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a Aranger. If your right-eye itches, you both do with the same fearless unconcern; will cry; if your left, you will laugh: but but with this only difference, that the genleft or right is good at night. If your nose tleman-swearer damns himself and others itches you

will shake hands with or kiss a with the greatest civility and good-breedfool, drink a glass of wine, run against a ing imaginable. cuckold's door, or miss them all four. If My predecesor the Tatler gives us an your right-ear or cheek burns, your left account of a certain humourilt, who got to friends are talking of you; if your left, gether a party of noted swearers to dinner your right friends are talking of you. If with him, and ordered their discourses to your elbow itches, you will change your be taken down in short-hand; which being bedfellow. If your right-hand itches, you afterwards repeated to them, they were exwill pay away money ; if your left, you will tremely itartled and surprised at their own

If your fomach itches, you will common talk. A dialogue of this nature eat pudding. If your back itches, butter would be no improper supplement to Swift's will be cheap when grass grows there. If polite converjation ; though, indeed, it would your qde itches, fomebody is withing for appear too ihocking to be set down in print. you. If your gartering-place itches, you But I cannot help withing, that it were pofwill go to a frange place. If your foot fible to draw out a catalogue of the fashionitches

, you will tread upon itrange ground. able oaths and curses in present use at ArLally, If you liver, somebody is walking thur's, or at any other polite assembly: by over your grave.

Connoifjeur. which means the compauy themselves would

be led to imagine, that their conversation § 89. Swearing an in delicate as well as a

had been carried on between the loweit of wicked Practice.

the mob; and they would blush to find, that As there are some vices, which the vul- they had gleaned the choicest phrases from gar have presumed to copy from the great; lanes and alleys, and enriched their difso there are others, which the great have course with the elegant dialect of Wapping condescended to borrow from the vulgar. and Broad St. Giles's. Among these, I cannot but set down the The legislature has indeed provided fhocking practice of cursing and swearing; against this offence, by affixing a penalty a practice, which (to say nothing at present on every delinquent according to his ftaof its impiety and prophaneness) is low and cion : bút this law, like those made against indelicate, and places the man of quality on gaming, is of no effect; while the genthe same level with the chairman at his door. teeler sort of swearers put forth the same A gentleman would forfeit all pretensions execrations at the hazard-table or in the to that title, who should chuse to einbeilith tennis-court, which the more ordinary his discourse with the oratory of Billingf- gamelters repeat, with the same impunity, gate, and converse in the style of an oyster- over the ihuttle-board or in the skittle alley. woman; but it is accounted no disgrace to Indeed, were this law to be rigorously put him to use the same coarse exprellions of in execation, there would appear to be litcursing and swearing with the meanest of tle or no proportion in the punishment: the mob. For my own part, I cannot see since the gentleman would escape by dethe difference between a By-gad or a Gad positing his crown; while the poor wretch, dem-me, minced and softened by a genteel who cannot raise a shilling, must be clape pronunciation from well-bred lips, and the into the stocks, or sent to Bridewell

. But as same expression bluntly bolted out from the the offence is exactly the fame, I would broad mouth of a porter or also have no distinction made in the treat

ment of the offenders : and it would be a I shall purpofily wave making any re- most ridiculous but a due mortification to a Aections on the impiety of this practice, as man of quality, to be obliged to thrust his I am satisfied they would have but little leg through the same stocks with a carman Weight either with the beau-monde or the or a coal-heaver; since he first degraded canaille. The swearer of either station de. himself, and qualified himself for their comvotes himself piecemeal, as it were, to de. pany by talking in the same mean diale&t. struction; pours out anathemas against his I am aware that it will be pleaded in eseyes, his heart, his soul, and every part of cuse for this practice, tnar orths and curses his body: nor does he scruple to extend the are intended only as mere expletives, which same good wishes to the limbs and joints of serve to round a period, and give a grace his friends and acquaintance. This they and spirit to conversation. But there are fill some o!d-fashioned creatures, who ad- subļitution, by which we are put into the here to their common acceptation, and can- place of another man, and affected in a not help thinking it a very serious matter, good measure as he is affected; so that this that a man should devote' his body to the passion may either partake of the nature of devil, or call down damnation on his soul. those which regard self-prefervation, and Nay, the fwearer himself, like the old man turning upon pain may be a source of the in the fable calling upon death, would be sublime; or it may turn upon ideas of plea. exceeding loth to be taken at his word; fure, and then, whatever has been said and while he wishes destruction to every of the social affections, whether they regard part of his body, would be highly concerned society in general, or only some particular to have a limb rot away, his nole fall off, modes of it, may be applicable here. or an eye drop out of the socket. It wouid It is by this principle chiefy that poetry, therefore be advilable to substitute some painting, and other affecting arts, transfuse other terms equally unmeaning, and at the their pallions from one breast to another, same time remote from the vulgar cursing and are often capable of grafting a delight and swearing,

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on wretchedness, misery, and death itlelf. It is recorded to the honour of the fa. It is a common observation, that objects, mous Dean Stanhope, that in his younger which in the reality would shock, are, in days, when he was chaplain to a regiment, tragical and such-like representations, the he reclaimed the officers, who were much source of a very high species of pleasure. addicted to this vulgar practice, by the fol- This, taken as a fact, has been the cause of lowing method of reproof: One evening, much reasoning. This fatisfaction has been as they were all in company together, after cominonly attributed, first, to the comfort they had been very eloquent in this kind of we receive in considering that so melanrhetoric, so natural to the gentlemen of choly a story is no more than a fiction; and the army, the worthy dean took occasion next, the contemplation of our own freeto tell a story in his turn; in which he fre- dom from the evils we see represented. I quently repeated the words botile and glass, am afraid it is a practice much too commor, inftead of the usual expletives of God, devil, in enquiries of this nature, to attribute the and damn, which he did not think quite so cause of feelings which meiely arile from becoming for one of his cloth to make free the mechanical structure of our bodies, or with. I would recommend it to our people from the natural frame and constitution of of fashion to make use of the like innocent our minds, to certain conclusions of the reaphrases whenever they are obliged to have foning facuky on the objects presented to recourse to these substitutes for thought and us; for I have some reason to apprehend, expression. “Bottle and glass” might be that the influence of reason in producing our introduced with great energy in the table- passions is nothing near fo extensive as is talk at the King's Arms or St. Alban's ta- commonly believed. Burke on the Sublime. verns. The gamefter might be indulged, without offence, in fwcaring by the “knave § 91. F.fects of Sympathy in the Diftreffes of clubs," or the “curse of Scotland;" or he might with some propriety retain the old To examine this point concerning the execration of “the deuce take it.” The effect of tragedy in a proper manner, we beau should be allowed to swear by his must previously consider, how we are af.

gracious self,” which is the god of his fected by the feelings of our fellow.crea. idolatry; and the common expletives should tures in circumstances of real distress. I am confift only of “ upon my word and upon convinced we have a degree of delight, and

honour;" which terms, whatever sense that no smallone, in the real misfortunes and they might formerly bear, are at present pains of others; for, let the affection be understood only as words of course without what it will in appearance, if it does not meaning

Connoiseur. make us shun such objects, if, on the con

trary, it induces us to approach them, if it § 90. Sympathy a Source of the Sublime.

makes us dwell upon them, in this case I It is by the passion of sympathy that we conceive we must have a delight of pleaenter into the concerns of others; that we sure, of some species or other, in contemare moved as they are moved, and are never plating objects of this kind. Do we not read suffered to be indifferent spectators of almost the authentic hiftories of scenes of this paany thing which men can do or suffer. For ture wich as much pleasure as romances or sympathy must be considered as a sort of poems, where the incidents are fictitious ?


of others.



envy, he

The prosperity of no empire, nor the gran. are described lamenting their loft loves :
deur of no king, can so agreeably affe&t in Briseis was taken away by force from the
the reading, as the ruin of the state of Mace- Grecian; Creusa was loit for ever to her
don, and the diftress of its unhappy prince. husband. But Achilles went roaring along
Such a catastrophe touches us in history, as the salt sea-shore, and like a booby was
much as the deftruction of Troy does in fa- complaining to his mother, when he should
ble. Our delight in cases of this kind is very have revenged his injury by his arms.
greatly heightened, if the sufferer be some Eneas took a nobler course ; for, having
excellent person who sinks under an unwor- secured his father and son, he repeated all
thy fortune. Scipio and Cato are both vir. his former dangers to have found his wife,
tuous characters; but we are more deeply if she had been above ground.
affected by the violent death of the one, And here your lord ship may observe the
and the ruin of the great cause he adhered address of Virgil; it was not for nothing
to, than with the deserved triumphs and un- that this passage was related with all thele
interrupted prosperity of the other; for ter- tender circumstances. Eneas told it; Di.
ror is a passion which always produces de- do heard it. That he had been so affec-
light when it does not press too close, and tionate a husband, was no ill argument to
pity is a passion accompanied with pleasure, the coming dowager, that he might prove
because it arises from love and socialaffec- as kind to her. Virgil has a thousand se-
tion. Whenever we are formed by nature cret beauties, though I have not leisure to
to any active purpose, the passion which ani- remark them.
mates us to it is attended with deliglit, or Segrais, on the subject of a hero shed-
a pleasure of some kind, let the subject ding tears, observes, that historians com.
matter be what it will; and as our Creator mend Alexander for weeping, when he read
has designed we should be united together the mighty actions of Achilles; and Julius
by so ftrong a bond as that of sympathy, he Cæsar is likewise praised, when, out of the
has therefore twisted along with it a propor-

same noble

wept at the victories tionable quantity of this ingredient; and al- of Alexander. But if we observe more ways in the greatest proportion where our closely, we shall find that the tears of Eneas sympathy is most wanted, in the distresles of were always on a laudable occasion. Thus others. If this passion was fimply painful, he weeps out of compassion and tenderness we should fun, with the greatest care, all of nature, when in the temple of Carthage persons and places that could excite such a he beholds the picture of his friends, who passion; as some, who are so far gone in facrificed their lives in defence of their indolence as not to endure any strong im- country: He deplores the lamentable end pression, astually do. But the case is widely of his pilot Palinurus ; the untimely death different with the greater part of mankind; of young Pallas his confederate; and the there is no spectacle we so eagerly pursue, rest

, which I omit. Yet even for these as that of some uncommon and grievous ca

tears, his wretched critics dare condemn lamity; so that whether the misfortune is him. They make Eneas little better than before our eyes, or whether they are turned a kind of St. Swithin's hero, always rainback to it in history, it always touches with ing. One of these censors is bold enough delight; but it is not an unmixed delight, to arraign him of cowardice, when, in the but blended with no small uneafiness. î he beginning of the first book, he not only delight we have in such things, hinders us weeps but trembles at an approaching from shunning scenes of misery; and the storm : pain we feel, prompts us to relieve ourselves Extemplo Eneæ folvuntur frigore membra : in relieving those who suffer; and all this an. Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad lidera primas, &c. tecedenc to any reasoning, by an instinct that But to this I have answered formerly, works us to its own purposes, without our that his fear was not for himself, but his concurrence. Burke on the Sublime. people. And what can give a sovereign a $ 92. Tears not unworthy of an Hero.

bettes commendation, or recommend a hero

more to the affection of the reader? They If tears are arguments of cowardice, were threatened with a tempeft, and he what shall I say of Homer's hero? Shall wept; he was promised Ijaly, and thereAchilles pass for timorous because he wept, fore he prayed for the accomplithment of and wept on less occasions than Eneas that promise. All this in the beginning Herein Virgil muft be granted to have ex. of a ftorm; therefore he shewed the more celled his master. For once both heroes early piety, and the quicker sense of com

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paffion. Thus much I have urged else- lafting. If it be answered, that for this passion where in the defence of Virgil ; and since reason tragedies are often to be seen, I have been informed by Mr. Moyl, a and the dole to be repeated; this is tayoung gentleman whom I can never iuffi- citly to confess, that there is more virtue ciently commend, that the ancients ac- in one heroic poem, than in many trage. counted drowning an accursed death. So dies. A man is humbled one day, and his that if we grant him to have been afraid, pride returns the next. Chemical medi. he had just occasion for that fear, both in cines are observed to relieve oftener than relation to himself and to his subjects. to cure ; for it is the nature of spirits to

Dryden. make swift impreffions, but not deep. Ga

lenical decoctions, to which I may proper. $ 93. T'error a Source of the Sublime.

ly compare an epic poem, have more of No passion fo effectually robs the mind body in them ; they work by their subitance of all its powers of a£ting and reasoning and their weight. It is one reason of Arias fear; for fear being an apprehension of stotle's to prove that tragedy is the more pain of death, it operates in a manner that noble, because it turns in a shorter comrelerbles a&tual pain. Whatever there. pass; the whole action being circumscribed fore is terrible with regard to fight, is sub- within the space of four-and-twenty hours. lime too, whether this cause of terror be He might prove as well that a mushroom endued with greatness of dimensions or is to be preferred before a peach, becaule not; for it is impossible to look on any it shouts up in the compass of a night. A thing as trilling or contemptible, that may chariot may be driven round the pillar in be dangerous. There are many animals, less space than a large machine, because the who, though far froin being large, are yet bulk is not so great. Is the moon a more capable of raising ideas of the sublime, be- noble planet than Saturn, because the makes cause they are considered as objects of ter- her revolution in lets than thirty days; and sor; as serpents and poisonous animals he in little less than thirty years ? Both of almoit all kinds. Even to things of their orbs are in proportion to their several great dimenfions, if we annex any adven- magnitudes; and, contequently, the quicktitious idea of terror, they become without ness or flowness of their motion, and the comparison greater. An even plain of a time of their circumvolutions, is no arguvalt extent on land, is certainly no mean ment of the greater or lels perfection. And idea ; the prospect of such a plain may be besides, what virtue is there in a tragedy, as extensive as a prospect of the ocean; which is not contained in an epic poem? but can it ever fill the mind with any thing where pride is humbled, virtue rewarded, so great as the ocean itself? This is owing and vice punished; and those more amply to several causes, but it is owing to none treated than the narrowness of the drama more than to this, that the ocean is an ob- can admit? the fining quality of an epic ject of no small terror.

hero, his magnanimity, his constancy, his Burke on the Sublime.

patience, his piety, or whatever characteris$94. Tragedy compared with Epic Poetry: our admiration : we are naturally prone :0

tical virtue his poet gives him, raises first To raise, and afterwards to calm the imitatc what we admire ; and frequent acts paffions; to purge the soul from pride, by produce a habit. If the hero's chief quathe examples of human miseries which be- lity be vicious, as, for example, the choler fal the greatest ; in few words, to expel and obflinate de fire of vengeance in Achilarrogance and introduce compassion, are les, yet the moral is instructive: and bethe greatest effects of tragedy. Great, I fides, we are informed in the very propomust confess, if they were altogether as sition of the bliad, that this anger was perlasting as they are pompous. But are ha- nicious : that it brought a thousand ills on biis to be introduced at three hours warn- the Grecian camp. The courage of Achiling? are radical diseases fo suddenly re- les is proposed to imitation, not his pride moved? A mountebank may promise such and disobedience to his general, nor his a cure, but a milful physician will not brutal cruelty to his dead enemy, nor the undertake it. An epic poem is not so much selling his body to his father : we abhor in haste; it works Teisurely; the changes those actions while we read them, and what which it makes are slow; but the cure is we abhor we never imitate: the poet only likely to be more perfect. The effects of thews them, like rocks or quickfands, to be tragedy, as I said, veico violent so be shunned.


By this example the critics have con- rior, because he wants, and the subject cluded, that it is not necefiiry the man- fupplies. And suppose the persons of the ners of the hero should be virtuous. They drama wholly fabulous, or of the poet's are poetically good, if they are of a piece. invention, yet heroic poetry gave him the Though where a character of perfect virtue examples of that invention; because it was is set before us, 'tis more lovely; for there first, and Homer the common father of the the whole hero is to be imitated. This is stage. I know not of any one advantage the Eneas of Virgil: this is that idea of which tragedy can boast above heroic poeperfection in an epic poem, which paint. try, but that it is represented to the view, ers and statuaries have only in their minds, as well as read; and instructs in the closet, and which no hands are able to express. as well as on the theatre. This is an unThele are the beauties of a God in a human contested excellence, and a chief branch of body. When the picture of Achilles is its prerogative ; yet I may be allowed to say drawn in tragedy, he is taken with those without partiality, that herein the actors warts and moles, and hard features, by share the poet's praise. Your lord hip knows those who represent him on the stage, or he some modern tragedies which are beautiis no more Achilles; for his creator Ho- ful on the stage, and yet I am confident mer has so described him. Yet even, thus you would not read them. Tryphon, the he appears a perfect hero, though an im. itationer, complains they are seldom alked perfect character of virtue. Horace paints for in his shop. The poet who Aourished him after Homer, and delivers him to be in the scene, is damned in the ruelle ; nay copied on the itage with all those imperfec- more, is not esteemed a good poet, by tions; therefore they are either not faults those who see and hear his extravagances in an heroic poem, or faults common to the with delight. They are a sort of itately drama. After all, on the whole merits fuftian and lofty childishness. Nothing of the case, it must be acknowledged, that but nature can give a fincere pleasure: the epic poem is more for the manners, and where that is not imitated, 'tis grotesque tragedy for the pasions. The pailions, as painting ; the fine woman ends in a fish's I have said, are violent; and acute diltem, tail.

Dryden. pers require medicines of a strong and speedy operation. III habits of the mind § 95. History of Translations. and chronical diseases are to be corrected Among the studies which have exercised by degrees, and cured by alteratives; the ingenious and the learned for more wherein though purges are sometimes ne. than three centuries, none has been more ceffary, yet diet, good air, and moderate diligently or more successfully cultivated exercile, have the greatest part

. The mat- than the art of translation ; by which the ter being thus stated, it will appear that impediments which bar the way to science both forts of poetry are of use for their are, in some measure, removed, and the proper ends. The itage is active, the epic multiplicity of languages becomes less inpoem works at greater leisure, yet is active commodious. too, when need requires; for dialogue is Of every other kind of writing, the animitated by the drama, from the more ac- cients have left us models which all sucrive parts of it. One puts off a fit like the ceeding ages have laboured to initate; quinquina, and relieves us only for a time; but translation may justly be claimed by the the other roots out the distemper, and gives moderns as their own. In the firit ages a healthful habit. The sun enlightens and of the world instruction was commonly chears us, dispels fog, and warins the oral, and learning traditional, and what ground with his daily beams; but the corn was not written could not be tranflated. is lowed, increases, is ripened, and reaped When alphabetical writing made the confor use, in process of time, and its proper veyance of opinions and the transmision of season. I proceed from the greatnets of events more ealy and certain, literature the action to the dignity of the actors; I did not flourish in more than one country mean, to the persons employed in both at once; for distant nations had little poems. There likewise tragedy will be commerce with each other, and those few seen to borrow from the epopee; and that whom curiosity fent abroad in quest of imwhich borrows is always of less dignity, provement, delivered their acquisitions in becanse it has not of its own. A subject, their own manner, desirous perhaps to be Pris true, may lend to his sovereign; but considered as the inventors of that which the act of borrowing makes the king infe- they had learned from others.


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