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As poverty and hard labour debase the under female shapes; but if any one of minds of the common people, and render them has a more particular title to that them unfit for any science and ingenious fex, it is Modesty. I shall leave it to the profession, so where any government be- divines to guard them againft the oppocomes very oppressive to all its fubje&ts, it fite vice, as they may be overpowered by must have a proportional effect on their temptations; it is fufficient for me to have temper and genius, and must banish all the warned them against it, as they may be liberal arts from amongst them.

led astray by instinct. Spectator. The same principle of moral causes fixes the characters of different professions, $111. Chastity a valuable Virtue in a and alters even the disposition which the

Man. particular members receive from the hand But as I am now talking to the world of nature. A filier and a priest are dif- yet untainted, I will venture to recommend ferent characters in all nations and all chastity as the noblest male qualification. ages, and this difference is founded on It is, methinks, very unreafonable, that circumftances, whose operation is external the difficulty of attaining all other good and unalterable.

habits, is what makes them honourable; The uncertainty of their life makes but in this case, the very attempt is besoldiers livilli and generous, as well as coine very ridiculous: but in spite of all brave; their idleness, as well as the large the raillery of the world, truth is ftill truth, focieties which they form in camps or and will have beauties infeparable from it. garrisons, inclines them to pleasure and I should, upon this occafion, bring examgallantry; by their frequent change of ples of heroic chastity, were I not afraid company they acquire good breeding and of having my paper thrown away by the an openness of behaviour; being employed modifh part of the town, who go no faronly against a public and open enemy, ther, at best, than the mere absence of ill, they become candid, honest, and undefign- and are contented to be rather irreprcaching: and as they use more the labour of able than praise-worthy. In this particuthe body than the mind, they are com lar, a gentleman in the court of Cyrus monly thoughtless and ignorant.

reported to his majesty the charms and 'Tis a trite but not altogether a false beauty of Panthea ; and ended his panemaxim, that priests of all religions are the gyric by telling him, that since he was fame; and though the character of the at leisure, he would carry him to visit her. profession will not in every instance pre. But that prince, who is a very great man vail over the personal character, yet is it to this day, answered the pimp, because he fure always to predominate with the greater was a man of quality, without roughness

, number. For as chemists observe, that and said, with a smile, If I should vilt spirits when raited to a certain height her upon your introduction, now I have are all the same, from whatever materials leisure, I don't know but I might go again they be extracted; fo these men being ele- upon her own invitation when I ought to vated above humanity, acquire an uniform be better employed." But when I caft character, which is entirely their own, and about all the initarces which I have met which is in my opinion, generally speak. with in all my reading, I find not one fo ing, not the most amiable that is to be met generous, so honeft, and so noble, as that with in human society; it is in most points of Jofeph in holy writ. When his maiter opposite to that of a soldier, as is the way had truiled him so unreservedly (to speak of life from which it is derived.

it in the emphatical manner of the scripHume's Elays.

ture)

“ He knew not aught he had, save

the bread which he did eat," he was so § 110. Chastity an ailditional Ornament to Beauty.

unhappy as to appear irresistibly beautiful

to his mistress; but when this shameless There is no charm in the female sex, that woman proceeds to folicit him, how galcan supply the place of virtue. Without land is his answer ! “ Behold ray maiter innocence, beauty is unlovely, and quality wotteth not what is with me in the house, contemptible; good-breeding degenerates and hath committed all that he hath to my into wantonners, and wit inio impudence. hand; there is none greater in the house It is observed, that all the virtues are re. than I, neither hath he kept back any presented by both painters and statuaries thing from ..e but thec, because thou art

his

his wife.The same argument, which a is generally a person of great fortune and base mind would have made to itself for weak intellects : committing the evil, was to this brave man the greatest motive for forbearing it, “ Who will as tenderly be led by th' nose, that he could do it with impunity; the

As atles are."

SHAKESPEARE. malice and falsehood of the disappointed woman naturally arose on that occasion, He plays, not that he has any delight in and there is but a Mort step from the cards and dice, but because it is the practice of virtue to the hatred of it. It fashion; and if whist or hazard are prowould therefore be worth serious consider- posed, he will no more refuse to make one ation in both sexes, and the matter is of at the table, than among a set of hard importance enough to them, to ask them. drinkers, he would object drinking his glass selves whether they would change light- in turn, because he is not dry. ness of heart, indolence of mind, chearful There are some few instances of men of meals, untroubled flumbers, and gentle fenfe, as well as family and fortune, who dispositions, for a constant pruriency which have been dupes and bubbles. Such an thuts out all things that are great or in- unaccountable itch of play has seized them, different, clouds the imagination with in- that they have sacrificed every thing to it, sensibility and prejudice to all manner of and have seemed wedded to seven's the delight, but that which is common to all main, and the odd trick. There is not a creatures that extend their species. more melancholy object than a gentleman

A loose behaviour, and an inattention of sense thus infatuated. He makes himto every thing that is serious, flowing from self and family a prey to a gang of villains some degree of this petulancy, is observa- more infamous than highwaymen; and ble in the generality of the youth of both perhaps when his ruin is completed, he is fexes in this age. It is the one common glad to join with the very scoundrels that face of most public meetings, and breaks dctroyed him, and live upon the spoil of in upon the fobriety, I will not say feve- others, whom he can draw into the same rity, that we ought to exercise in churches. follies that proved to fatal to himself. The pert boys and flippant girls are but Here we may take a survey of the chafaint followers of those in the same incli- raeter of a sharper; and that he may have nations at more advanced years. I know no room to complain of foul play, let us not who can oblige them to mend their begin with his exceilencies. You will

permanners; all that I pretend to, is to enter haps be startled, Mr. Town, when I men. my protest, that they are neither fine gen. tion the excellencies of a sharper; but a tlemen nor fine ladies for this behaviour. gameller, who makes a decent figure in As for the portraitures which I would pro the world, must be endued with many amipose, as the images of agreeable men and able qualities, which would undoubtedly women, if they are not imitated or re appear with great lustre, where they not garded, I can only ansiver, as I remember eclipsed by the odicus character afhxed to Mr. Dryden did on the like occasion, when his trade. In order to carry on the com

young fellow, just come from the play mon business of his profeffion, he must be of Cleomenes, told him, in raillery against a man of quick and lively parts, attended the continency of his principal character. with a stoical calmness of temper, and a If I had been alone with a lady, I should constant presence of mind. He must smile not have passed my time like your Spartan: at the loss of thousands; and is not to be

That may be," answered the bard with discomposed, though ruin stares him in the a very grave face; “ but give me leave to face, As he is to live among the great, tell you, Sir, you are no hero.

he must not want politeness and affability; Guardian, he must be submissive, but not servile; he

must be master of an ingenuous liberal air, $112. The Chara&ers of Gameslers. and have a feeming openness of beha

viour. The whole tribe of gamesters may be These must be the chief accomplishranked under two divisions : Every man ments of our hero: but left I should be who makes carding, dicing, and betting accused of giving too favourable a like. his daily practice, is either a dupe or a ness of him, now we have seen his outside. harper; two characters equally the ob- let us take a view of his heart. There jects of envy and admiration. The dupe we shall find avariçe the main spring that

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moves the whole machine. Every game- smile, although he is provoked; when he fier is eaten up with avarice; and when mus look serene in the height of despair : this passion is in full force, it is more and when he must act the stoic, without strongly predominant than any other. It the consolation of one virtuous sentiment, conquers even lust; and conquers it more or one inoral principle! How unhappy mutt effectuilly than ag. At fixty we look at he be, even in that situation from which a fine woman with pleasure; but when he hopes to reap most benefit; I mean cards and dice have engrofild our at amidit ftars, garters, and the various herds tention, women and all their charms are of nobility! Their loruthips are not alflighted at five-and-twenty. A thorough ways in a humour to play: they choose to gamester renounces Venu and Cupid for laugh; they choose to joke; in the mean Plutus and Ames-ace,' and owns no mis- while our hero muft patiently await tie tress of his heart except the queen of good hour, and must not only join in the trumps. His insatiable avarice can only laugh, and applaud the joke, but mult 12be gratificà by hypocrify; fo that all those mour every turn and caprice to which that fpecious virtues already mentioned, and fet of spoiled children, called bucks of quawhich, if real, might be turned to the lity, are liable. Surely his brother Thickbenefit of mankind, must be directed in a et's employment, of fauntering on horse. gameiter towards the destruclion of his back in the wind and rain till the Reading tellow-creatures. His quick and lively coach passes through Sinallberry-green, is parts ferve only to instruct and aflift hin the more eligible, and no less hönelt occuin the most dexterous method of packing pation. the cards and cogging the dice; his for The sharper has also frequently the moru titude, which enables him to lose thousands tification of being thwarted in his deligr.s. without emotion, muit often be practised Opportunities of fraud will not for ever against the flings and reproaches of his present themselves, The false dice cannot contience, aud his liberal deportinent and be conitantly produced, nor the packed affect. d opennef, is a specious veil 10 cards always be placed upon the table. It recommend and conceal the blackelt vil- is then our gamelter is in the greatest danlainy.

ger. But even then, when he is in the It is now neceitary to take a second sur- power of fortune, and has nothing but mere vey of his heart; and as we have icen its luck and fair play on his fide, lie mult fland vices, let us consider its miferies. The the brunt, and perbaps give away his lift covetous man, who has not fuíticicnt con- guinea, as cooly as he would lend a noblesage or inclination to encrease his fortune man a thilling by bets, cards, or dice, but is contented to Our hero is now going off the face, and hoard up theulands by thefts leis public, bis catastrophe is very tragical. The next or by cheats les liable to uncrtainty, lives news we hear of him is his death, atchieved in a 1łate of perpetual suspicion and terror; by his own hand, and with his own pilo!! but the avaiicious fears of the gamelter An inquest is bribed, he is buried at midare infinitely greater. He is contian to night--and forgotten before fun-rise. wear a mak; and like Monsieur St. Croix, These two portraits of a fharper, where. cocuju:cur to that famous empoisonneuile, Ma in I have endeavoured to fhew citier.no dame Brinvillier, if his mark falls oft, he likenesses in the fame man, put me in mil suns the hazard of being fuffocited by the of an old prini, which I remember at Oxstench of his own poisons. I l'ave icen lome ford, of Count Guiscard. It first night he examples of this fort not many years ago was exbibited in a full-bottomed wig, a at Whiie's. I am uncertain whether the hat and feather, embroidered cloaths, diawretches are fill alive; but if they are still mond butions, and the full court dres of alive, they breathe like toads under ground, those days; but hy pulling a flring the folds crawling amidit old walls, and paths long of the paper were thifted, the face only since unfrequented.

remained, a new body cime forward, and But supposing that the sharper's hypo- Count Guiscard appeared to be a devil. crily remains undetected, in what a Hate

Conneur. . of mind must that man be, whose fortune depends upon the insinceriry of his licart, $!13. The TATLER's Advice to bis Sienot the diningenuity of his behaviour, and the Jenny'; a gocd Leffin for young Ladies. fue bias of his dice! What lentations My bro:her Tranquillus being gone uit muit he fuppeti, when he is obliged to of town for tome days, my faster Tonyint

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me word she would come and dine with me, ed it from the representatio. she gave me and therefore desired me to have no other of his. “ I have every thing in Tranquilcompany. I took care accordingly, and lus,” says the, “ that I can wish for an! was not a little pleased to see her enter the enjoy in him (what indeed you told me room with a decent and matron-like beha- were to be met with in a good huford) viour, which I thoughe very much becaine the fondness of a lover, the tenderness of her. I saw she had a great deal to say to a parent, and the intimacy of a friend.” me, and easily discovered in her eyes, anil le transported me to fee her eyes swimthe air of her countenance, that the hud ming in tears of affection when the spoke. abundance of satisfaction in her heart, which “ And is there not, dear filter,” said I, the longed to com’nunicate. Hoivever, I more pleasure in the poffeffion of such a was resolved to let her break into her dir man, than in all the little impertinences of course her own way, and reduced her to a bills, assemblies, and equipage, which is thousand little devices and intimations to cost me so much pains to make you conbring me to the mention of her husband. temn? She answered smiling, “ Traj. But finding I was resolved not to name him, quillus has made me a fincere convert in a the begun of her ovn accord : " My hul- few weeks, though I am afraid you

could band,” say, Me, “gives his humble service not have done it in your whole life. To to you ;' to which I only answered, I tell you truly, I have ouly one fear banghope he is well,” and without waitin for ing upon me, which is apt to give me a reply, fell into other subjects. She at lait trouble in the inidit of all my fatisfa&tions: was out of all patience, and suid, with a I am afraid, you must kuow, that I shall smile and manner that I thought had more not always make the fame amiable apbeauty and spirit than I had ever observed pearance in his eyes, that I do at present. before in her; “ I did not think, brother, You know, brother Bickerítaff, that you you had been so ill-natured. You have have the reputation of a conjurer, and if seen ever since I came in, that I had a you have any one secret in your art to make mind to talk of my futband, and you will your filter always beautiful, I should be not be so kind as to give me an occasion.” happier than if I were mistress of all the "I did not know,” said I, “ but it might worlds you have shewn me in a starry be a disagreeable subject to you. You do night." - Jenny,” said I, “ without having not take me for fo old-fashioned a fellow recourse tú micic, I ll give you one as to think of entertaining a young lady plain rule, that will not fail of making you with the discourse of her huiband. I know always amiable to a man who has so great nothing is more acceptable than to speak a passion for you, and is of so equal and of one who is to be fo; but to speak of one reasonable a temper as Tranquillus ;-Enwho is so-indeed, Jenny, I am a better deavour to please, and you must please. bred man than you think me." She shew- Be always in the same disposition as you ed a little dislike to my raillery, and by her

are when

you

ask for this fecret, and you bridling up, I perceived she expected to be make take my word, you will never want it; treated hereafter not as Jenny Distaff, but an inviolable fidelity, good-humour, and Mrs. Tranquillus. I was very well pleased complacency of temper, outlive all the with the change in her humour; and upon charms of a fine face, and make the decays talking with her upon several subjects, I of it invisible."

Tatler. could not but fancy that I saw a great deal of her husband's way and manner in her

§ 114. Curiosity. remarks, her phrases, the tone of her voice, The love of variety, or curiosity of seeing and the very air of her countenance. This new things, which is the fame or at least à gave; me an unspeakable satisfaction, not filter paflion to it,--seems wove into the only because I had found her a husband frame of every fon and daughter of Adam; from whom the could learn many things we usually speak of it as one of nature's that were laudable, but also because I look- levities, though planted within us for the ed upon her imitation of him as an infalli- solid purposes of carrying forward the mind ble sign that the entirely loved him. This to fresh enquiry and knowledge: ftrip us is an observation that I never knew fail, of it, the mind (I fear) would doze for though I do not renember that any other ever over the present page; and we should has made it. The natural flyness of her all of us reft at ease with such objects as sex hindered her from telling me the great presented themselves in the parish or proness of her own passion, but I easily collecte vince where we firft drew breath,

It is to this fpur which is ever in our his pupil's neck;--for if he is such as my fides, that we owe the impatience of this eyes have seen! fo:ne broken Swiss valet. desire for travelling: the paflion is no ways de chambre--some general undertaker, bad,—but as others are-in its mismanage- who will perform the journey in so many ment or excess ;-order it rightly, the ad- months, “ if God pe mit,”-much knowvantages are worth the pursuit; the chief ledge will not accrue; some profit at least, of which are-to learn ihe languages, the he will learn the amount to a halfpenny, laws and cuitoms, and underland the go. of every stage from Calais to Rome;-he vernment and intereit of other nations, will be carried to the best inns, -instructed to acquire an urbanity and confidence of where there is the beit wine, and fup a behaviour, and fit the mind more easily for livre cheaper, than if the youth had been conversation and discourse ; to take us left to make the tour and bargain himielf. out of the company of our aunts and grand- Look at our governor! I beseech you :mothers, and from the tracks of nursery fee, he is an inch taller as he relates the miltakes; and by thewing us new objects, advantages.or old ones in new lights, to reform our - And here endeth his pride-hisknowjudgments-by tasting perpetually the va. ledge, and his use. rieties of nature, to know what is good But when your son gets abroad, he will by observing the address and arts of men, be taken out of his hand, by his fociety to conceive what is fincere,—and by fee. with men of rank and letters, with whom ing the difference of so many various hu- he will pass the greatest part of his time. mours and manners-to look into ourselves, Let me observe, in the first place, that and form our own.

company which is really good is very rare This is some part of the cargo we might and very shy: but you have surmounted return with; but the impulse of seeing new this difficulty, and procured him the beit fights, augmented with that of getting letters of recommendation to the most emiclear from all lessons both of wisdom and nent and respectable in every capital. reproof at home-carries our youth too And I answer, that he will obtain all early out, to turn this venture to much ac. by them, which courtesy ti rictly stands count; on the contrary, if the scene paiut- obliged to pay on such occasions-hut no ed of the prodigal in his travels, looks more. more like a copy than an original-will it There is nothing in which we are so not be well if such an adventurer, with so much deceived, as in the advantages prounpromising a fetting-out:-without care, posed from our connections and discourie without compass--be not cat away for with the literati, &c. in foreign parts; elpeever ;-- and may he not be said to escape cially if the experiment is made before we well--if he returns to his country only as are matured by years or suly. naked as he first lefi it?

Conversation is a traffick; and if you But you will send an able pilot with your enter into it without some flock of knowfon-a scholar.

ledge, to balance the account perpetually If wiltom could {pcak no other language betwixt you,--the trade drops at once: but Greek or Latin--you do well--or if and this is the reason, however it may be mathematics will make a gentleman,-or boasted to the contrary, why travellers natural philosophy but teach him to make have so little (especially good) convertaa bow,--he may be of some service in in. tion with natives owing to their supitroducing your son into good societies, and cion-or perhaps conviction, that there is supporting him in them when he has done nothing to be extracted from the conversa. but the uphop will be generally this, tion of young itinerants, worth the trouble that in the most prefing occasions of ad- of their bad language,—or the interruption dress, if he is a man of mere reading, the of their visits. unhappy youth will have the tutor to carry, The pain on these occasions is usually -and not the tutor to carry him. reciprocal; the consequence of which is

But you will avoid this extreme; he Mall that the disappointed youth seeks an ealer be escorted by one who knows the world, fociety; and as bad compar.y is always not merely from books—but from his own ready, and ever laying in wait-the caexperience :

:-a man who has been en reer is foon finished; and the poor prodiployed on such services, and thrice made gal returns the fame object of pity, with the tour of Europe with success.

the prodigal in the gospel. -That is, without breaking his own, or

Sterne's Sermons,

§ 115:

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