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cardinals, that Mr. Taylor, who succeeded Mr. Fagan and Mr. Dodwell in presenting English to the Pope, gave great umbrage to the Pope, by appearing before him on these occasions in a secular dress. Mr. Taylor is a Dominican friar: he quitted the habit of his order during the French Government, and has not resumed it since. He also complained that he had introduced improper people to his Holiness. The consequence was an arrangement with Cardinal Pacca, the Prosecretario di Stata, that all English to be presented to his Holiness should be recommended by me to the Pope's Grand Chamberlain, and by him presented to his Holiness. This arrangement was approved of by Mr. Cooke, and he gave me particular instructions whom I should have presented.
Cardinal Consalvi arrived soon after, and resumed his functions as Secretary of State. Mr. Taylor presented some English, particularly Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, and also presented him to the Cardinal Secretary of State. When I saw his Eminence, I mentioned to him the arrangement that had been made with Cardinal Pacca, and said I was informed Mr. Taylor had presented Admiral Sir Josias Rowley to his Holiness: he replied, “He did, and to me also.” I observed, “That was contrary to the etiquette that has been established.” He immediately said, “ Et pourquoi le permettez vous ?" On that I wrote Mr. Taylor a note, of which I enclose a copy, and also one of his answer. The note was written and the answer received in the morning, and that night the Hon. W. Clifford, who was passing through Rome, and charged with despatches for your lordship from Naples, came to me with a message from Cardinal Consalvi, that he could not prevent Mr. Taylor from presenting to the Pope; that his Holiness would with great pleasure receive any person I should present; but, as head of the Church, he was ready to receive all who professed the Christian faith.
This was so different from my last conversation with his Eminence, and sending the message to me by Mr. Clifford, whilst, upon every other occasion, he had always sent to me to come to him, that I waited until his Eminence was sufficiently recovered (Mr. Clifford saw him whilst he was confined to his bed) to know the precise message he sent me, and why Mr. Clifford interfered. When I saw the Cardinal, he repeated nearly what Mr. Clifford had said, adding that, as cases of conscience were often referred to him, he frequently saw the parties with great politeness; repeated that his Holiness would have great pleasure in receiving any person presented by my means; that he had sent the message to me by Mr. Clifford out of particular respect ; that Cardinal Fesch, though not accredited, had presented some French to the Pope ; he saw Mr. Clifford, and introduced the subject to him. Mr. Clifford, in the course of our conversation, told me his Eminence mentioned the business to him.
I should not have troubled your lordship with this detail, had I not received instructions on that subject, and been informed you had given most particular orders relative to presentations: when Mr. Fagan and Mr. Dodwell, who are Catholics, presented, there was no idea of interference. Mr. Taylor sent to me that a Protestant could not present a Catholic to the Pope; the interference of Mr. Clifford, who is of a Catholic family of distinction—these circumstances induce me to believe this is chiefly a matter of religion.
About the 14th of this month, an Algerine corsair took, between Civita Vecchia and the Tiber, a Roman tartana. His Majesty's ship, the Amelia, the Hon. Captain Proby, coming up, liberated the ship and crew. I have the honour to be, &c., CHARLES DENIS,
Consul of Civita Vecchia.
Lord Bathurst to Lord Castlereagh.
Downing Street, September 22, 1815. Dear Lord CastlereaghThe French Ambassador called on me yesterday. He asked me how I considered we held
Guadeloupe. I answered by conquest. He said that he hoped we should hold it as we held Martinique. I said that the way by which we obtained possession of the one was quite different from the conditions under which we held the other. He replied that Guadeloupe should be surrendered to the King of France according to the Treaty of Paris, which was still in force. I answered that, with respect to the final destination of Guadeloupe, it must be settled, with other matters, at Paris. I have thought it right to let you know what passed, as he concluded with saying he should write to his Court.
You have much improved in your terms, and quite satisfy me on the point I was most anxious about. The French Government will, for appearance sake, make every opposition, I imagine, before they consent—but consent they will, because they must, if we agree in not giving way.
Yours very sincerely, BATHURST.
Lord Castlereagh to Lord Liverpool.
Paris, September 25, 1815. Dear Liverpool - I send you a bulletin from our correspondent to Arbuthnot. It is, I am persuaded, greatly exaggerated; but there certainly is a great degree of violence on one side, and of alarm of reaction on the other. It is a sad moment to set all this a-going; and I understand Monsieur is in the highest intoxication of delight. The Duke of Richelieu is very temperate in his own view of things, and is endeavouring to form his Government with the same materials ; but he meets with difficulty in filling up his offices. Laisné of Bordeaux declines to leave the Chair of the Assembly, and Barbé Marbois has refused to be Minister of Justice. These two men would have been of great value. He finds it equally difficult to replace Louis.
The Duke has very good sense, and would be a most valuable Minister in an honest country; but he was never in public life, except as Governor of the Crimea. He told me, last night, that he did not know the face of one of his colleagues, and has not been in France since 1790; you may therefore judge of the difficulties he has to encounter. The Assembly, I understand, will support the Court; if they can be kept in order, matters may go on whilst we stay here, and they may mend; but the great difference between the new and the former Government is that, with the dismissed Ministers, the King might have stayed in Paris, with the Allies on the frontier. With his new servants, there seems but one opinion, that, if the Allied troops were to withdraw, his Majesty would not be on his throne a week. This may all come round, but it is a serious experiment to force upon us, who are the guardians of his royal person.
The Duke of Richelieu's connexion with the Emperor of Russia, and Pozzo being mixed in all that is passing, gives naturally to the new Government a strong Russian tinge; and it is already attacked on this ground. Hitherto, notwithstanding the tone of protection, which is a favourite one with the Emperor, I do not think that we have had any reason to complain of his Imperial Majesty's conduct in any part of our negociation, even since the change, and he bears our operations at the Louvre very quietly. The whole will soon disappear. The King of the Netherland has finished; the Emperor of Austria is far advanced; and the Pope is going to begin.
Talleyrand played me a very shabby trick on this business. I promised to show him privately my note, and lent it to him, with a few lines marked private. Though evidently not addressed to him, he made the note a peg to hang a popular answer upon. Not choosing to sanction so shabby a breach of confidence, I sent him a very short answer, for the purpose of telling him he had done an unworthy act, and that it had made no impression. I shall write as soon as I can give you any delight.
Yours very sincerely, CASTLEREACH.
Mr. Foster to Lord Castlereagh. Copenhagen, September 28, 1815. My dear Lord—The Marquis de Bonnaye, in passing through Hamburgh, will deliver this into the hands of Mr. Mellish. I did not wish to omit so good an opportunity of writing to you, although I have not much to communicate. Baron Hammerstein has left this, upon a visit to a near relation of his in Holstein, from whence he intends to proceed privately to Hanover, to give an account of the state of his negociation to Count Münster, and will return here in about three weeks. Your lordship will have perceived from my last letter what extravagant ideas M. de Kańs, one of the Danish Ministers, seems to have formed of the advantages likely to result to this country from his Danish Majesty's undertaking a journey to London, and in the event of his being willing to cede the duchy of Lauenburg to the kingdom of Hanover; but I beg your lordship to be assured that I was very careful not to give him any encouragement, and have simply confined myself to stating that, provided an exchange of the duchy could be effectuated for a fair equivalent with Hanover, his Royal Highness the Prince Regent would be well pleased and gratified; at the same time, on every occasion referring to M. de Hammerstein, as the sole person charged with the negociation. I was particular in stating this, lest your lordship should suppose, from M. de Kaas' sanguine speculations, that I had at all exceeded the limits of my instructions, in the nature of the support I have given to M. de Hammerstein. But it would seem as if people here thought that we desired nothing so much as pretexts for making presents; and it is consequently necessary to be very cautious in treating with them. Prince Christian is still at his country seat in the neighbourhood of Copenhagen. Since his return from Norway, and his marriage with the Princess of Augustenburg, he is WOL. XI. D