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In the same epistle, viii. Ignatius introduces a Jew, saying, εαν μή έν τους αρχαίους ευρω, εν τω ευα/γελία και σισεύω. Nisi invenero in antiquis (vaticiniis) Evangelio non credo. Where see Le Clerc.
Ad Smyrn. ν. 8ς εκ έπεισαν αι προφηβείαι, υδ' ο νόμος Μωσέως, αλλ' δε μέχρι νυν το ευαγfέλιον. Quibus nec prophetice persuasere, nec Mosis ler, sed nec Evangelium. He speaks of heretics, who denied that Christ had a body, and that he really suffered. How were such people to be converted or confuted ? By the testimony of the apostles, recorded in the New Testament; of men, who, as Ignatius says, did eat and drink with the Lord, both before and after his resurrection : consequently Evasgéaser in this place means the gospels, the books of the New Testament,
Ib. vii. προσέχειν δε τοίς προφίταις, εξαιρέτως δε τώ ευαγίελίω, ενώ το πάθος ημίν δεδήλωθαι, και η ανάσασις τελείωται. Attendere autem prophetis, precipue autem Evangelio, in quo passio nobis ostensa, et resurrectio perfecta est.
Thus the shorter epistles of Ignatius allude to the writings of the apostles ; but in the larger epistles, which are generally supposed to be interpolated, the passages of the Old and New Testament are more numerous, and cited more accurately and directly, and sometimes impertinently, as in the Constitutions, and introduced with, Thus saith our Lord-Thus says Paul, and Peter, and Luke, and, Thus say the scriptures. The apostolical fathers rather allude than cite; and therefore the hand of the forger discovers itself in these larger epistles.
Ignatius wrote his letters when he was condemned, and chained, and guarded, and conducted by soldiers, who were mere brutes, and used him ill ; cà rg Evezdettμενοι χείρες γινοται, εν δε τους αδικήμασιν αυτών μαλλον μαθητέυο
quae. Qui et beneficio affecti, pejores funt : at ego eorum injuriis magis erudior, or, Christi discipulus fio. Ad Rom. v.
We may justly suppose, and the word evepgrloperos implies it, that the Christians who attended this most venerable bishop and martyr, and resorted to him on his journey to Rome, gave money to his guards, that they might be permitted to converse with him, and to minister to him, and that he might have leave to write and send his letters; and this small indulgence was granted by those ruffians with an ill grace, and in an insolent manner. Therefore, it is more probable, that the shorter epistles should be genuine than the larger, with their pomp and parade of passages from the Old and New Testament, which
-secessum scribentis et otia quærunt. In the interpolated epistles of Ignatius Ad Ephes. v. λέγει δε και ο Κύριος προς τας ιερείς και υμών ακέων, εμε ακέει. The Lord says to the priests, He that heareth you,
heareth me, &c. from Luke x. 16, A very suspicious phrase : why does this writer call the disciples priests ?
Ib. xii. εγω ελάχισος Ιγνάτιος-από τα αίματος "Αβελ τη δικαίς έως τα αίματος Ιγνατία ελάχισος. Εgo minimus Ignatius -minimus a sanguine Abelis justi usque ad Ignatii sanguinem. In this application of scripture there is a vanity, under a feigned modesty, which ill suits with this humble and pious martyr, who as yet had not shed his blood.
Ad Magnes. iii. Δανιήλ μεν και ο σοφός, δωδεκαετής, γέγονε καToxos To Oeiv aréwmało. Daniel enim ille sapiers, quum duodecim esset annorum, spiritu dirino afflatus est. A childish romance ; and what follows is no better.
AdPhilad.ivοι άρχοντες σειθαρχάτωσαν το Καίσαρι, οι σρατιώται Tois ägxxo1. Principes obediant Cæsari, milites principibus. This smells of interpolation : Jgnatius addresses him
self not to Pagans, but to Christians; and it may be questioned, whether in his time there were Christian officers and soldiers in the Roman army. See Moyle's Letters concerning the Thundering Legion, whose arguments in behalf of the negative are very strong.
Ad Smyrn. V. speaking of heretics, he says, tädi óróμαία αυτών, ένα άπισα, νυν καικ εδοξέ μοι ευγραψαι μηδέ γείνοιτό με αυτών μνημονεύειν, μέχρι και μέλανοήσωσιν. Nomina vero eorum, cum sint infidelia, non visum est mihi [nunc] scribere : et vero absit a me ut eorum mentionem fucian, donec pocnitertia ducantur. And accordingly, the genuine Ignatius mentions not, I think, the name of any heretic. But how does this agree with the catalogue of heretics in the interpolated epistle ad Trallianos, where he names Simon, Menander, Basilides, the Nicolaitæ, Theodotus, Cleobulus? The interpolator seems to liave been aware of it, and therefore he has slyly inserted a rūre yür øn Soči, at this time I will not name them. In the shorfer epistle we have fx obočs without the vűv. Observe that the nunc is not in the Latin translation joined to the interpolated epistles ; but it is omitted or dropped by some accident, for it is in the ancient Latin version of the interpolated cpistles, ---Non est mihi riunc visum scribere.
Ib. ix. Τίμα, φησίν, με τον Θεόν και βασιλέα. εγω δε φημι: Τίμα μεν τον Θεόν, ως αίτιον των όλων και κυριον. επίσκοπον δε, ως asxrepéa, Oes eixárce popsirlme xale pir zò észety, ©<ô, xolce de To ιερατεύειν, Χρισε. και μέγα τέτον, τιμάν χρή και βασιλέα. Μ1 και , says Solomon, honour God anıl the king: but I say unto you, Honour God, as the Author and the Lord of all; and
as the high-priest who bears the inage of God; of God, us he is a ruler, and of Christ, ras he is a priest. And after him honour the king also.
The author of this commandment, in all probability, was a bishop, but not such a bishop as Ignatius. The scripture says—but I say I who am wiser and greater than Solomon. A very modest speech truly, and much in character, and becoming the meek Ignatius! Here the bishop is equalled, or rather, is preferred to Jesus Christ ; for Christ is not supposed to be ägxwr, a Ruler, though he be King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. Af: ter this homage is paid to the bishop, leave is given to the Christians to honour Cæsar. How condescending and gracious, and how well contrived to make the Roman emperors very fond of their Christian subjects ! But this is altogether in the style of the Apostolical Constitutions.
Ib. He says to those who had shewed him kindness, ο τιμών δέσμιον Ιησε Χρισε, μαύρων λήψεται μισθόν. Qui honorat vinctum Jesu Christi, martyrum accipiet mercedem. Ignatius would not have spoken thus of himself.
There are in these epistles a multitude of places which agree with the Constitutions ; the one certainly transcribes the other, and both are of the same stamp, ejusden farince *
Polycarp, in his Epistle to the Philippians, supposed to be written about A. D. 107, has passages and expressions from Matthew, Luke, the Acts, St Paul's Epistles to the Philippians, Ephesians, Galatians, Gorinthians, Romans, Thessalonians, Colossians,' 1 Timothy, | Epist. of John, and 1 of Peter, and makes particu
• The reader is desired to observe, that these larger epistles have boch examined and condemned, as interpolated, by Usher, Pearson, Ilammond, Cotelerius, Is. Vossius, Le Clerc, and many others, to whose objections and arguments I have endeavoured here to add a few more, and shall add something further" when I come to speak of Ignatius.
lar mention of St Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians. Indeed his whole epistle consists of phrases and sentiments taken from the New Testament. To the references in the margin might be added,
iii. ήτις έξι μήτηρ σαλων υμών. from Gal. iv. 26.
vi. Πάντα ημών σκοπείται, (or μωμοσκοπείται) και λέληθεν αυτόν αδέν, έτε λογισμών, έτε εννοιών, έτε τι των κρυπτών της καρδιάς. This is manifestly taken from Hcb. iv. 12, 13.
The heretics also, who were contemporaries with the apostles and apostolical fathers, bear their testimony to the existence of the New Testament, and most of them had their forged or interpolated gospels and epistles, as knowing that without something of this kind they could not hope to get and retain any followers,
Simon the magician, and his disciples, are said to have composed books for the propagation of their stupid doctrines, and to have ascribed those books to Christ and to the apostles, that they might impose them upon silly people. If so, this was done in opposition to the books of the New Testament, and in imitation of them. The Christians afterwards were even with this reprobate, for they related many an idle story about him, and also made hin a more considerable impostor than probably he ever was, though he seduced several poor wretches.
The Gnostics admitted some, and rejected other parts of the New Testament.
The Cerinthians received part of St Matthew's gospel, and rejected every thing else ; particularly the epistles of St Paul, whom tliey had in great abomination.
The Ebionites and Nazarenes had a gospel according to the Hebrews, or a Hebrew gospel of St