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of thyself; thy m record is not true. 1+ Jesus answered and said unto them, Though I bearm record of myself,

[n yet] my m record is true ; nn for I know whence I came, m render, witness.

nomit : not in the original. nn render, because.

deed of darkness had been detected in the in the supposition that our Lord-standing night. But not to dwell on other objec. in the very place where the candlesticks tions to this view,-e.g. that such an had been or perhaps actually were — allusion to the woman would be wholly should have alluded to that practice, as out of character after our Lord's previous He did to the outpouring of water in ch. treatment of her,-how come these Phari. vii. 37, 38 ? Surely to say in both cases, sees, who on the hypothesis of the above as Lücke and De Wette do, that the alluCommentators are the same as those who sion could not have been made unless the accused the woman, to be again so soon pre. usage took place on that day, is mere sent? Was this at all likely? We cannot triting. While the feast lasted, and the escape from this difficulty with Stier, by remembrance of the ceremonies was fresh, supposing a multitude of the people to the allusion would be perfectly natural. have been witnesses on both occasions : See on ch. i. 9, and xi. 9, 10. See also the “ Phariseesof the one must surely Isa. xlii. 6; Mal. iv. 2; and on "the light extend through the other, if this con- of life," ch. i. 4, and vi. 48. 13.] See nexion is to be maintained. On the ch. v. 31. The assertion there was, that other hand, this discourse comes in very His own unsupported witness (supposing well after ch. vii. 52. The last saying of that possible) would not be trustworthy, Jesus (ch. vii. 37, 38) bad referred to a but that His testimony was supported by, festal usage then just over; He now adds and in fact coincident with, that of the another of the same kind. It was the cus- Father. The very same argument is here tom during the first night, if not during used, but the other side of it presented to every night, of the feast of tabernacles, us. He does witness of Himself, because to light up two large golden chandeliers His testimony is the testimony of the in the court of the women, the light of Father ;-He being the Word of God, and which illuminated all Jerusalem. All that the Father witnessing in Him. 14.] night they held a festal dance by the light. because I know, &c.-see on ch. vii. 29.

Now granted that this was on the This reason binds His testimony to that of first night only,—what is there improbable the Father; for He came forth from the

e Luke ix. 50:

alone, and the woman [o standing in the midst. 10 When Jesus had
lifted up himself, p and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman,

where are those thine accusers ? hath no man condemned thee? 11. She xii. 14 ch. said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, c Neither do I condemn

iii. 17. ach: 1.14. tree: go, r and d sin no more.) o omit.

p read, he said unto the woman, Where are they? q read, And she said unto him.

r read, from this time. those of younger ones are more tender. comparison with themselves, if they con

alone, i.e. with the multitude and demned at all: which they had not done. the disciples; the woman standing between The words of Jesus were in fact a far Him and the disciples on one hand,—and deeper and more solemn testimony against the multitude on the other.

the sin than could be any mere penal 10, 11.] The question is evidently sO sentence. And in judging of them we worded as it is, hath no man condemned must never forget that He who thus

thee?" for the sake of the form of the spoke knew the hearts,-and what was * answer, “ Neither do I condemn thee :” the peculiar state of this woman as to but it expresses the truth in the depth of penitence. We must not apply in all cases their hearts. The Lord's challenge to a sentence, which requires His divine thein would lead to a condemnation by knowledge to make it a just one.

c See ch. vii.

28: ix. 29. d ch. vii. 24. e ch. iii. 17:

xii. 47: xviii.

xvi. 32

6: xix. 15. Matt. xviii. 16. 2 Cor. xiii.l. Heb.

h ch. V. 87.

xvi. 3.

and whither I go; but oye o cannot tell whence I come, s P and whither I go. 15 d Ye judge after the flesh; e I ech. 11. 17: judge no man. 16 9 And yet if I judge, my judgment 36. is true: 1 for 'I am not alone, but I and the Father that fver: 39 ch. sent me. 1788 It is also written in your law, that the s Deva, xull. testimony of two men is true. 18 I am tone that bear witness of myself, and h the Father that sent me beareth 1.25. witness of me. 19 u Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, 'Ye neither know me, nor i ver: 55. ch. my Father : k if ye had known me, ye X should have known k ch. xiv.7. my Father also. 20 These words spake Jesus in the 1 Mark xii. 41. treasury, as he taught in the temple : and mno man laid m ch. vii. 30. hands on him ; y for his hour was not yet come. n ch. vii. 8. 21 z Then said Jesus again unto them, I go a my way, and o render, know not.

P read, or. q better, Yea, and if I should judge. r render, because. S render, Moreover it is written. t render, he that beareth. u render, They said therefore.

X render, would know. y render, because

z render, Therefore.

a render, away. Father, ch. xvi. 28, and was returning to The word your seems to give this sense to Him. “Light,” says Augustine, “de the clause :—So that if you will have the moustrates other things, and itself also ... mere letter of the law, and judge my teslight gives testimony to itself: opens the timony by it, I will even thus satisfy you :' eyes that are capable of beholding it, and your thus implying, “The law which you is its own witness that it may be known to have made so completely your own by your be light.Then again, he only who kind of adherence to it. 19.] Augus. knows can witness : and Jesus only knew tine and others imagine that the Jews this. Notice I know whence I came thought of a human Father, in thus speak--this goes back to the “existence in the ing. But surely before this, as Stier rebeginning" of ch. i. 1; but ye know not marks, the Jews must have become too well whence I come,- do not recognize even accustomed to the words “my Father," My present mission. We must not from our Lord, to mistake their meanfor a moment understand Though I bear ing. It is rather a question asked in mere witness,” with Grotius, “even though I should scorn, by persons who know, but will not bear witness," &c.: i.e. “even though there recognize, the meaning of a word uttered were no previous testimonies to me of the by another. if ye had known me] prophets or of John the Baptist.Our See ch. xiv. 9 ff. and note. 20. the Lord's words do not suppose a case, but treasury] See Luke xxi. 1, and note on allows the fact. 15, 16.] There is no Mark xii. 41. It was in the court of the allusion to the foregoing history; the train women. his hour was not yet come] of thought is altogether another. “The See ch. vii. 8, 30. 21—-59.] Further end of all testimony, is the forining, or discourses of Jesus. The Jews attempt to pronouncing, of judgment. Ye do this by stone Him.-- This forms the great conclufleshly rules, concerning me and my mis. sion of the series of discourses to the Jews. sion: I judge no man, i.e. it is not the ob- In it our Lord testifies more plainly still to ject nor babit of this My mission on earth; His divine origin and sinlessness, and to but even if I be called on to exercise judg- the cause of their unbelief; until at last ment, my judgment is decisive:' the word their enmity is worked up to the highest meaning not exactly true in its ordinary pitch, and they take up stones to cast at meaning, but rather, genuine; which a Him. It may be divided into four parts : judgment can only be by being true and (1) vy. 21---24,--announcing to them the final; see ch. v. 30 and note. 17.] inevitable consequence of persistence in

xiii. 33. P ver. 24.

xvii. 16

s ver. 21.

och. vii. 34: °ye shall seek me, and P shall die in your b sins : whither

I go, ye cannot come. 22 c Then said the Jews, Will he

kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot 9 ch. iii. 31.

come. 23 And he said unto them, 9 Ye are from beneath; reh: .219: I am from above: 'ye are of this world; I am not of this 1 John iv. 5.

* world. 2+ s I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in

your sins : for if ye believe not that I am cc he, ye shall die in your sins. 25 d Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, e Even the same that

I said unto you from the beginning. 26 I have many things b render, sin.

C render, The Jews therefore said. cc not expressed in the original.

d render, Therefore. e read and render, In very deed, that same which I speak unto you. their unbelief, on His withdrawal from many as have laid violent hands on themthem : (2) vv. 25—29,-the things which selves, for their souls there is a darker He has to say and judge of them, and the Hadés reserved.” Heracleon, as cited by certainty of their own future recognilion of Origen, gives this interpretation of their Him and His truthfulness: (3) vv. 30–47, saying :-' and with the bitterest malice, - the first springing up of faith in many taunt Him with thus being about to go of them is by Him corrected and purified where they, the children of Abraham, could from Jewish pride, and the source of such never come.' De Wette thinks this too pride and unbelief deiected : (4) vv. 48– refined, and that such a meaning would, if 58,the accusation of the Jews in ver. 48, intended, have been marked in our Lord's gives occasion to Him to set forth very answer. 23.] • Ye cannot come where plainly His own divine dignity and præ- I am going, because we both shall return existence. 21.] The time and place of thither whence we came : I to the Father this discourse are not definitely marked; from Whoin (from above) I came : ye to but in all probability they were the same the earth and under the earth (for that as before. Only no stress must be laid ou more awful meaning surely is not excluded) the therefore as connected with ver. 20, whence ye came' (from beneath). Then for it is only the accustomed carrying for the terin this world of course does not only ward by the Evangelist of the great self. imply this present state of things, but manifestation of Jesus. ye shall seek involves the deeper meaning, of the origin me includes the idea and shall not find of that state of things (see ver. 44) and its me,' which is expressed in ch. vii. 34, 36: end, ver. 24. 24.] Since this (ver. 23) - ye shall continue seeking Me

is the case, - if ye do not believe that I am and shall die (perish) in your sin] This He, the Deliverer,—and be renewed by sin is not unbelief, for, ver 24, it is clearly Faith, ye shall die in your sins (plural here, distinguished from that : but, “your state as struck nearer home to their consciences, of sin, unremoved, and therefore abiding and implying individual acts of sin, the on you, and proving your ruin' (see on ver. results of the carnal state). 25.] Their 24). The words do not refer to the question follows on the words “I am from destruction of Jerusalem, but to individual above,” ver. 23, and on the dubious ellipperdition. In these discourses in John, the tical expression I am (he) of the last verse. public juilgment on the Jews is not pro. It is intended to bring out a plain answer ininently brought forward, as in the other on which their enmity might fasten. Evangelists. whither I go, ye cannot Our Lord's reply has been found very diffi. come, the consequence, not the cause (by cult, from reasons which can hardly be ex. any absolute decree) of their dying in their plained to the English reader. The A. V., sins (see ch. vii. 34; xiii. 33). This latter even the same that I said unto you from sense would bave required the insertion of the beginning,' cannot well be right. The for” before the clause. 22.] It is verb rather means to speak or discourse, at least probable that they allude to the than to say: the connecting particle canidea mentioned by Josephus, himself a not well be rendered “even :” and the Pharisee, in his speech at Jotapata, “ As word rendered “from the beginningfar

XV. 15.

xii. 82. y Rom. i. 4.

a ch. iii. ll.

to say and to judge of you : but he that sent me is true ; tch. vii. 28. and uf I speak to the world those things which I have heard u ch. iii. 32 : of him. 27 They understood not that he spake to them of the Father. 28 & Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have * lifted up the Son of man, Y then shall ye know that I am Sch. 11. 14:

x ch, iii, 14: he, and a that I do nothing of myself; but a as my Father in logo. [h hath] taught me, I speak these tħings. 29 And he 6 ch. xiv. 10,

c ver. 16. that sent me is with me: ck the Father hath not left me o

d chair.89: alone; d 1 for I do always those things that please him. d

v. 30: vi. 38. 30 As he spake these words, e many believed on him. e chavit. s. is.

f render, the things which I heard from him, these speak I unto the world. & read and render, Jesus therefore said.

h omit. k read and render, he left me not.

I render, because. more probably means “essentially," or thymius. There is no accounting for the “in very deed.” This being premised, ignorance of unbelief, as any minister of the sentence must be rendered (literally) Christ knows by painful experience. thus : Essentially, that which I also dis. 28.] This connects therefore being the course unto you: or, In very deed, that continuation of the foregoing, see above same which I speak unto you. He is the on ver. 21) with ver. 26, and also with Word-His discourses are the revelation of ver. 27, as the words then shall ye know Himself. And there is especial propriety shew, reterring to the expression in that in this :- When Moses asked the name of verse, They knew not.On lifted up, God, 'I am that which I AM,' was the see ch. iii. 14. “When ye shall have been mysterious answer; the hidden essence of the instruments of accomplishing that the yet unrevealed One could only be ex. death by which He shall enter into His pressed by self-comprehension ; but when glory :' for the latter idea is clearly implied God manifest in the flesh is asked the same here. then shall ye know Perhaps, question, it is • I am that which I SPEAK:' in different ways:-some, by the power of what He reveals Himself to be, that He the Holy Spirit poured out after the exaltais (see on next verse). The above sense tion of Christ, and to their own salvation ; is maintained by De Wette, and strikingly others, by the judgments which were to expanded and illustrated by Stier. See an follow ere long, and to their own dismay account, and discussion, of other proposed and ruin. The interchange of do and interpretations, in my Greek Test. speak is remarkable. The construction is 26.] He is, that which He speaks; and not elliptical, so tbat “ do and speakthat, He has received from the Father ;- should be understood in both cases; but

He has His definite testimony to give, and the declaration of ver. 25 is still in the · His work to do: and therefore, though He Lord's mind, His doing being all a decla. has much that He could speak and judge ration of the Father,-a speaking forth about the Jews, He does it not, but over in the widest sense. Bengel says well: looks their malice,--not answering it, “Ye shall know by fact, that which ye now that He may go forward with the speaking believe not by word.” 29.) left me unto the world, the revelation of Himself: not alone, referring to the appointment of the truth of which is all-important, and ex- the Father by which His work was begun, cludes less weighty things. This verse and which the continued presence of the is in the closest connexion with the fore. Father (he that sent me is with me) carries going. 27.] They did not identify on through that work : see ch. xvi. 32. him that sent me" with “ my Father.

because I do always . ...; not However improbable this may be, after the for,' as if what follows were merely a plain words the Father that sent me,” in token that it is so. The doing always ver. 18, it is stated as a fact; and the those things that please him is the very Evangelist certainly would not have done essential being of the Son, and is the cause so without some sure ground:-“It is pro- why the Father is ever with Him. bable, that they questioned one with an. 30.) They believed on Him with a higher other, “Who is he that sent him ?'” Eu degree of faith than those in ch. ii. 23, in

18, 22: viii. 2.

g Lev. XXV. 42.

ver. 30.

h Rom, vi.

16, 20.


31 Then said Jesus to those Jews which mbelieved on him,

If ye continue in my word, n then are ye my disciples * Rom. vi: 14, indeed ; 32 and ye shall know the truth, and the truth

12.3: shall make you free. 33 They answered him, & We be Matt, ili.. Abraham's seed, and o were never in bondage to any man:

how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? 34 Jesus h Rom. vi. answered them, Vérily, verily, I say unto you, h Whosoi Gal. iv. 30.9. ever P committeth sin is the 9 servant of sin. 35 r And ithe

servant abideth not in the house for ever : [8 but] the Son k Rom. viii. 2. abideth ever. 36 k If the Son therefore shall make you

free, ye shall be free indeed. 37 I know that ye are m render, had believed him.

n render, ye are. o render, have never been.

P render, doeth. q render, bondman.

r render, Now the bondman. s omit : not in the original.

Gal. v. 1.

asmuch as faith wrought by hearing is ham's seed, and generalizes it. As higher than that by miracles; but still usual (see ch. iii. 4 ; iv. 11; vi. 52), they wanted confirming. 31.] continue in take the words of our Lord in their outmy word means to abide in Me,” ch. xv. ward literal sense. Perhaps this was not 7, though that perhaps is spoken of a always an unintentional misunderstanding. deeper entrance into the state of union 3 4.] doeth sin, not merely "sin. with Christ. Remaining in His word is neth,for that all do; but in the same not merely obeying His teaching, but is the sense as “work iniquityis said, Matt. vii. inner conviction of the truth of that reve- 23. It implies living in the practice of sin, lation of Himself, which is his word. doing sin, as a habit : see reff. The mere ye are, for probably they had given some moral sentiment, of which this is the spi. outward token of believing on Him, e. g. ritual expression, was common among the that of ranging themselves among His dis Greek and Roman philosophers. 35.] ciples. 32.] In opposition to the I believe, with Stier and Bengel, the refermere holding of the truth. The knowing ence to be to Hagar and Ishinael, and Isaac: of the truth answers to the feeding on the bond and the free. They had spoken Christ ;-is the inner realization of it in of themselves as the seed of Abraham. The the man. And in the continuing increase Lord shews them that there may be, of of this comes true freedom from all fear that seed, two kinds; the son, properly so and error and bondage. 33.7 The called, and the slave. The latter does not answerers are those that believed, not some abide in the house for ever: it is not bis others among the hearers, as many Com- right nor his position-Cast out the bondmentators have maintained ;-see, as a woman and her son. But the son abideth proof of this, ver. 36, addressed to these ever.' For the application, see on followsame persons. They had not yet become ing verses. 36.] Ye then, being in disciples indeed, were not yet distinct from sin, are carnal: the sons of the bondthe mass of the unbelieving; and there woman, and therefore need liberation. fore, in speaking to them, He ascribes to Now comes in the spiritual reality, into them the sins of their race, and addresses which the discourse passes from the figure. them as part of that race. We be This liberation can only take place by Abraham's seed: see Matt. iii. 9. The means of Him of whom Isaac was the type assertion that they had never been in bond - the Seed according to promise; those age to any man was so contrary to his only who of His Spirit are born again, and torical truth, that we must suppose some after His image, are free indeed - truly technical meaning to have been attached sons of God, and no longer children of the to the word bondage, in which it may have bondwoman, but of the free. See by all been correct. The words cannot be meant means Gal. iv. 19 (where the subject really of that generation only, for the word never begins, not at ver. 21) to end, which is the (never yet at any time, literally) connects best commentary on this verse. There with their assertion that they were Abra. neither is, nor can be here, any allusion

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