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he has written to the works of this poet, course, painted before me in the way of reasons very ingeniously, and, I imagine, images. I know very well that the mind for the most part very rightly, upon the poftefies a faculty of raising such images cause of this extraordinary phænomenon; at pleasure; but then an act of the will is but I cannot altogether agree with him, necessary to this; and in ordinary converthat some impropricties in language and fation or reading it is very rarely that any thought, which occur in these poems, have image at all is excited in the mind. fi arisen from the blind poet's imperfect con- say, “ I Mall go to Italy next summer,” I ception of visual objects, since such impro- am well understood. Yet I believe nobody prieties, and much greater, may be found has by this painted in his imagination the in writers even of an higher class than exact figure of the speaker palling by land Mr. Blacklock, and who, notwithstanding, or by water, or both; sometimes on horiepossessed the faculty of seeing in its full back, sometimes in a carriage; with all the perfection. Here is a poet doubtless as particulars of the journey. Still less has much affected by his own descriptions as he any idea of Italy, the country to which any that reads them can be; and yet he I proposed to go; or of the greenness of is affected with this strong enthusiasm by the fields, the ripening of the fruits, and things of which he neither has, nor can the warmth of the air, with the change to posibly have any idea, further than that of this from a different season, which are the a bare found; and why may not those who ideas for which the word summer is fubftiread his works be affected in the same tuted; but leait of all has he any image manner that he was, with as little of any from the word next; for this word stands real ideas of the things described ? 'The for the idea of many summers, with the second instance is of Mr. Saunderson, pro- exclusion of all but one: and surely the feffor of mathematics in the university of man who says next summer, has no images Cambridge. This learned man had ac of such a succession, and such an exclusion. quired great knowledge in natural philo. In short, it is not only those ideas which are fophy, in astronomy, and whatever sciences commonly called abstract, and of which depend upon mathematical skill. What 'no image at all can be found, but even of was the most extraordinary, and the most particular real beings, that we converse to my purpose, he gave excellent lectures without having any idea of them excited upon light and colours; and this man in the imagination; as will certainly aptaught others the theory of those ideas pear on a diligent examination of our own which they had, and which he himself un minds.

Burke on the Sublime. doubtedly had not. But the truth is, that the words red, blue, green, answered to $99. The rial Charaderistics of ibe W big him as well as the ideas of the colours

and Tory Parties. themselves; for the ideas of greater or lesser degrees of refrangibility being ap

When we compare the parties of Whig plied to these words, and the blind man and Tory to thole of Roundhead and Cabeing instructed in what other respe&s they valier, the most obvious difference which were found to agree or to disagree, it was appears betwixt them, confits in the prinas easy for him to reason upon the words, ciples of passive obedience and indefeasible as if he had been fully master of the ideas. right, which were but little heard of among Indeed it must be owned, he could make no the Cavaliers, but became the universal new discoveries in the way of experiment. doctrine, and were esteemed the true chaHe did nothing but what we do every day racteristic of a Tory. Were these prinin common discourse. When I wrote this ciples pushed into their most obvious conlait sentence, and used the words every day, fequences, they imply a formal renuncia, and common discourse, I had no images in my ţion of all our liberties, and an avowal of mind of any fuccellion of time; nor of men absolute monarchy; since nothing can be in conference with each other: nor do I a greater absurdity, than a limited power imagine that the reader will have any such which muit be resisted, even when it exideas on reading it. Neither when I spoke ceeds its limitations. But as the most raof red, blue, and green, as well as of re tional principles are often but a weak frangibility, had I these several colours, or counterpoise to passion, 'tis no wonder that the rays of light pafling into a different these absurd principles, sufficient, accordmedium, and there diverted from their ing to a celebrated author, to shock the

4

cominon

of that party.

common sense of a Hottentot or Samoiede, nouncing monarchy; and a friend to the were found too weak for that effect. These settlement in the protestant line. Tories, as men, were enemies to oppref

Hume's F.Vays. fion; and also, as Englishmen, they were enemies to despotic power. Their zeal

100. Painting disagreeable in Women. for liberty was, perhaps, less fervent than A lady's face, like the coa: in the that of their antagonilts, but was sufficient Tale of a Tub, if left alone, will wear to make them forget all their general well; but if you offer to load it with foprinciples, when they faw themselves reign ornaments, you destroy the original openly threatened with a subversion of the ground. ancient govern:nent. From these senti Among other matter of wonder on my ments arose the Revolution; an event of first coming to town, I was much furprised mighty consequence, and the firmest foun- at the general appearance of youth among dation of British liberty. The conduct of the ladies. At present there is no dil. the Tories, during that event and after it, tinction in their complexions, between a will afford us a true insight into the nature beauty in her teens and a lady in her grand

climacteric; yet at the same time I could In the first place, they appear to have not but take notice of the wonderful vahad the sentiments of a True Briton in riety in the face of the same lady. I have them in their affection to liberty, and in known an olive beauty on Monday grow their determined resolution not to sacrifice very ruddy and blooming on Tuesday; it to any abstract principles whatsoever, or turn pale on Wednesday; come round to to any imaginary riglıts of princes. This the olive hue again on Thursday; and, in a part of their character might justly have word, change her complexion as often as her been doubted of before the Revolution, gown. I was amazed to find no old aunts from the obvious tendency of their avowed in this town, except a few unfashionable principles, and from their almost unbound people, whom nobody knows; the rest ftill ed coinpliances with a court, which made continuing in the zenith of their youth and little secret of its arbitrary designs. The health, and falling off, like timely fruit, Revolution thewed them to have been in without any previous decay. All this was this respect nothing but a genuine court a mystery that I could not unriddle, till, party, such as might be expected in a Bri. on being introduced to some ladies, I untih government; that is, lovers of liberty, luckily improved the hue of my lips at the but greater lovers of monarchy. It mult, expence of a fair one, who unthinkingly however, be confest, that they carried their had turned her cheek; and found that my monarchical principles farther, even in kisles were given (as is observed in the practice, but more so in theory, than was epigram) like those of Pyramus, through in any degree consistent with a limited go. a wall. I then discovered, that this fur

prising youth and beauty was all counterSecondly, Neither their principles nor feit; and that (as Ham!et says) “God had affections concurred, entirely or heartily, given them one face, and they had made with the settlement made at the Revolu themselves another." tion, or with that which has since takon I have mentioned the accident of my place. This part of their character may carrying off half a lady's face by a falute

, feein contradictory to the former, sincc any that your courtly dames may learn to put other settlement, in those circumstances of on thcir faces a little tighter ; but as for the nation, mult probably have been dan- my own daughters, while such fashions pregerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the vail, they hall still remain in Yorkshire. heart of man is made to reconcile contra. 'There, I think, they are pretty safe ; for dictions; and this contradiction is not great this unnatural fashion will hardly make its er than that betwixt pallive obedience, and way into the country, as this vamped com. the refiftance employed at the Revolution. plexion would not stand againft the rays of A Tory, therefore, since the Revolution, the sun, and would inevitably melt away may be defined in a few words to be a lover in a country dance. The ladies have, inof monarchy, though without abandoning deed, been always the greatest enemies to liberty, and a partizan of the family of their own beauty, and seem to have a de. Stuart ; as a Whig may be defined to be fign against their own faces. At one time a lover of liberty, though without re the whole countenance was eclipsed in a

vernment.

black

black velvet mask; at another it was blot to others, of assuming the same charıcter ted with patches; and at present it is cruft- of dikinguished infamy. Few are so toed over with plaister of Paris. In those tally vitiated, as to have abandoned all senbattered belles who still aim at conquest, timents of shame; and when every other this practice is in some sort excusable; but principle of integrity is surrendered, we it is surely as ridiculous in a young lady to generally find the confiet is still maintained give up beauty for paint, as it would be to in this last post of retrcating virtue. In draw a good set of teeth merely to fill their this view, therefore, it should seem, the places with a row of ivory.

function of a satirist way be justified, not. Indeed so common is the fashion among with landing it should be true (what an the young as well as the old, that when I excellent moralist has aferted) that his am in a group of beauties, I consider them chattisements rather exasperate than reas so many pretty pictures; looking about claim those on whom they fail. Perhaps me with as little emotion as I do at Hud no human penalties are of any moral adfon's: and if any thing fills me with ad- vantage to the criminal himself; and the miration, it is the judicious arrangement principal benefit that seems to be derived of the tints, and delicate touches of the from civil punishments of any kind, is painter. Art very often seems almost to their restraining influence upon the conduct vie with nature : but my attention is too of others. frequently diverted by condering the tex It is not every man, however, that is ture and hue of the skin beneath; and the qualified to manage this formidable bow. picture fails to charm, while my thoughts The arrows of satire, unless they are pointare engrossed by the wood and canvals. ed by virtue, as well as wit, recoil upon

Connoisèur. the hand that directs them, and wound none

but him from whom they proceed. Ac$ 101. Advantages of cuell-directed Satire cordingly Horace refts the whole success pointed out.

of writings of this sort upon the poet's beA satirit of true genius, who is warmed ing integer ipse; free himself from those by a generous indignation of vice, and immoral stains which he points out in whole censures are conducted by candour others. There cannot, indeed, be a more and truth, merits the applause of every odious, nor at the same time a more confriend to virtue. He may be considered temptible character, than that of a vicious as a sort of supplement to the legislative fatiriit: authority of his country; as allilling the unavoidable defects of all legal institutions Quis cælum terris non misceat & mare cælo, for regulating of manners, and striking. Si fur displiceat Verri, homicida Milona ? terror even where the divine prohibitions

Juv. themselves are held in contempt. The The most favourable light in which a strongest defence, perhaps, againit the in- censor of this species could possibly be viewroads of vice, among the more cultivated ed, would be that of a public executioner, part of our species, is well-directed ridi- who inficts the punishment on others, which cule: they who fear nothing else, dread to he has already merited himself. But the be marked out to the contempt and indig. truth of it is, he is not qualified even for to nation of the world. There is no succed- wretched an office; and there is nothing ing in the secret purposes of dishonesty, to be dreaded from the satirist of known without preserving some sort of credit dishonesty, but his applaufe. among mankind; as there cannot exist a

Fitzosborne's Letters. more impotent creature than a knave convict. To expose, therefore, the false pre- $ 102. Juvenal and Horace compared as tensions of counterfeit virtue, is to dilarm

Satirilis. it at once of all power of mischief, and to I would willingly divide the palm beperform a public service of the most advan twixt these poets upon the two heads of tageous kind, in which any man can em profit and delight, which are the two ends ploy his time and his calents. The voice, of poetry in general. It must le granted indeed, of an honeft satirist is not only be- by the tavourers of Juvenal, that Horace neficial to the world, as giving an alarm is the more copious and profitable in his against the defigns of an enemy to danger- initructions of human life: but in my parous to all social intercourse; but as prov- ticular opinion, which I set not up for a ing likewise the most efficacious preventive standard to better judgments, Juvenal is

the more delightful author. I am profited fops; fo 'tis a harder thing to make a by both, I am pleated with boʻi; but I owe man wife, than to make him honeft: for more to Horace for my instruction, and the will is only to be reclaimed in the one; more to Juvenal for my pleature. This, but the undertanding is to be informed in as I said, is my particular taite of these two the other. There are blind sides and fol. authors: they who will have either of them lies, even in the professors of moral philoto excel the other in both qualities, can fophy ; and there is not any one set of them scarce give better reacons for their opinion, that Horace has not exposed. Which, as than I for mine ; but all unbiased readers it was not the design of Javenal, who was will conclude, that my moderation is not wholly employed in laihing vices, some of 10 be condeinned. To such impartial men them the moit enormous that can be imaI must appeal; for they who have already gined; fo, perhaps, it was not so much his formed their judgment, may justly stand talent, Omne vnfer vitium ridenti Flaccus suspected of prejudice; and though all who amico, tangit, & culmijus circum præcordia are my readers will set up to be my judges, ludit. This was the commendation that I enter my caveat againit them, that they Persius gave him; where, by vitium, he ought not so much as to be of my jury; mcans those little vices which we call folor if they be admitted, 'tis but reason that lies, the defects of human understanding, they should fi, ít hear what I have to urge or at most the peccadillos of life, rather in the defence of my opinion..

than the tragical vices, to which men are That Horace is somewhat the better in- hurried by their unruly passions and exorbi. fruétor of the two, is proved hence, that tant desires. But on the word omne, which his instructions are inore general, Juvenal's is universal, he concludes with me, that the more limited: so that, granting that the divine wit of Horace let nothing untouchcoun'els which they give are equally good ed; that he entered into the utmost recelies for mural use, Horace, who gives the most of nature; found out the imperfections various advice, and most applicable to all even of the most wise and grave, as well as occafions which can occur to us in the course of the common people; discovering even of our lives; as including in his discourses in the great Trebatius, to whom he adnot only all the rules of morality, but also dresses the first fatire, his hunting after buof civil conversation ; is undoubtedly to be finess, and following the court; as well as preferred to him, who is mcre circum- in the persecutor Crispinus, bisim pertinence cribed in his instructions, makes them to and importunity. 'Tis true, he exposes feiver people, and on fewer occasions, than Criípinus openly as a common nuisance; the other. I may be pardoned for using but he rallies the other as a frierd. more an old saying, since it is true, and to the finely. The exhortations of Persius are purpose, Bonum quo communius eo melius. confined to noblemen; and the stoick phi. Juvenal, excepting only his first satire, is lofophy is that alone which he recommends in all the rest confined to the expofing to them: Juvenal exhorts to pa ticular vir. some particular vice; that he lancs, and tues, as they are opposed to those vices there he sticks. His sentences are truly against which he declaims; but Horace thining and inftructive; but they are laughs to ihame all follies, and infinuates sprinkled here and there. Horace is teach- virtue rather by familiar examples than by ing us in every line, and is perpetually mo the severity of procepts. ral; he had found out the skill of Virgil, to This last consideration seems to incline hide his sentences; to give you the virtue the balance on the side of Horace, and to of them without fhewing them in their full give him the preterence to Juvenal, not only extent: which is the oficntation of a poet, in profit, but in pleasure. But, after all. Í and not his art. And this Petroniuscharges must confess that the delight which Horace on the authors of his time, as a vice of gives me is but languilling. Be pleased writing, which was then growing on the bill to understand, that I speak of my own age: Ne fententiæ extra corpus orationis emi taste only: he may ravith other men; but neant. He would have them weaved into I am too stupid and insensible to be tickled. the body of the work, and not appear em Where he barely grins himself, and, as Scabosied upon it, and striking directly on the liger says, only thews his white teeth, he

Folly was the proper cannot provoke me to any laughter. His quarry of Horace, and not vice: and as urbaniiy, that is, his good-manners, are to there are but few notoriously wicked iren, becominended, but his wit is faint; and his in comparison with a fhical of fools and fit, if I may dare to say so, almost insipid,

Juvenal

The most striking instance I know of this and was once foundly drubbed by a soldier low pasion for drollery, is Toby Bumper, for engaging with his trull. The lait time a young fellow of famiiy and fortune, and I saw him he was laid up with two black not without ralents, who has taken a more eyes, and a broken pate, which he got in a than ordinary pains to degrade himself; and midnight kirmish, about a mistress, in a is now become almost as low a character, night-cellar.

Connoifeur. as any of those whom he has chosen for his companions. Toby will drink purl in a § 109. Causes of national Characters. morning, smoke his pipe in a night.cellar, The vulgar are very apt to carry all dive for a dinner, or eat black puddings at national characters to extremes ; and havBartholomew-fair, for the humour of the ing once ciablished it as a principle, that thing. He has also studied, and practises, any people are knavish, or cowardly, or all the plebeian arts and exercises, under ignorant, they will admit of no exception, the best maters; and has disgraced himielf but comprehend every individual under with every impolite accomplishmerit. lie the same character. Men of sense conhas had many a fet to with Buckhorfe; and deinn these undistinguishing judgments; has now and then the honour of recriving though at the fame time they allow, that a fall from the great Broughton himself. each nation has a peculiar set of manners, Nobody is better known among the hack, and that some particular qualities are niore ney.coachman, as a brother-wnip: at the frequently to be met with among une peonoble game of prison-bars, he is a match pie than among their nugnbours. The even for the natives of Ellex and Cheshire; common people in Switzerland have surely and he is frequently engaged at the Ariil. more probity tran thole of the same rank in lery-ground with Faulkner and Dingate at Ireland; and every prudent man will, fron cricket; and is himielf esteemed as good a chat circumftance alone, inake a difference bat as either of the Bennets. Anoiner of in the trust which he repoles in each. We Toby's favourite amusements is, to aitond have reason to expect greater wit and the executions at Tyburn; and it once gaicty in a Frenchman than in a Spaniard, happened, that one of his familiar intimates though Cervantes was born in Spain. An was unfortunately brought thither; when Englishman will naturally be thought to Toby carried his regard to his deceased have more wit than a Dane, though Tyfriend so far, as to get himself knocked cho Brahe was a native of Denmark. down in endeavouring to rescue the body Different reasons are alligned for these from the furgeons.

national characters, while some account for As Toby affects to mimic, in every par- them from moral, and others from phyfiticular, the art and manner of the vulgar, cal caufes. By moral causes I mean all he never fails to enrich his conversation circumstances which are fitted to work on with their emphatic oaths and expreflive the mind, as motives or reasons, and which dialect, which recommends him as a man render a peculiar set of manners habitual of excellent humour and high fun, among

Of this kind are the nature of the the Choice Spirits at Comus's Court, or at government, the revolutions of public afthe meeting of the Sons of jound Sense and fairs, the plenty or penury in which the Satisfaction. He is also particularly famous people live, the fituation of the nation for singing those cant fongs, drawn up in with regard to its neighbours, and such the barbarous dialect of tharpers and pick- like circumstances. By physical causes, I pockets; the humour of which he often niean those qualities of the air and climate, heightens, by screwing up his mouth, and which are supposed to work infenfibiy on rolling about a large quid of tobacco be- the temper, by aliering the tone and habic tween his jaws. These and other like ac- of the body, and giving a particular comcomplithments frequently promote lim to plexion ; which, though reflection and reathe chair in these facetious societies. fon may sometimes overcome, yet will it

Toby has indulged the same notions of prevail among the generality of mankind, humour even in his amours; and is well- and have an influence on their nanner. known to every street-walker from Cheap. That the character of a nation will very fide to Charing-cross. This has given te- much depend on moral caulcs, must be veral shocks to his constitution, and often evilent to the most fuperhcial obierver; involved him in unlucky scrapes. Ile has fince a nation is nothing but a collection of been ficquently bruited, beaten and kicked, individuals, and the manners of individuals by the bullies of Wapping and Fleet-ditch; are frequently determined by thelc caules.

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