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day. 24 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for

thee. q Luke . 21. 25 9 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, r see Ps. viii. O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because 'thou hast 207 11: is. hid these things from the wise and prudent, s and hast re

VI. 17vealed them unto babes. 26 Even so, Father : for so it t showi... seemed good in thy sight. 27 + All things i are delivered Cor?H. unto me j of my Father : and no man knoweth the Son, i render, were.

j i.e. by.


1 Cor. i.

8 ch. xvi. 17.

tch. xxviii, 18.

John iii, 35 : xiii. 3: xvii.

their doom. The same is strikingly set refer to, does in reality refer to the words before us in the history of Jonah's preach which have immediately preceded. The ing at Nineveh. 24, and 22.] These at that time is not chronological, but verses are connected with those respectively gives additional solemnity to what follows. preceding them thus :--- If these mighty There inay have been a slight break in works had been done in Tyre and Sidon — the discourse ; the older interpreters, and in Sodom--they would have, &c.; but, others, insert the return of the Apostles : since no such opportunity was afforded but I do not see any necessity for it. The them, and ye, Bethsaida, Chorazin, and whole ascription of praise is an answer : Capernaum, have had and rejected such, an answer to the mysterious dispensations it shall be more tolerable, &c.' And as to of God's Providence above recounted. the saying of our Lord, “If more warnings With regard to the arrangement in Luke, had been given they would have repented,' see note on Luke x. 21. I thank thee - it is not for the infidel to say, “Why Not merely, “I praise Thee,' but in the then were not more given ?' because force of the Greek word, I confess to Thee, every act of God for the rescue of a sinner 'I recognize the justice of Thy doings ;' from his doom is purely and entirely of viz. in the words Even so, Father, &c. free and undeserved grace, and the pro. Stier remarks that this is the first public portion of such means of escape dealt out mention by our Lord of His Father; the to men is ruled by the counsel of His will words in ch. x. 32, 33 having been adwho is holy, just, and true, and willeth not dressed to the twelve (but see John ii. 16). the death of the sinner; but whose ways We have two more instances of such a are past our finding out. We know enough public address to His Father, John xi. 41 ; when we know that all are inexcusable, xii. 28; and again Luke xxiii. 34. It is having (see Rom. i. ii.) the witness of God to be observed that He does not address in their cousciences; and our only feeling the Father as His Lord, but as Lord of should be overflowing thankfulness, when heaven and earth : as He who worketh ail we find ourselves in possession of the light things after the counsel of His will, Eph. of the glorious Gospel, of which so many i. 11. hast hid .... hast revealed] are deprived. That the reference here more properly, didst hide, and didst reis to the last great day of judgment is evi. veal, in the deeper and spiritual sense of dent, by the whole being spoken of in the the words; the time pointed at being future. Had our Lord been speaking of that in the far past, when the divine the outward judgment on the rebellious decrees as to such hiding and revealing cities, the future might have been used of were purposed. See 1 Cor. ii. 94-12. them, but could not of Sodom, which was these things, these mysterious arrange. already destroyed. This shall be more ments, by which the sinner is condemned tolerable is one of those mysterious hints in his pride and unbelief, the humble and at the future dealings of God, into which childlike saved, and God justified when He we can penetrate no further than the saves and condemns. These are revealed actual words of our Lord reveal, nor say to those who can in a simple and teachable to what difference exactly they point in spirit, as babes, obey the invitation in vv. the relative states of those who are com- 28 - 30, but 'hidden' from the wise and pared. See also Luke xii. 47, 48.

clever of this world, who attempt their 25.] This is certainly a continuation of solution by the inadequate instrumentality the foregoing discourse ; and the an- of the mere human understanding. Sce owered, which seems to have nothing to 1 Cor. i. 26–31. 27.] In one other

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X JER. vi. 18.

but the Father; "neither knoweth any man the Father, John 1. 18:5. save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son k will reveal him.

28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you, and

v John xiii. 15. learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: * and

Phil. ii. 5,


1 Pet. ii. 21.

• 1 John ii. 6. ye shall find rest unto your souls. 30 y For my yoke is w2ech 11,0

Phil. ii. 7, 8. easy, and my burden is light.

y 1 John v. s. Bi.e. is minded to. place only in the three first Gospels (be preceding. As the Son is the great Resides the similar passage, Luke x. 22) does vealer, and as the to whomsoever He will the expression the Son occur; viz. Mark xiii. is by His grace extended to all the weary 32. The spirit of this verse, and its form all who feel their need - so He here inof expression, are quite those of the Gospel vites them to receive this revelation, learn of John ;-and it serves to form a link of of Me. But the way to this heavenly union between the three synoptic Gospels wisdom is by quietness and confidence, and the fourth, and to point to the vast rest unto the soul, the reception of the and weighty mass of discourses of the divine grace for the pardon of sin, and the Lord which are not related except by breaking of the yoke of the corruption of John. We may also observe another point our nature. No mere man could have of union :-this very truth (John iii. 35) spoken these words. They are parallel had been part of the testimony borne to with the command in Isa. xlv. 22, which Jesus by the Baptist-and its repetition is spoken by Jehovah Himself. labour here, in a discourse of which the character and are heavy laden] the active and passive and office of the Baptist is the suggestive sides of human misery, the labouring and groundwork, is a coincidence not surely the burdened, are invited. Doubtless, outwithout meaning. The verse itself is in ward and bodily misery is not shut out; the closest connexion with the preceding but the promise, rest to your souls, is and following, and is best to be understood only a spiritual promise. Our Lord does in that connexion: all things were de- not promise to those who come to Him livered to me answers to thou hast re. freedom from toil or burden, but rest in vealedin ver. 25 (on the tenses, see note the soul, which shall make all yokes easy, above, ver. 25), only “revealedcould not and all burdens light. The main invitabe used of the Eternal Son, for He is tion however is to those burdened with Himself the Revealer ;-no man (no one) the yoke of sin, and of the law, which was knoweth the Son ...., none but the added because of sin. All who feel that Almighty Father has full entire possession burden are invited. 29.] learn of of the mystery of the Person and Office of Me, both from My example,' which howthe Son: it is a depth hidden from all ever is the lower sense of the words, and being but His, Whose Purposes are evolved from My teaching,' from which alone the in and by it: neither ... the Father ... rest can flow; the revelation of vv. 25 and nor does any fully apprehend, in the depths 27. ye shall find rest unto your souls of his being, the love and grace of the is quoted from Jer. vi. 16 Heb. Thus we Father, except the Son, and he to whom have it revealed here, that the rest and the Son, by the Eternal Spirit, proceeding joy of the Christian soul is, to become like from the Father and the Son, will reveal Christ: to attain by His teaching this Him. Then in close connexion with the meekness and lowliness of His. Olshauto whomsoever the Son will, which by sen makes an excellent distinction between itself might seem to bring in an arbitrari. lowly in heart, an attribute of divine Love ness into the divine counsel, follows, by in the Saviour, and lowly, or poor, in the Eternal Son Himself, the Come unto spirit, ch. v. 3: Prov. xxix. 23, which can me, all ..., the wonderful and merciful only be said of sinful man, knowing his generalization of the call to wisdom unto unworthiness and need of help. heart salvation. 28.] This is the great is only here used of Christ. 30.] and final answer to the question, Art thou easy, 'not exacting;' answering to kind, He that should come, or do we look for spoken of persons, Luke vi. 35. See 1 John another ? As before, we may observe the v. 3. Owing to the conflict with evil ever closest connexion between this and the incident to our corrupt nature even under


c Exod. xxv. 30.



a Deut. Ixiii. XII. 1 At that time a Jesus went on the sabbath day

through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. 2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy dis

ciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath 1 Sam. xxi. 6. day. 3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what

David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were

with him ; 4 how he entered into the house of God, and I did C Exod. xxv. 30. eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, Exod. Ixix. neither for them which were with him, a but only for the

xxiv. priests? 5 Or have ye not read in the e law, how that on Num. xxviii. . * John vii: the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the

sabbath, and are blameless ? 6 But I say unto you, That Chron. vi. 18. Mal. iii. in this place is 'm one greater than the temple. 7 But if ye

1 our two earliest MSS. read, they did eat.

m read, that which is greater. grace, the rest which Christ gives is yet the day of David's arrival; which thereto be viewed as a yoke and a burden, seen fore, Levit. xxiv. 8, was a sabbath. The on this its painful side, of conflict and example was thus doubly appropriate. sorrow : but it is a light yoke; the inner Bengel maintains, on the commonly rerest in the soul giving a peace which ceived interpretation of Luke vi. 1, that passeth understanding, and bearing it up 1 Sam. xxi. was the lesson for the day. against all. See 2 Cor. iv. 16.

• But the Jewish calendar of lessons cannot XII.1-8.] THE DISCIPLES PLUCK EARS be shewn to have existed in the form OF CORN ON THE SABBATH. OUR LORD'S which we now have, in the time of the ANSWER TO THE PHARISEES THEREON. Gospel history. 5.] The priests were Mark ii. 23—28: Luke vi. 1-5. In Mark ordered to offer double offerings on the and Luke this incident occurs after the Sabbath (Num. xxviii. 9, 10), and to place discourse on fasting related Matt. ix. 14 fresh (hot, and therefore baked that day) sq.; but in the former without any definite shewbread. In performing these commark of time. The expression at that time mands they must commit many of what is, I conceive, a more definite mark of con- the Pharisees would call profanations of nexion than we find in the other Gospels, the Sabbath. So that, as Stier (ii. 4), but cannot here be fixed to the meaning not only does the sacred history furnish which it clearly has in ch. xi. 25, where examples of exception to the law of the the context determines it. We can merely Sabbath from necessity, but the Law itself say that it seems to have occurred about ordains work to be done on the Sabbath the same time as the last thing mentioned as a duty. 6.] The Greek has merely -in the same journey or season. The greater, and the best MSS. have it in the plucking the ears was allowed Deut. xxiii. neuter gender, which sustains the parallel 25, but in the Talmud expressly forbidden better : a greater thing than the temple on the Sabbath. It was also (Levit. xxiii. is here. See John ii. 19. The inference 14, apparently, but this is by no means is, “If the priests in the temple and for certain : see note on Luke) forbidden until the temple's sake, for its service and ritual, the sheaf of first-fruits had been presented profane the Sabbath, as ye account proto God, which was done on the second day fanation, and are blameless, how much of the feast of unleavened bread at the more these disciples who have grown Passover. This incident, on that supposi- hungry in their appointed following of tion, must have occurred between that day Him who is greater than the temple, the and the harvest. It is generally supposed true Temple of God on earth, the Son to have been on the first Sabbath after of Man !' I cannot agree with Stier that the Passover. For a fuller discussion of the neuter would represent only “somethe time and place, see note on Luke as thing greater, more weighty than the before. 3.] It appears from 1 Sam. temple,-namely, merciful consideration of xxi. 6, that hot bread had been put in on the hungry, or the like:" it seems to mo,



& HOSEA VI. 6. Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8. ch. ix. .

h Luke xiii. 14:

xiv. 3. John ix, 16.

xiii. 4,5.

had known what this meaneth, & I will have mercy, and 8 Hoska vi.. not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. 8 For the Son of man is Lord [n even] of the sabbath day.

9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: 10 and, behold, [o there was] a man which had his hand P withered. And they asked him, saying, "Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days ? " Lukexij.l that they might accuse him. 11 And he said unto them, What man I shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, i see Exod. will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? 12 How Deut. Ixii. 4. much then is a man better than a sheep! Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. 13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the 1 omit.

O omitted in the three oldest MSS. P literally, dry. I read, is there. às above, to bear a more general and sub- day as the previous one. We know from lime sense than the masculine ; see ver. 41, Luke vi. that it was on another (the &c. 7.7 The law of this new Temple- next ?) sabbath. their] not, of the service is the law of charity and love: Pharisees; but of the Jews generally, of mercy and not sacrifice, see ch. ix. 13; the people of the place. 10.] This all for man's sake and man's good ;-and narrative is found in Mark and Luke with if their hearts had been ready to receive considerable variation in details from our our Lord, and to take on them this ser- text, those two Evangelists agreeing howvice, they would not have condemned the ever with one another. In both these ac. guiltless. 8.] On the important verse counts, they (the Scribes and Pharisees, preceding this in Mark ii. 27, see note Luke) were watching our Lord to see there. The sense of it must here be sup. whether He would heal on the Sabbath :plied to complete the inference. Since the and He (knowing their thoughts, Luke) Sabbath was an ordinance instituted for ordered the man to stand forth in the the use and benefit of man,-the Son of midst, and asked them the question here Man, who has taken upon Him full and given. The question about the animal complete Manhood, the great representa. does not occur in either of them, but in tive and Head of humanity, has this in Luke xiv. 5, on a similar occasion. The stitution under his own power. See this additional particulars given are very inteaching of the Lord illustrated and ex- teresting. By Luke,--it was the right hand; panded in apostolic practice and injunc. by Mark,-our Lord looked round on them tions, Rom. xiv. 4, 5, 17: Col. ii. 16, 17. with anger, being grieved for the hardness

9-11.] HEALING OF THE WITHERED of their hearts :- And the Herodians were HAND. Mark iii. 1-6: Luke vi. 6-11. joined with the Pharisees in their counsel

9. when he was departed thence against Him. See notes on Luke. This change of place is believed by Gres. dry] “withered,literally “dried up," well to have been a journey back to Galilee as in Mark : of which the use had been after the Passover. (Diss. viii. vol. ii.) It lost and the vital powers withered. The is true that no such change is implied in construction of this verse is involved : Mark and Luke ; but the words here there is a double question, as in ch. vii. 9. point to a journey undertaken, as in ch.

Our Lord evidently asks this as xi. 1; xv. 29, the only other places in this being a thing allowed and done at the Gospel where the expression occurs. In time when He spoke: but subsequently John vii. 3, the cognate expression, “ De (perhaps, suggests Stier, on account of part hence," is used of a journey from these words of Christ), it was forbidden in Galilee to Judæa. So that certainly it is the Talmud ; and it was only permitted not implied here (as Meyer, al., suppose) to lay planks for the beast to come out. that the incident took place on the same

13.] Our Lord does no outward

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John v. 18: Vun
X. 39: xi. 53.

I see ch. X. 23.

p ch. iii. 17 :

xvii. 5.

k chxxvil.1: other. 14 Then * the Pharisees went out, and held a coun

cil against him, how they might destroy him. 15 But

when Jesus knew it, 'he withdrew himself from thence : m ch. xix. 2. mand great multitudes followed him, and be healed them n ch. ix. 30. all; 16 and n charged them that they should not make

him known : 17 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken o Isa. xli. 1. by Esaias the prophet, saying, 18 • Behold my servant, p evi, 1.17: whom I have chosen; my beloved, P in whom my soul is

well pleased : I will put my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles. 19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets. 20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth r judgment unto

victory. 21 And in his name shall the Gentiles S trust. 9 see ch. ix. 32. 22 9 Then was brought unto him one possessed with a

devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the [t blind and] dumb both spake and saw. 23 And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of I render, the judgment.

& render, hope. + omitted in some of the oldest MSS.

act: the healing is performed without glory is contrasted with the meekness even a word of command. The stretch- about to be spoken of: q.d. “And yet He ing forth the hand was to prove its sound shall not,' &c. 20.] A proverbial exness, which the divine power wrought in pression for, He will not crush the conthe act of stretching it forth. Thus his trite heart, nor extinguish the slightest enemies were disappointed, having no legal spark of repentant feeling in the siuner.' ground against Him. 14.) This is

Until He shall have brought out the first mention of counsel being taken the conflict, the cause, the judgment, unto by the Pharisees (and Herodians, Mark, victory, -caused it, i. e. to issue in vicas above) to put our Lord to death.

tory :-i. e. such shall be his behaviour 15-21.] Peculiar in this form to Mat- and such his gracious tenderness, during thew. See Mark iii. 7–12: Luke vi. 17– the day of grace : while the conflict is 19. 15.] them all: see similar ex. yet going on,- the judgment not yet depressions, ch. xix. 2: Luke vi. 19;-i. e. cided."

all who wanted healing.' 16. charged 22–45.] ACCUSATION OF CASTING OUT them) see ch. viii. 4, and note. 17.7 DEVILS BY BEELZEBUB, AND OUR LORD's On that it might be fulfilled, see note on DISCOURSE THEREON. DEMAND OF A ch. i. 22. It must not be understood . and SIGN FROM HIM : His FURTHER DISthus was fulfilled :' it is used only of the COURSE. Mark iii. 20-30: Luke xi. 14purpose, not of the result, here or any 36, where also see notes. This account is where. It is strange that any should be given by Luke later in our Lord's minisfound, at this period of the progress of try, but without any fixed situation or exegesis, to go back to a view which is time, and with less copiousness of detail. both superficial and upgrammatical. The See also ch. ix. 32, and notes there. St. prophecy is partly from the LXX, partly Mark (iii. 23—29) gives part of the disan original translation. The LXX have course which follows, but without any de*Jacob my servant ... Israel my chosen terminate sequence, and omitting the mi...,' but the Rabbis generally understood racle which led to it. 23. Is not this) it of the Messiah. 18.] he shall shew This form of question is properly a doubt. (announce) judgment to the Gentiles, viz. ful denial, involving in fact a surmise in in his office as Messiah and Judge. In the affirmative. 'Surely this is not ...?' these words the majesty of his future

the son of David) see ch. ix. 27,

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