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q ver. 28.
Eph. ii. 1,5: v. 14. Col. ii. 13.
[t on] him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and a shall p 1 John iii. 14 not come into condemnation : P but x is passed from death
unto life. 25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is q yer: 28.1.5. coming, and now is, when 9 the dead shall hear the voice li 13. Col. of the Son of God: and they that y hear shall live.
26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so z hath he * Acts 1: 42: given to a the Son to have life in himself; 27 and "bhath s han vii. 18, given him authority to execute judgment [° also], because t omit.
a render, cometh not into judgment.
% render, gave he.
b render, gave.
r ver. 22.
ver. 10, we have the same expression," he the dead,-in reference to the words that believeth not God,” even in the A. V. “out of death” of the preceding verse
hath everlasting life : so 1 John the spiritually dead :-see below on ver. v. 12, 13. The believing, and the having 28. the voice of the Son of God ] His everlasting life, are commensurate:-where call to awake, in its widest and deepest the faith is, the possession of eternal life sense ;-by His own preaching, by His is :- and when the one remits, the other is Apostles, His ministers, &c. &c. In all forfeited. But here the faith is set before these He speaks to the spiritually dead. us as an enduring faith, and its effects Not merely, “and when they have heard described in their completion (see Eph. i. it, they shall live :” but, and THEY 19, 20). cometh not into judgment] who have heard it (or, who hear it) Judgment being the separation, the effect shall live. This determines the verse to of which is to gather out of the Kingdom be spoken of spiritual, not bodily awakenall that offendeth ;-and thus regarding ing. they that have heard are the especially the damnatory part of judg. persons to whom the Lord cried so often ment,- he who believes comes not into, « he that hath ears to hear, let him hear :" has no concern with, judgment. Compare the persons who stand opposed to those Ps. cxlij. 2. The reckoning which ends addressed in ver. 40. shall live is with “ Well done, good servant,” is not explained in the next verse. judgment: the reward is of free grace. 26, 27.] We have here again vivifying and In this sense, the believers in Christ will judging bound together as the two great not be judged according to their works : departinents of the Son's working ;-the they are justified before God by faith, and former, as substantiating the word “shall by God God is he that justifieth, who live" just uttered; the latter, as leading is he that condemneth? Their passage on to the great announcement of the next over' from death into life has already verse. But the two departments spring tuken place,- from the state of spiritual from two distinct sources, united in the death into that everlasting life, which in Person of the Incarnate Son of God. The their believing state they have already. Father hath given Him to have life in It is to be observed that our Lord speaks Himself, as He is the Son of God. We in very similar terms of the unbelieving have none of us life in ourselves : in Him being condemned already, in ch. iii. 18. we live and move and have our being.
The perfect sense of the word hath But He, as the Father is, is the source of passed must not be weakened nor ex. Life. Then again the Father hath given plained away. 25.] This verse con- Him power to pass judgment, because He tinues to refer to spiritual awakening is THE SON OF MAN ; man is to be judged from the dead. The words The hour is by Man,-by that Man whom God hath coming, and now is are an expression used appointed, who is the inclusive Head of of those things which are to characterize humanity, and to whom mankind, and the spiritual Kingdom of Christ, which man's world, pertain by right of covenantwas even now begun among men, but not purchase. This execuiing judgment leads yet brought (until the day of Pentecost, the thought to the great occasion when Acts ii.) to its completion. Thus it cometh, judgment shall be executed; which acin its fulness, -and even now is begun. cordingly is treated of in the next verse.
Isa. xxvi. 19. 1 Cor. xv. 52. 1 Thess. iv.
he is the Son of man. 28 Marvel not at this : for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, 29 t and shall come forth; u they that + Iseoravi:10. have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they hol he that have done evil, unto the resurrection of a damnation. Mais wa 30 » I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge : 5 Mikt. Ixvi. and my judgment is just; because y I seek not mine own, viss will, but the will of [e the Father] which [f hath] sent me. 10. 31 z If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. xvii silny 32 a There is another that beareth witness of me; and ,20 d render, judgment.
e read, him. omit.
u Dan. xii. 2.
32, 33, 46. x ver. 19. y Matt. xxvi.
39. c. v.
34 : vi. 39. z See chap
a Matt. iii, 17:
cb. viii. 18.
28.] Marvel not at this, as in treating of the testimony by which these ch. iii. 7, introduces a matter of even things were substantiated, and which they greater wonder to them ;—the astounding ought to have received. This verse is, proof which shall be given in the face of however, perhaps rather a point of transthe universe that this is so
the ition to the next, at which the testimony hour cometh, but not “and now is " this is first introduced. As the Son does time,- because He is now speaking of the nothing of Himself,—but His working and great day of the resurrection: when not His judgment all spring from His deep merely “the dead," but all that are in the unity of will and being with the Father, graves, shall hear His voice, and “they this His great and last judgment, and all that have heard” are not specified, be. His other ones, will be just and holy (He cause all shall hear in the fullest sense. being not separate from God, but one with Observe that here, as elsewhere, when Him); and therefore His witness given of the judgment according to works is spoken Himself ver. 17, and called by them blasof, it is the great general resurrection phemy, is true and holy also. Obof Matt. xxv. 31–46, which (and the serve, the discourse here passes into the notes) compare. So here we have not first person, which was understood before, “they that have believed,” and “they because He had called himself the Son of that have not believed," but the descrip- God,but is henceforth used expressly. tions reach far wider, including indeed
31.] This assertion is not to be in this most general form the first re- trifled away by an accommodation, or supsurrection unto life also-and the two posed to be introduced by · Ye will say to great classes are described as they that Me:'-see by all means ch. viii. 12-14 have done (wrought) good and they that and notes. The words are said in all have done (practised, see on ch. ii. 20, earnestness, and are strictly true. If such 21) evil (vain, worthless things).
a separation, and independent testimony, Observe that life and judgment stand op- as is here supposed, could take place, it posed here, as in ver. 24:- not that there would be a falsification of the very conis no such thing as a resurrection of death, ditions of the Truth of God as manifested but that it is involved in this judgment. by the Son, Who being the Word, speaks, Olshausen observes that this, and Acts not of himself, but of the Father. And in xxiv. 15, are the only direct declarations this sense ch. viii. 14 is eminently true in the N. T. of a bodily resurrection of the also, the light being the “brightness of unjust as well as of the just. It is implied the Father's glory." 32.] This in some places, e.g. Matt. x. 28, and less other can, by the inner coherence of the plainly in Matt. xxv. 34 ff.: Rev. xx. 5, discourse, be no other than THE FATHER, 12, and directly asserted in the 0. T., of Whom so much has been said in the Dan. xii. 2. In 1 Cor. xv.,-as the object former part, but Who is hinted at rather was to convince believers in Christ of the than mentioned in this (the word “ Father" truth of the resurrection of their bodies,– in ver. 30 being spurious). It cannot be no allusion is made to those who are not John,- from whom (ver. 34) our Lord took believers.
30.] Here begins the not his testimony. Similar modes of al. second part of the discourse,--but bound luding to the Father occur ch. viii. 50: on most closely to the first (ver. 23), see also ch. viii. 18, and. Matt. X. 28 aud
c? Pet. i. 19.
I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is b ch. 1:15, 19, true. 33 Ye 8 sent unto John, and he h bare witness unto
the truth. 34 i But I receive not k testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved. 35 He
was la burning and ca shining light: and ye were willing xi: : m for a season to rejoice in his light. et Juhn v. 2. 36 But en I have greater witness than that of John: for Ich dii: 24. 24. the works which the Father o hath given me to finish, the
same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father 8 render, have sent.
h render, hath borne. i better, yet.
k render, my testimony. I render, the lamp lighted and shining. m render, to rejoice for a season. Brender, the testimony which I have is greater than that of] John. O render, gave.
1. 25: xv. 24.
parallel places and I know ...] Wette takes the article as meaning, the This is the Son's testimony to the Father's lamp which was to lead you,' &c. truth: see ch. (iii. 33) vii. 28; viii. 26, 55. On John as the light lighted not lighting, It testifies to the full consciousness on the see note, ch. i. 8. and shining] The part of the Son, even in the days of his description sets forth the derived, and humiliation, of the righteousness of the transitory nature of John's light. Father: and (for the testimony of the and ye....] See Ezek. xxxiii. 30, 32. Father to the Son is contained in the “But you wished only to disport yourScriptures) also to His distinct recognition selves in his light for a time-came out and approval (Ps. xl. 6-8) of psalm and to him in crowds at first,-and-like type and prophecy, as applied to Himself silly children who play with the fire till it and His work. 33.] See ch. i. 19. burns and hurts them, and then shrink The connexion is,--another testifies of Me from and loathe it,-when he began to (ver. 32)—not John only, although he, speak of deep repentance as the preparation when sent to, did certainly testify to the for God's Kingdom, and laid the axe to the truth; for' &c. he bare witness root of the trees, you left him. No one unto the truth, not merely (Grot.) mo cared, when he was imprisoned and put to destly said ;-but necessarily. Bare wit death. And even those few who remained ness to Me would have been asserting true to him, did not follow his direction to what the next verse denies. 34.] 's Christ. For the mass of the people, and receive not my testimony (the testimony their leaders, his mission was in vain. to Me of which I have spoken) from man,
36.7 Literally, I have my witness but I mention John's testimony, that you greater than John; or, than that of John; may make the intended use of it, to be led but perhaps this is not needed, for John to Me for salvation. 35.] This was himself was a testimony for the shews, as Stier rightly observes, that works, not His miracles alone, although John was now cast into prison, if not those principally; but the whole of His executed. the lamp] The article has life and course of action, full as it was of been taken by some to point to the pro- holiness, in which, and as forming har. phecies concerning John. But we have no monious parts of which, His miracles were passage in the 0. T. which designates testimonies of His divine mission. His Elias in such terms. In Ecclus. xlvii. 1 greatest work (ch. vi. 29) was the awakening we read of him, “ Then stood up Elias the of faith, the quickening of which we have prophet as fire, and his word burned like heard before, to which the miracles were a lamp,” which Stier thinks may be re. but as means to an end
the same ferred to here. We may, as indeed he also works that I do] The repetition is to shew suggests, believe that those words repre- that His life and working was an exact sent or gave rise to a common way of fulfilment of the Father's will. The works speaking of Elias, as certain Rabbis were which the Father hath given me to do, called The candle of the Law,' &c. De those very works which I am doing .....
ch. i. 18.
hath sent me. 37 And the Father himself, which hath sent me, & hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither g Matt. iii. 17: heard his voice at any time, h nor seen his shape. 38 And ch: "1:27: ye have not his word abiding in you : for whom he heart is. 12. [P hath] sent, him ye believe not. 39 i q Search the scrip- „ . Jom 12. tures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life : and Luke . k they are they which testify of me. 40 17 And ye will not Aets Ivii. 11. come to me, that ye might have life. 41 m I receive not Bike
27. ch. 1. 45. Ich. i. 11: ii. 19. P omit.
qor, Ye search : see note. I render, And yet ye are not willing to.
i Isa, viii. 20:
xxxiv. 16. Luke xvi. 29.
k Deut. xvili.
m ver. 84.
37-39.] The connexion of these guage, took them (with one remarkable verses has been much disputed. I believe exception, Cyril of Alexandria) as impeit will be found to be this : The works of rative. And I believe the imperative sense which I have spoken, are only indirect only will be found to cohere with the pretestimonies; the Father Himself, who sent vious verses :- see above, where I have given Me, has given direct testimony concerning the context. And no other sense will suit Me. Now that testimony cannot be de. the word search: which cannot be used, as rived by you, nor any man, by direct come in the indicative it would be, with blame munication with Him; for ye have never attached to it,-'ye make nice and friheard His voice nor seen His shape. (Or volous search into the letter of Scripture;' perhaps,- have not heard His voice, as your but implies a thorough search (see also fathers did from Sinai,-nor seen His 1 Pet. i. 11) into the contents and spirit of visional appearance, as the Prophets did.) Scripture. Ye (emphatic) imagine Nor (ver. 38), in your case, bas it been that in them (emphatic) ye have eternal given by that inward witness (ch. iii. 33; life. We may find testimonies to this 1 John iv. 13, 14) which those have (and from the Rabbis : “ He who acquires the had in a measure, even before the gift of words of the law, acquires for himself the Spirit-- see, among other places, Ps. li. eternal life," &c. But they, like all 11), in whom His word abides ; for ye have other secondary ordinances, have a spiritual not His word abiding in you, not believing end in view, and that end is to testify, on Him whom He hath sent. Yet (ver. 39) from first to last (it is their office); they there is a form of this direct testimony are they that testify of ME. 40.] I of the Father, accessible even to you; would connect these words with the former, “ Search the Scriptures," &c. Chrysostom and regard them as describing the inconand others understand the word voice to sistency of those who think that they have refer to the voice at our Lord's baptism : life in the Scriptures, and yet will not but, as Lücke observes, the addition, at come to Him of whom they testify, that any time, forbids this. Observe that the they may have life. Observe, this testimony in the Scriptures is not the only, command to the Jews to search their nor the chief one, intended in ver. 37, but Scriptures, applies even more strongly to the direct testimony in the heart of the Christians; who are yet, like them, in believer ;—which, as the Jews have not, danger of idolizing a mere written book, they are directed to another form of the believing that in the Bible they have Father's testimony, that in the Scriptures. eternal life, and missing the personal
39.] The word Search may be indica knowledge of Him of whom the Scriptures tive, Ye search: then the sense will be, ‘Ye testify. The words Ye are not willing search the Scriptures, for ye believe ye to come here set forth strikingly the freehave &c., and they are they that testify of dom of the will, on which the unbeliever's Me: and (yet, ver. 40) ye will not come condemnation rests : see ch. iii. 19. to Me that ye may have life :' or impera. 41–44.] The connexion seems to be ;tive, as in the text, in which case generally the standing-points of our Lord and of the a period has been placed after me, and a Jews were not only different, but were fresh sentence begins at And yet ye are inconsistent with and exclusive of one not willing .... Authorities are very another. He sought not glory from below, divided between these : the Greek Fathers, from man's praise or report: the Father who should best understand their own lan- testified to Him, in all the ways which have
xii. 3: Xviii.
8 honour from men. 42 But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you. 43 I am come in my Father's
name, and ye receive me not : if another shall come in his o ch. XIL 48. own name, him ye will receive. 44 n How can ye believe,
which receive s honour one of another, and seek not the o Rom. ii. 20. 08 honour that cometh from t God only? 45 Do not think p Rom. ii. 12. that I will accuse you to the Father : P there is one that
accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye a trust. 46 For had 9 Gen. iii. 15: 18: xxii. 18: ye bene
: ye believed Moses, ye would > have believed me : 9 for he Deut. Ivili. wrote of me. 47 But if ye believe not his writings, how lavi. Acts shall ye believe my words ? 8 render, glory.
t render, the only God. u render, hope.
X render, believe. been specified; but this testimony they less, in that their final reference, embrace could not receive, nor discover Him in their also all the cases in which the Jews hare Scriptures, because human regards and more or less received those false Messiahs ambition and intrigue had blinded their who have been foreshadowers of the great eyes, and they had not the love of God Antichrist, and indeed all the cases in (the very first command in their law, which such a spirit has been shewn by Deut. vi. 4,5) in their hearts. 41.] I re- them, even in the absence of false Messiahs. ceive not, not merely, 'I do not desire,'
44.] How can ye (emphatic) is but I do not receive;'-'no such praise 'grounded on “ye are not willing"- is the nor testimony accrues to Me, nor has in consequence of the carnal regards in which Me that on which it can lay hold. My they lived from the only God, not glory is altogether from another source from God only' (A. V.), which is un
42.] But (nevertheless, howbeit) draws grammatical : in contradistinction to the forcibly the distinction, setting Himself idolatry of the natural heart, which is and them in strong contrast. I know ever setting up for itself other sources of you] By long trial and bearing with your honour, worshipping man, or self;-or manners these many generations; and per- even, as in the case alluded to in the last sonally also. The words are spoken, not verse, Satan,-instead of God. The words of an ungodly mind in general, but of an “the only God” are very important, be. absence of that love which God's covenant cause they form the point of passage to people should bave for Him. They would the next verses; in which the Jews are none of Jesus : for they were not true accused of not believing the writings of Israelites.' This love, if they had it, would Moses, the very pith and kernel of which teach them,—the whole heart, and soul, was the unity of God, and the having no and mind, and strength being given to other gods but Him. 45.] The work God,- to seek honour only from him,-and of Christ is not to accuse, even as He is thus to appreciate the glory which He Judge ;—but to judge, by the appointment hath given to His Son, and His testimony of the Father. And therefore-though He concerning Him. 43.] The first clause has said so much of the unbelief of the is clear. In the latter we have a prophetic Jews, and charged them in the last verse declaration regarding the Jews in the with breach of the central law of God - He latter days. This another is in strong will not accuse them; nay, it is not need. contrast with the “another" of ver. 32. ful ;-for Moses, whom they disbelieved, • The testimony of that Other, who is while vainly hoping in him (see above on greater than I, ye will not receive; but if ver. 39), “ making their boast in the law," another come in his own name, him ye will Rom. ii. 17,--already accused them : see receive.' The words are perhaps spoken Deut. xxxi. 21, 26, and ch. vii. 19. primarily of the false or Idol-Messiah, the 46. he wrote of me? This is an important Antichrist, who sball appear in the latter testimony by the Lord to the subject of days (2 Thess. ii. 8—12); whose appearance the whole Pentateuch ;-it is concerning shall be according to the working of Satan Him. It is also a testimony to the fact, (their father, ch. viii. 44), shewing himself of Moses having written those books, which that he is God, 2 Thess. ii. 4;- and doubt. were then, and are still, known by his