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he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless.

13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and 8 ch. viii. 12. foot, and [i take him away, and] cast him 8 into outer dark

ness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. h ch. xx. 16. 14 h For many are called, but few are chosen.

15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. 16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. 17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar, or not? 18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites ?

19 Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto • him a k penny. 20 And he saith unto them, Whose is this i omit.

k render, denarius. none can appear before God in His King. themselves honest men, Luke xx. 20, would doin of glory ;-Heb. xii. 14: Phil. iii. be more likely to deceive our Lord. For 7, 8: Eph. iv. 24: Col. iii. 10: Rom. this also is their flattery here designed. xiii. 14 :—which truth could not be put "The devil never lies so foully, as when he forward here, but at its subsequent mani. speaks the truth. Meyer compares that festation threw its great light over this other “ we know that,John iii. 2. The and other such similitudes and expres. application may have been as if to settle a sions. This guest imagines his own gar. dispute which had sprung up between the ment will be as acceptable, and therefore Pharisees, the strong theocratic repudiators neglects to provide himself. See 1 John of Roman rule, and the Herodians, the v. 10: Isa. Ixiv. 6; lxi. 10: Rev. xix. 8. hangers-on of a dynasty created by Cæsar.

Friend] see note on ch. xx. 13. In case the answer were negative, these

13. 14.1 These servants (diaconoi, last would be witnesses against Him to the ministers) are not the same as the above, governor (Luke xx. 20); as indeed they but the angels, see ch. xiii. 41, 49. The became, with false testimony, when they . binding of his feet and hands' has been could not get true, Luke xxiii. 2; in case interpreted of his being now in the night, it were affirmative, He would be comproin which no man can work; but I doubt mised with the Roman conquerors, and whether this be not too fanciful. Rather could not be the people's Deliverer, their should we say, with Meyer, that it is to expected Messias ; which would furnish render his escape from the outer darkness them with a pretext for stirring up the impossible. In ver. 14 our Lord shews multitudes against Him (see Deut. xvii. us that this guest, thus single in the 15). 17.] The tribute here spoken of parable, is, alas, to be the representative was a poll-tax, which had been levied since of a numerous class in the visible Church, Judæa became a province of Rome. who although sitting down as guests 18-22.] Our Lord not only detects their before His coming, have not on the wedding plot, but answers their question; and in garment.

answering it, teaches them each a deep 15-22.7 REPLY CONCERNING THE LAW. lesson. The tribute money was a FULNESS OF TRIBUTE TO CÆSAR. Mark denarius : see on ch. xx. 2. It was a saying xii. 13-17. Luke xx. 20-26. On the of the Rabbis, quoted by Lightfoot and WetHerodians, see above, ch. xvi. 6. By the stein, that wherever any king's money is union of these two hostile parties they per current, there that king is lord.' The Lord's haps thought that the "spies" or "sub- answer convicts them, by the matter of fact orned persons (Luke), who were to feign that this money was current among them,

Rom. xiii.7.

image and superscription ? 21 They say unto him, Cæsar's. Then saith he unto them, · Render therefore unto Cæsar ich. xvii 25. the things which are Cæsar's; and unto God the things that are God's. 22 When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

23 The same day came to him the Sadducees, * which say k Acts xxiii. S. I that there is no resurrection, and asked him, 24 saying, Master, 'Moses said, If a man die, having no children, 1 Deur. Ixv. 5. his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 25 Now there were with us seven brethren : and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased, and, having no issue, left his wife unto his brother : 26 likewise the second also, and the third, unto the seventh. 27 And last of all the woman died also. 28 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife shall she be of the seven ? for they all had her. 29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as [m the] angels of God I read, saying.

m omit. of subjection to (Tiberius) Cæsar, and re. ask, whether it were lawful for him to pay cognition of that subjection : Pay therefore, the penalty of his adultery.' (Claudius, He says, the things which are Cæsar's cited by Stier.) They had again and again to Cæsar, and (not perhaps without refer rejected their theocratic inheritance ;ence to the Herodians, but also with much they refused it in the wilderness ;-they deeper reference) the things that are God's, would not have God to reign over them, to God. These weighty words, so much mis. but a king ;-therefore were they subjected understood, bind together, instead of sepa- to foreigners (see 2 Chron. xii. 8). rating, the political and religious duties of 23–33.] REPLY TO THE SADDUCEES the followers of Christ. See Jer. xxvii. RESPECTING THE RESURRECTION. Mark 4–18: Rom. xiii. 1:1 Pet. ii. 13, 14: xii. 18—27. Luke xx. 27-40. From John xix. 11. The second clause compre. Acts xxii. 8, the Sadducees denied resurhends the first, and gives its true founda- rection, angel, and spirit; consequently tion: as if it had been, this obedience to the immortality of the soul, as well as Cæsar is but an application of the general the resurrection of the body. This should principle of obedience to God, of Whom is be borne in mind, as our Lord's answer is all power.' The latter clause thus reaches in directed against both errors. It is a misfinitely deeper than the former: just as our take into which many Commentators have Lord in Luke x. 41, 42 declares a truth fallen, to suppose that the Sadducees rereaching far beyond the occasion of the meal. cognized only the Pentateuch: they acMan is the coinage, and bears the image, knowledged the prophets also, and rejected of God (Gen. i. 27): and this image is not tradition only. 24. raise up seed) lost by the fall (Gen. ix. 6: Acts xvii. 29: The firstborn son of such a marriage James iii. 9. See also notes on Luke xv. was reckoned and registered as the son 8, 9). We owe then ourselves to God: of the deceased brother.

29, 30.7 and this solemn duty is implied, of giving Ye do not understand the Scriptures, ourselves to Him, with all that we have which imply the resurrection (ver. 31), nor and are. The answer also gives them the the power of God, before which all these real reason why they were now under sub- obstacles vanish (ver. 30). Sce Acts xxvi. jection to Cæsar : viz. because they had 8: Rom. iv. 17, viii. 11:1 Cor. vi. 14. fallen from their allegiance to God. «The

Our Lord also asserts here against question was as if an adulterer were to them the existence of angels, and reveals

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10. Heb. xi. 18.

. 12: XXX. 6.

Gal. v. 14.

James ii. 8. q ch. vii. 12

in heaven. 31 But as touching the resurrection of the

dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you m Exop. iii. 6. by God, saying, 32 m I am the God of Abraham, and the

God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God

of the dead, but of the living. 33 And when the multitude n ch. vii. 28. heard this, " they were astonished at his doctrine.

34 But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together. 35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, 36 Master, which is

the great commandment in the law ? 37 Jesus said unto o Deut. vi.bin him, • Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy

heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.

38 This is the first and great commandment. 39 And the p Lxv. xix. 18. second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as ch. xix. 19.

1. tit.o. thyself. 40 9 On these two commandments hang all the ach. vii. Iz . law and the prophets.

n see note. to us the similarity of our future glorified their continuance, as the other parties in state to their present one. are as an- this covenant. It is an assertion which gels of God in heaven] because the risen could not be made of an annihilated being will not be in heaven, but on earth. The of the past. And notice also, that AbraRabbinical decision of a similar question ham's (&c.) body having had upon it the was, that a woman who had been the wife seal of the corenant, is included in this. of two husbands on earth, is restored in the Stier remarks that this is a weighty testinext life to the former of them.

mony against the so-called 'sleep of the 31-33.] Our Lord does not cite the strong soul' in the intermediate state. Compare testimonies of the Prophets, as Isa. xxvi. “ for all live unto Him” Luke xx. 38. 19: Ezek. xxxvii, 1–14: Dan, xii. 2, but Thus the burden of the Law, .I AM THE says, as in Luke (xx. 37), 'even Moses has LORD THY GOD,' contains in it the seed of shewn,' &c., leaving those other witnesses immortality, and the hope of the resurto be supplied. The books of Moses were rection. the great and ultimate appeal for all doc- 34-40.7 REPLY CONCERNING THE trine: and thus the assertion of the Resur. GREAT COMMANDMENT. Mark xii. 28rection comes from the very source whence 34. In the more detailed account of Mark their difficulty had been constructed. On (Luke has a similar incident in another the passage itself, and our Lord's inter- place, x. 25), this question does not appear pretation of it, much has been written. as that of one maliciously tempting our Certain it is, that our Lord brings out Lord : and his seems to me the view to be in this answer a depth of meaning in the taken,- as there could not be any evil words, which without it we could not consequences to our Lord, whichever way discover. Meyer finely says, “Our Lord He had answered the question. See the here testifies of the conscious intent of notes there.

35. a lawyer] These God in speaking the words. God uttered were Mosaic jurists, whose special province them, He tells us, to Moses, in the con- was the interpretation of the Law. Scribe sciousness of the still enduring existence of is a wider term, including them. His peculiar relation to Abraham, Isaac, and tempting ] See above. 36. which is the Jacob.” The groundwork of our Lord's ar great commandment] This should more gument seems to me to be this :--The words exactly be rendered, which (what kind of

I am thy God’ imply a covenant; there a) commandment is great in the law ? is another side to them: “thou art Mine” In Mark, otherwise. 40. the law follows upon “I am thine.” When God and the prophets] in the sense of ch. v. 17; therefore declares that He is the God of vii. 12: all the details of God's ancient Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, He declares revelation of His will, by whomsoever made.

Acts ii. 34.

x. 12, 13. & Luke xiv. 6.

41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, 42 saying, What think ye o of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. 43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, 44 • The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on r Pos. 1.1 my right hand, till I P make thine enemies thy footstool ? 45 If Cor: 12:25. David then call him Lord, how is he his son ? 46 8 And no slike Ir.6. man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions.

XXIII. 1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, 2 saying, a The scribes and the Pharisees sit in - Mal. ii.7. Moses' seat: 3 all therefore whatsoever they bid you [9 observe], that observe and do; but do not ye after their

o render, the Christ?
P read, put thine enemies beneath thy feet ?

q omit. 414-46.] THE PHARISEES BAFFLED BY Matthew having arranged the scattered A QUESTION RESPECTING CHRIST AND sayings of the Lord into longer discourses, David. Mark xii. 35-37. Luke xx. 414 see Introduction to Matthew. A trace of 44. [See also Acts ii. 34.7 Our Lord this discourse is found in Mark xii. 38now questions his adversaries (according 40: Luke xx. 45–47. In the latter place to Matt. :-in Mark and Luke He asks it is spoken to the disciples, in hearing the question not to, but concerning the of the crowd: which (see ver. 8 ff.) is the Scribes or interpreters of the law), and exact account of the matter. It bears again convicts them of ignorance of the many resemblances to the Sermon on the Scriptures. From the universally recog. Mount, and may be regarded as the sonized title of the Messiah as the Son of lemn close, as that was the opening, of David, which by his question He elicits the Lord's public teaching. It divides it. from them, He takes occasion to shew self naturally into three parts : (1) introthem, who understood this title in a mere ductory description of the Scribes and worldly political sense, the difficulty arising Pharisees, and contrast to Christ's disfrom David's own reverence for this his ciples (vv. 1--12): (2) solemn denunciaSon : the solution lying in the incarnate tions of their hypocrisy (vv. 14—33): (3) Godhead of the Christ, of wbich they were conclusion, and mournful farewell to the ignorant. 43. in spirit] i.e. by the temple and Jerusalem. 2.] Moses' seat inspiration of the Holy Spirit : by (in) is the office of judge and lawgiver of the the Holy Ghost," Mark. This is a weighty people : see Exod. ii. 13-25 : Deut. xvii. declaration by our Lord of the inspiration 9–13. Our Lord says, 'In so far as the of the prophetic Scriptures. St. Mark (ver. Pharisees and Scribes enforce the law and 37) adds to this “the common people precepts of Moses, obey them : but imitate heard him gladly.” Here then end the not their conduct.

The verb renendeavours of His adversaries to entrap dered sit must not be pressed too strongly, Him by questions : they now betake them as conveying blame,– have seated themselves to other means. "A new scene, as selves ; ' -it is merely stated here as a matit were, henceforth opens.” Bengel. ter of fact. Vv. 8, 10 however apply to

CHAP. XXIII. 1-39.7 DENUNCIATION their leadership as well as their faults; OF THE SCRIBES AND PHARISEES. Pe and declare that among Christians there culiar to Matthew. 1.] Much of the are to be none sitting on the seat of Christ. matter of this discourse is to be found in

3. all therefore] The therefore here Luke xi. and xiïi. On its appearance there, is very significant:- because they sit on see the notes on those passages. There Moses' seat: and this clears the meaning, can, I think, be no doubt that it was deli- and shews it to be, "all things which vered, as our Evangelist here relates it, they, as successors of Moses, out of his all at one time, and in these the last days law, command you, do;' there being a of our Lord's ministry. On the notion distinction between their lawful teaching entertained by some recent critics, of St. as expounders of the law, and their frivo

&c. C Acts xv. 10.

Gal. vi. 13.

16. e Num. XV. 38.

DEUT. vi. 8: xxii. 12.

v Rom. ii. 17, works: for b they say, and do not. 4c For they bind dal si... heavy burdens [r and grievous to be borne], and lay them

on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move d ch. vi. 1, 2,5, them with one of their fingers. 5 But d all their works

xvi. 8: they do for to be seen of men : e they make broad their Prov. iii. s. phylacteries, and enlarge s the borders of their garments,

6 and love the uppermost t rooms at feasts, and the chief

seats in the synagogues, 7 and greetings in the markets, f James ir i: and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. 8? But be not ye

called Rabbi: for one is your Master (u even Christ] ; and all ye are brethren. 9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

24. 1 Pet. v.

r omitted in some ancient authorities.

8 literally, their hems. t render, place. u omit. lous traditions superadded thereto, and religious matter, using such titles, signifyblamed below. 4.] The warning was, ing dominion over the faith of others. It imitate them not-for they do not them- must be understood in the spirit and not in selves what they enjoin on others. And the letter. Paul calls Timotheus his son' this verse must be strictly connected in the faith, 1 Tim. i. 2, and exhorts the with ver. 3. The burdens then are Corinthians (1 Cor. xi. 1) to be followers not, as so often misinterpreted, human of him as he of Christ. To understand traditions and observances ;--but the and follow such commands in the slavery severity of the law, which they enforce of the letter, is to fall into the very Phaon others, but do not observe (see Rom. risaism against which our Lord is utterii. 21-23): answering to the weightier ing the caution. See (e. g.) Barnes's note matters of the law of ver. 23. The here. Rabbi: i. e. my master :' an irksomeness and unbearableness of these expression used, and reduplicated as here, rites did not belong to the Law in itself, by scholars to their masters, who were never as rightly explained, but were created by called by their own name by their scholars. the rigour and ritualism of these men, who So the Lord says, John xiii. 13, “ye call followed the letter and lost the spirit; who me Master and Lord, and ye say well, for spent all their labour in enforcing and am so I am.The Teacher is probably not plifying ceremonies. 57.) But what. Christ, as supplied here in the received ever they do perform, has but one motive. text, but the Holy Spirit (see John xiv.

phylacteries were strips of parch 26 : Jer. xxxi. 33, 34: Ezek. xxxvi. 26, ment with certain passages of Scripture, 27), only not here named, because this viz. Exod. xii. 11-16 and 1–10: Deut. promise was only given in private to the xi. 13-21; vi. 4—9, written on them, disciples. If this be so, we have God, in and worn on the forehead between the His Triunity, here declared to us as the eyes, on the left side next the heart, and only Father, Master, and Teacher of Chrison the left arm. The name in the text tians; the only One, in all these relations, was given because they were considered on whom they can rest or depend. They as charms. They appear not to have are all brethren: all substantially equal been worn till after the captivity; and none by office or precedence nearer to God are still in use among the rabbinical Jews. than another; none standing between his Their use appears to have arisen from a brother and God. And the duty of all superstitious interpretation of Exod. xiii. Christian teachers is to bring their hearers 9: Deut. vi. 8, 9. See Joseph. Antt. iv. to the confession of the Sainaritans in John 8. 13. The hems or fringes, were com iv. 42: “ Now we believe, not because of manded to be worn for a memorial, Num. thy saying, for we have heard Him our. xv. 38. See note on ch. ix. 20.

selves, and know that this is the Saviour 6,7.] See Mark xii. 38, 39: Luke xx. of the world.9.7 Literally, name 46, 47. On the uppermost place at not any Father of you on earth; no feasts, see Luke xiv. 7. 8-10.) The 'Alba' or · Papa' (see the account of the prohibition is against loving, and in any funeral of John Wesley, Coke and More's

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