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Ilerodotus and Diodorus Siculus say the same. Lucian. de Dea Syr. § 2.
"Ει δέ-και θεοί δε καρία αυτοϊσι εμφανίες. ίδρωί γαρ δή ών παρα Coίσι τα ξόανα, και κινέέθαι και χρησμηγορίες και βοή δε πολλάκις εγέήτο έν το νηώ, κλεισθένος τε ρε, και πολλοί ήκουσαν. Sunt autens -præsentes valde üs Dü. Sudant enim apud illos simulacra, et morentur, atque edunt oracula. Clamor etiam scepe in æde multis exaudientibus ortus, cum clausum esset templum.
They had a statue of Apollo, differing from the Grecian innages of that god in two things, he was represented with a beard, and he was clothed ; and he delivered his oracles thus :
Μαντήλα σολλά μέν σαρ' “Ελλησι, πολλα δε και σας Αίγυπτίοισι. τα δε και έν τη Λιβύη, και εν τήδε 'Ασίη πολλα έσι. αλλα τα μεν έτειρέων άνευ έτι σροφητέων φθέγονται. όδε δε αυτός τε κινείται, και την μανληΐην ές τέλος αυτεργίει. τρόπος δέ αυτής τoιόσδε. εύτ' αν εθέλησι χρησμη/ορέειν, εν τη ευρη ερωτα κινείται. οι δέ μιν ρέες αυτίκα αείρουσι. ήν δε μη αείρωσι, ο δε έδρώει, και ές μέσον έτι κινέέθαι. εύτ' άν δε υποδύντες φέρωσι, άγει σφέας, πάνη σεριδινέων, και ες άλλον εξ ετέρε μεταπηδέων. τέλος ο αρχιερεύς αν ιάσας, έπερίείαί μιν περί απανίων σχημάτων και δε ήν τι μή θέλη σουίσθαι, όπίσω αναχωρέει. ήν δέ τι επαινέη, άγει ες το σφίσω τας προσφέροντας, όκωσπερ ηνιοχέων. έτω μεν συναγείρεσι τα θέσφατα, και έτι ιρον σρηγμα εδέν, έτε ίδιον τότε άνευ ποιεoυσι. λέγει δε και το έτερος σέρι, και των ορέων αυτε σασέων, και οπότε εκ έσονται. λέγει δε και το Σημείο σέρι, κότε χρή μιν διαδημέειν, την είπον αποδημίην. 'Ερέω δε και άλλο το έμευσαρεόντος έπρηξε. οι μεν μιν Ιέες αείφονίες έφερον, ο δε τες μεν έν γη κάτω λιπί, αυτός δε εν τω ήερι μονος εφοfé':no. Oracula apud Grrecos multa, multa apud Ægyptios. Verum etiam in Libya et in Asia multa sunt. Sed alia non sine sacerdotibus vel prophetis respondent : at hic movetur ipse, et divinationem ai finem usque solus perducit. Modus hic est. Cum vult reddere oraculum, in $ede primum sua movetur. Sacerdotes vero ipsum continuo tollunt. Si vero non tollant, ille sudat, et versus medium adhuc meretur. Cum vero subeuntes onus ipsum ferunt; agit ilios usquequaque in orbem, et in alium ex alio transilit. Tandem obsistens sacerdotum princeps interrogat illus de rebus omnibus. Isque si nolit fieri, retrocedit; si vero probet, antrorsum agit suos bajulos, tanquam haI. mis anriga. Ita colligunt oracula, & neque rem sacram mi?an neque privatam sine hoc faciunt. Prædicit etiam de anno omnibusque illius tempestatibus, et quando non
tollunt. o mentions the old story of the wooden lituus of Romulus,
fætur sint: item prædicit de signo, quando eam, quam dirham modo, profectionem suscipiat. Narrabo etiam aliud, quod, me præsente, egit. Sacerdotes sublatum ferunt. At ipse illos humi reliquit, sublimis ipse solus ferrbatur. Ib. § 36, 97.
This author says here that he saw the image suspended and moving along in the air, upon which La Croze and Guietus observe that he is a liar*. They did not consider that feats as surprising as this have been performed by machinery assisted with legerdemain ; and that Christian monks, as well as Pagan priests, have been eminent in such arts. We are obliged to the writer for not omitting a remarkable circumstance, that the image was adorned with a fine robe; the cloak was not put on for nothing, and served in all probability to conceal some knavery.
The tricks of the Egyptian priests were not to be coupured to this ; their little gods, when they were married in procession, did not sweat, like these statues, Dut valy made the porter sweat :
nos consumed in a fire, and treats it as a fable, De Divin. oda tillver it might possibly be true ; for incombustible wood has suleted
sic numina Memphis
Claudian iv. Cons. Hon. 569. Observe that this statue did not speak, and that when the writer says λέγει έτεος σέρι, he only means that it indicated or declared. From his account we may collect, that when any question was put to it, if it retired and drew back, that was as much as to say, No: if it advanced, the meaning was, Yes.
We have accounts very like this, from other authors, of other statues and oracles. Diodorus Sic. xvii.
says of Jupiter Ammon : Το δε τε Θεέ ξόανον–την μανθείαν ιδιαζουσαν σανθελώς σοιείται. επί νεως σεριφέρεται χρυσης υπό ιερέων όγδοήκονlα. Ετοι δε επί των ώμων φέροντες τον θεόν, σροαγουσιν αυ τομάτως όπι σοτ' άν άγοι το τε θεα νεύμα την πορείαν. SimulaCium Dei-peculiari novoque plane vaticinandi genere oracula edit. In aurea enim navi a sacerdotibus octoginta circumfertur; qui humeris Deum gestantes eo tendunt quo forte fortuna Dei nutus eos agit. Compare with this Q. Curtius iv. 7. Macrobius, i. 23. says, Hujus [Heliopolitani ) templi religio etiam divinatione præpollet, quæ ad Apollinis potestatem refertur, qui idem atque Sol est. Vehitur enim simulacrum Dei Heliopolitani ferculo, -et subeunt plerumque provincire proceres, raso capite, longi temporis castimonia puri; ferunturque divino spiritu, non suo arbitrio, sed quo Deus propellit vehentes : ut videmus apud Antium promoveri simulacra Fortunarum ad danda responsa. Strabo says from Callisthenes, that Ammon delivered his answers, é doce nóywr, anna sev uasa xas owubónous tò antor. non verbis, sed, ut plurimum, nutu et signis. See Van Dale De Oruc. p. 210. who produces these passages of Diodorus, Macrobius, and Strabo, and adds some from other authors.
The writer de Dea Syria tells us that the beasts which were kept in this sacred place lost their natural fierceness. 'Εν δε τη αυλή αφέθοι νέμονται βόες μεγάλοι, και ίπποι, και αετοί, και άρκοι, και λέοντες, και ανθρώπες αδαμα σίνονlαι, αλλα σανίες τροί τε εισι, rġ xepenbees. In aula soluti pascuntur boves magni, et equi, et aquilae, et ursi, et leones, qui nequaquam nocent hominibus, sed sacri omnes sunt, et mansueti. § 41.
The city and temple also, as he informs us, swarmed with Galli, or castrated priests, who perhaps performed the same operation upon these wild beasts, which they had performed upon themselves; and this, together with due correction administered from time to time, and a good education, and seeing much company, and proper food, and a full belly, and three meals a day, would make these lions and bears as tame as lambs. The meyako. Bóes were probably oren, who grow to a much larger size than bulls ; and a bull is a surly animal, with whom it is hard to cultivate any friendship.
Van Dale observes from Theophrastus, that cedar, and those sorts of wood which contain an oily moisture, will have a dew upon them in damp weather, and that statues made of them will sweat, which pass. ed for a prodigy with silly people. He mentions this, as illustrating what is said in the book De Dea Syria concerning sweating images: but I rather think that the priests there had some surer contrivance to bring about this miracle, and could make their images sweat when they thought it proper.
The book De Dea Syria is very entertaining, and composed elegantly, and in the lonic dialect: the author seems to have been a pagan who gave credit to
prodigies, oracles, and the power of the gods, which was not Lucian's case, If Lucian wrote it, to whom it is ascribed, one might suspect that, as he proposed to follow Herodotus in style and manner, so he affected to imitate him in gravely relating marvellous and strange things. But if this were his design, it was of too refined a nature, and by the seriousness which runs through the whole composition, the jest has been hitherto lost. Lucian, Ver. Hist. ii. 31. banters Herodotus as a liar, though unjustly, I think ; for in this charming historian there are some marks of credulity, but none of dishonesty. Whosoever made the book, and with whatsoever intent, his narration seems to be historically true, and much of it is confirmed by other writers. We are informed by Fabricius, Bill. Gr. iii. 501. that Jurieu, in his History of the Jewish Rites and doctrines, has concluded that Lucian was not the author of this treatise, because it is written in the Ionic dialect. The argument proves nothing, for Lucian was an ingenious monkey, who could imitate what he would, and throw himself into all shapes; and he might affect this sweetly flowing style, for several reasons, or out of mere fancy; and Arrian, as Fabricius observes, wrote his Indica in this dialect, though he composed his other works in the Attic diction. I have not Jurieu's book' to consult, and perhaps it is not worth the seeking. Jurieu made a figure in his time, and had more zeal than discretion. He wrote some tracts of devotion, and he was remarkable for two things; first, for misinterpreting the Apocalypse, and thence foretelling what never came to pass ; secondly, for publishing idle stories against Grotius, and other learned men, in a book called L'Esprit de Monsieur Arnauld. The book at first had a run, for censure VOL I, H