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Ante pedes caecislucebat semita nobis: Scilicet insano nemo in amore videt. And ironically, Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos Sollicitat. 8. Sic (a) in prayers; (b) in protestations. 9. Siccine? (implying a reproach.) “Is it thus that?”

Siccine me patriis avectam perfide, ab oris,
Perfide, deserto liquisti in litore, Theseu?

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VIII. (a) Be prepared to avail yourself of contracted forms of words, as well as of long syllables resolved into two short ones. E. g. Vinclum, poclum, nauta; lenibat, mollibat; noram, nossem; siltia, dissoliisse, persoliienda, &c. (b) Also of the occasional shortening of the penult of the 3rd pers. pl. perf ind. E. g. Stétèrunt, pāllūérunt, excidèrunt. (c) Also of the ending -ère instead of -ērunt, and of -re instead of -ris in the passive. Also of the use of Greek forms of words, especially in proper names. (d) Also of the licence allowed in the use and combination of numerals, and in the use of sive—ve, seu–aut, sive—sive, and even first sive omitted. So et—et, que—et, que—que, &c. &c. IX. In translating it will be necessary sometimes to condense, sometimes to expand, sometimes to break up, the English. In every case your aim should be to give the force and sense of the passage idiomatically, i.e. as a Latin poet would have expressed it. Servile adherence to literalness will result in a production that is not only neither poetry nor prose, but probably not even Latin.

X. Observe phrases and idioms in the course of your reading, and collect them in a book. Study good translations, and commit them to memory. The turning of a difficult expression will often be suggested by something you have seen before.


I. (a) 2nd Declension.—Ovid and Propertius use Genitive Sing. -ji of Nouns with Nom. -ius, -ium: as ingénii, &rsilii. Virgil and Horace use the contracted forms, as ott, ingent, peculi. (b) 5th Declension.—In Gen. and Dat. Sing. e is long after a vowel, e.g. dići; but doubtful after a consonant. Thus we find fidèi in Lucretius; but fidèi in writers of the Silver Age: so again rēi in Horace, but rei (sometimes rel, monosyll.) in Lucr. N.B. It will be best to imitate Ovid, Horace, and Virgil, in using the contracted forms of the Gen. and Dat., as fida, die; except in the case of diei, for which we have Virgil's authority. II. The i in fio is long, except in those tenses where r is present : e.g. Omnia jam fient, fieri qua posse negabam. III. Genitives in -ius have penult doubtful, as illiits or illius. So with ipsius, istius, nullius, ullius, unius. It is safest to regard the penult of alterius, utrius, as short; and of solius, totius, as long. Alius has the penult always long. IV. The final syllable in antea, interea, postea, praeterea, propterea, is long. Ovid, Fasti, i. 165, is no exception.

Postea there may be scanned postea, by Synaeresis ; or it may be resolved into post ea. W. (1) The prep. prae in composition, before a vowel, is shortened; e.g. prieäciitiis, præistãs, prééântë. (2) The prep. pro, in composition, is mostly long before a consonant, as prūdo, prücumbo, proficio. Obs. (a) Propago (verb) and propago (-ginis), with procuro (procurator) and propino, have pro doubtful. Obs. (b) The best authors have pro short in

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* Catullus has prūsudit once; but the balance of authority is in favour of profundo. The same remark applies to propello, which has first syll. long, except in two passages of Lucretius.

* Except, of course, when long by position, as rescindo, rescribo.

(4) Cor is best regarded as short. [The reading of Ov. Heroid. xv. 79 is open to question.] IX. The following compounds of facio have e short: calefacio, labefacio, madefacio, patefacio *, pavefacio, rubefacio, stupefacio, tremefacio, tumefacio. In putrefacio, e is short in Ovid. In liquefacio, e is generally short, but is found long in Ovid and Catullus. In tepefacio, e is short, with one earception in Catullus.

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EXERCISE I. (Graves).

AGAIN the balmy Zephyr blows,
Fresh verdure decks the grove;

Each bird with vernal rapture glows,
And tunes its notes to love.

Ye gentle warblers, hither fly,
And shun the noon-tide heat;

My shrubs a cooling shade supply,
My groves a safe retreat.

Stanza I. 1, 2. Lo, again the Zephyr breathes pleasant odours; and the wood is-green, gay with new garb.-3. And every (nullus non, Aids II. 1) bird glows with vernal rapture (dulcedo).-4. And begins (ineo) the tender strain of first love.

Stanza II. 1. “Hither fly,” turn your flight hither.—2. To where (quo) the shade keeps off the ray of the noon-day (medius) sun.—3, 4. Here my shrubberies supply cool shades (latebrae); and my grove gives safe (non violandus, Aids II. 1) retreats (tectum). See Poet. Orn. a.

EXERCISE II. (same continued).

Here freely hop from spray to spray,
Or weave the mossy nest;

Here rove and sing the livelong day,
At night here sweetly rest.

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