and how exalted a notion seasoning. Homines amplius oculis quam must we entertain of the former, in comauribus credunt: longum inter est per præcepta, parison of the latter ! Hume's Elays. breve et efficax per exempla.
The reason of this judgment, which I quote from one of $ 67. The Operations of Human Nature Seneca's epiftles, in confirmation of my
considered. own opinion, relts I think on this, That We are composed of a mind and of a when examples are pointed out to us, there body, intimately united, and mutually af
fecting each other. Their operations in- acts with the utmost generosity, and withi deed are entirely different. Whether the ro view to her own advantage: while Vice; immortal spirit that enlivens this machine, like a glutton, feeds herself enormously, is originally of a fuperior nature in various and then is willing to disgorge the naubodies (which, I own, seems most consistent scous offals of her feaft. Orrery. and agrecable to the scale and order of beings), or whether the difference depends $ 68. Oeconomy, Want of it no Mark of on a symmetry, or peculiar firucture of the
genius. organs combined with it, is beyond my The indigence of authors, and particoreach to determine. It is evidently cer- Jarly of poets, has long been the object of tain, that the body is curiously formed with lamentation and ridicule, of compallion and proper organs to delight, and such as are
contempt. adapted to all the necesary uses of life. It has been observed, that not one faThe spirit animates the whole; it guides vourite of the muses has ever been able to the natural appetites, and confines them build a house since the days of Amphion, within just limits. But the natural force of whole art it would be fortunate for them if this spirit is often immersed in matter; and they pofleffed; and that the greatest pu. the mind becomes subservient to paflions, nishment that can possibly be inflicted on which it ought to govern and direct. Your them, is to oblige them to fup in their own friend Horace, although of the Epicurean lodgings, doctrine, acknowledges this truth, whcre
Molles ubi reddunt ova co.
columba, he says,
Where pigeons lay their eggs. Atque affigit humo divinæ particulam auræ. Boileau introduces Damon, whole write
It is no less evident, that this immortalings entertained and instructed the city spirit has an independent power of acting, and the court, as having pasied the summer and, when cultivated in a proper manner,
without a thirt, and the winter without seemingly quits the corporeal frame within a cloak; and resolving at last to forsake twhich it is imprisoned, and foars into high- Paris, , er, and more spacious regions; where, with
cù la vertu ti'a plus ai feu nilieu, an energy which I had almost said was di
Where shiv'ring worth no longer finds a home, vine, it ranges among those heavenly bodies that in this lower world are scarce and to find out a retreat in some distant visible to our eyes; and we can at once grotto. explain the distance, magnitude, and velo
Dịcà jamais ni l' Huiffier, ni le Sergent s'approcbe, city of the planets, and can foretel, even to Safe, where no critics damn, no duns moleft. a degree of minuteness, the particular time
PoPв. when a comet will return, a:d when the fun will be eclipsed in the next century. ling in his gilt chariot, bespatters the face
The rich comedian, says Bruyere, “ lolThese powers certainly evince the dignity of Corneille walking afoot:” and Juvenal of human nature, and the surprising effects remarks, that his contemporary bards geof the immaterial spirit within us, which in to confined a state can thus disengage itself nerally qualified themselves by their diet from the fetters of matter. It is from this
to make excellent buftos; that they were pre-eminence of the soul over the body, baker's, in order to warm themselves for
compelled sometimes to hire lodgings at a that we are enabled to view the exact order and curious variety of different beings; of the fraternity.
nothing; and that it was the common fate to consider and cultivate the natural productions of the earth; and to admire and Pallere & vinum toto riescire Decembri, imitate the wise benevolence which reigns
to pine, throughout the sole system of the univerle. Look pale, and all December tatie no wine.
DUYDEN, It is from hence that we form moral laws for our conduct. From hence we delight Virgil himself is strongly suspected to in copyirg that great original, who in his have lain in the streets, or on fome Roman effence is utterly incomprehensible, but in bulk, when he ipeaks fo feelingly of a rainy his influence is powerfully apparent to eve- and tempeftuous right in his well-known ry degree of his creation. From hence too epigram. we perceive a real beauty in virtue, and a " There ought to be an hospital founded distinction between good and evil. Viriue for d.cayed wits," said a lively French
man, " and it might be called the Hospital expiation for his enormous crime, and to of Incurables."
teach him to live unsettled, and without Few, perhaps, wander among the laurels care, like a true poet. of Parnassus, but who have realon ardently Such are the ridiculous, and such the to with and to exclaim with Æneas, tho' piti ble stories related, to expose the powithout that hero's good fortune,
verty of poets in different ages and nations;
but which, I am inclined to think, are raSirane sa nobis ille aurius arbore ramus,
ther boundless exaggerations of satire and Diculat remore in tan!o !
fancy, than the fober result of experience, On! in this ample grove could I behold The tree that blooms with vegetable gd!
and the determination of truth and judgPitt. ment; for the general position may be con
tradicted by numerous examples; and it The patronage of Lælius and Scipio did may, perhaps, appear on reflection and exnot enabie Terence to rent a house. Tafio, amination, that the art is not chargeable in a humorous sonnet addrested to his fa- with the faults and failings of its particular vourite cat, earnestly entreats her to lend profesors ; that it has no peculiar tendency him the light of her eyes during his mid- to make them either rakes or spendthrifts; night studies, not being himself able to and that those who are indigent poets, porchase a candle to write by. Dante, the would have been indigent merchants and Homer of Italy, and Camoens of Portugal, mechanics. were both banished and imprisoned. Cer The neglect of economy, in which great vantes, perhaps the most original genius the geniuses are suppołed to have indulged world ever beheld, perished by want in the themselves, has unfortunately given fo ftreets of Madrid, as did our own Spenser much authority and justification to careat Dublin. And a writer little inferior to lessness and extravagance, that many a mithe Spaniard in the exquisiteness of his hu
nute rhymer has fallen into diffipation and mour and raillery, I mean Erasmus, after drunkenness, because Butler and Otway tedious wanderings of many years from lived and died in an alehouse. As a cercity to city, and from patron to patron, tain blockhead wore his gown on one shoulpraised, and promised, and deceived by all, der, to mimic the negligence of Sir Thoinas obtained no fetilement but with his printer. More, so these servile imitators follow their " At last,” says he in one of his epiftles, masters in all that disgraced them; con“ I should have been advanced to a cardi- tract immoderate debts, because Dryden nalihip, if there had not been a decree in died insolvent; and neglect to change their my way, by which those are excluded from linen, because Smith was a sloven. “If I this honour, whole income amounts not to should happen to look pale, says Horace, three thousand ducats."
“ all the hackney writers in Rome would I remember t) have read a satire in La- immediately drink cummin to gain the same tin prose entitled, “ A poet hath bought complexion.” And I myself am acquainta house.” The poet having purchased a ed with a witling, who uses a glass only behouse, the matter was immediately laid be- cause Pope was near-fighted. fore the parliament of poets assembled on
Adventurer. that important occasion, as a thing unheardof, as a very bad precedent, and of most per- § 69. Operas ridiculed, in a Persian Letter. nicious consequence; and accordingly a ve The first objects of a stranger's curiory severe sentence was pronounced against fity are the public spectacles. I was carthe buyer. When the members came to ried last night to one they call an Opera, give their votes, it appeared there was not a which is a concert of music brought from fingle person in the ailembly, who, through Italy, and in every respect foreign to this the favour of powerful patrons, or their country. It was performed in a chamber own happy genius, was worth so much as as magnificent as the resplendent palace of to be proprietor of a house, either by inhe our emperor, and as full of handsome woritance of purchase: all of them neglecting men as his feraglio. They had no eunuchs their private fortunes, confessed and boast among them; but there was one who fung ed that they lived in lodgings. The poet upon the ttige, and, by the luxurious tenlias, therofóre, ordered to teil bis hours im- derness of his airs, seemed fitter to make mediately, to buy wire with the money for them wanton, than keep them chaite. their encertainment, in order to mak: some Instead of the habit proper to such crea
tures, he wore a suit of armour, and called with fortitude, and to conform ourselves himself Julius Cæsar.
to the order of Nature, who governs her I asked who Julius Cæsar was, and whe- great kingdom, the world, by continual ther he had been famous for singing mutations. Let us submit to this order; They told me he was a warrior that had let us be persuaded that whatever does conquered all the world, and debauched happen ought to happen, and never be so half the women in Rome.
foolish as to expostulate with nature. The I was going to express my admiration best resolution we can take, is to suffer at seeing him fo represented, when I heard what we cannot alter, and to pursue withtwo ladies, who sat nigh me, cry out, as it out repining the road which Providence, were in ecstasy, “O
that dear creature! who directs every thing, has marked to us: I am dying for love of him.”
for it is enough to follow ; and he is but At the same time I heard a gentleman a bad soldier who fighs, and marches with say aloud, that both the music and singing reluctancy. We must receive the orders were detestable.
with spirit and chearfulness, and not en“ You must not mind him,” said my deavour to flink out of the post which is friend," he is of the other party, and comes assigned us in this beautiful disposition of here only as a spy."
things, whereof even sufferings make a • How! said i, have you parties in mu necessary part.
Let us address ourselves fic? “ Yes,” replied he, " it is a rule to God who governs all, as Cleanthes did with us to judge of nothing by our senses in those admirable verses, and understanding, but to hear and see, Parent of nature ! Master of the world! and think, only as we chance to be differ Where'er thy providence directs, behold ently engaged."
My steps with chearful resignation turn; " I hope," said I," that a stranger may
Fate leads the willing, drags the backward on be neutral in these divisions; and, to say
Why should I grieve, when grieving I mut
bear; the truth, your music is very far from in Or take with guilt, what guiltless I might share? flaming me to a spirit of faction; it is Thus let us speak, and thus let us act. inuch more likely to lay me asleep. Ours Resignation to the will of God is true mag. in Persia sets us all a-dancing; but I am nanimity. But the sure mark of a pufilquite unmoved with this.”
lanimous and base fpirit, is to struggle “ Do but fancy it moving,” returned against, to censure the order of Providence; my friend, “ and you will soon be moved and, instead of mending our own conduct
, as much as others. It is a trick you may
to set up for correcting that of our Maker. learn when you will, with a little pains:
Bolingbroke. we have most of us learnt it in our turns." Lord Lyttelton. $71. Patience exemplified in the Story of
an A/s. $ 70. Patience recommended.
I was just receiving the dernier compliThe darts of adverse fortune are always ments of Monsieur Le Blanc, for a plealevelled at our heads. Some reach us, and fant voyage down the Rhône-when I fome fly to wound our neighbours. Let was stopped at the gate us therefore impose an equal temper on 'Twas by a poor ass, who had just our minds, and pay without murmuring the turned in with a couple of large panniers tribute which we owe to humanity. "The upon his back, to collect eleemofinary tur, winter brings cold, and we must freeze. nip-tops and cabbage- leaves ; and food The summer returns with heat, and we dubious, with his two fore-feet on the inmust melt. The inclemency of the air fide of the threshold, and with his two disorders our health, and we must be fick. hinder feet towards the street, as not knowHere we are exposed to wild beasts, and ing very well whether he was to go in or there to men more favage than the beasts : and if we escape the inconveniences and Now, 'tis an animal (be in what hurry dangers of the air and the earth, there are I may) I cannot bear to strike-there perils by water and perils by fire. This is a patient endurance of sufferings, wrote established course of things it is not in our fo unaffectedly in his looks and carriage, power to change; but it is in our power which pleads to mightily for him, that it io affume such a greatness of mind as be- always disarms me; and to that degree, comes wise and virtuous men, as may en that I do not like to speak unkindly to able us to encounter the accidents of life bim; on the contrary, mect him where.