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intercourse with those countries, but in Europe I suppose it impossible. That mendacity which Spain, like England, makes a principal piece in the machine of her Government, confounds all inquiry, by so blending truth and falsehood as to make them indistinguishable. According to Spanish accounts, they have won great victories in battles which were never fought, and slaughtered thousands of rebels whom they have never seen: and as, in our revolution, the English were perpetually gaining victories over us, until they conquered themselves out of our Northern Continent, so Spain is in a fair way of conquering herself out of the Southern one. Even our information of the state of things in the Spanish Colonies is far from being distinct or certain, so that I can give you but a general idea of it. To do this, we must throw that country into masses, considering Brazil as a nucleus around which they are thus disposed:— 1. Buenos Ayres, and the country south of Brazil. 2. Chili, Tucumana, and Peru, west of Brazil, and on the Pacific Ocean. 3. Caraccas, and the country north of Brazil, on the Gulf of Mexico. 4. Mexico in the Northern Continent:— 1. Buenos Ayres has established its independence as the Spanish functionaries themselves admit. It was for some time embarrassed by the ambition of Monte Video, on the other side of La Plata, which claimed to be the principal place, and endeavoured to maintain it by arms; but they have finally come to an arrangement, which has reunited them, and they have formed their regular Government. Spain, conscious that they are irrecoverable, is, as we are told, bartering them with the Court of Brazil for Portugal. Whether Spain can court or conquer Portugal from hatred to love, you can best judge. The transfer of a people, like cattle with their soil, seems to be growing into a part of the jus gentium of Europe, but it is not likely to be received here, where we consider the cattle as owners of the soil. Surrounded as Brazil is with revolutionary countries and principles, and having at times participated in them, it is possible this may turn out to be a gift of Brazil to Buenos Ayres, instead of a transfer of Buenos Ayres to Brazil. 2. Chili, Tucumana, and Peru, at one time, were entirely ascendant: they have since suffered some reverses, and Buenos Ayres, we are told, is gone to their assistance. The mother country can do little on that coast. 3. The Caraccas are the most accessible to the arms of Spain, and there, accordingly, successes have been most diversified. The Patriots and Royalists have been victors and vanquished by turns: lately, the Patriots carried all before them; but now there is reason to believe they have suffered serious discomfiture; and it is here the most atrocious cruelties have been exercised. The Patriots have in vain endeavoured to end them by examples of moderation: the Royalists answer them by examples of extermination. Yet, difficult as is the contest, this country, too, will ultimately be revolutionized. 4. Mexico. The Royalists still hold the city of Mexico and the port of Vera Cruz, the only one of that province, while it is understood that the Patriots prevail over the country. The siege of Vera Cruz, now believed to be begun, or about to be begun, is supposed to be the cause why Apodaca, the new Viceroy of Mexico, who lately sailed for that port from Havanna, has been obliged to return, without venturing to land at Vera Cruz. This first of all the Spanish possessions, and superior to Spain itself in extent, fertility, population, riches, and information, has nothing to fear from the pigmy power of Spain. So far, then, all would seem well; but their real difficulties are not how to repel the efforts of the mother country, but how to silence and disarm the schisms among themselves. In all those countries, the most inveterate divisions have arisen, partly among the different castes, partly among rival

leaders ; constitution after constitution is made and broken, and in the mean time everything is at the mercy of the military leaders. The whole Southern Continent is sunk in the deepest ignorance and bigotry; a single priest is more than a sufficient opponent to a whole army; and were it not that the lower clergy, as poor and oppressed as the people themselves, has very much taken side with the revolutionists, their cause would have been desperate from the beginning; but when their independence shall be established, the same ignorance and bigotry will render them incapable of forming and maintaining a free Government, and it is excruciating to believe that all will end in military despotism under the Bonapartes of those regions.

The only comfortable prospect which this clouded horizon offers is, that these revolutionary movements having excited into exercise that common sense which nature has implanted in every one, it will go on advancing towards the lights of cultivated reason, will become sensible of its own powers, and in time be able to form some canons of freedom, and to restrain their leaders to an observance of them. In the mean time, we must pray to God, as most heartily we do for your country, that “He will be pleased to give them patience under their sufferings, and a happy issue out of all their afflictions."

Your resolution not to revisit your own country, while under foreign force, is worthy of you. No patriotism requires us to incur the pain of witnessing the miseries which we cannot remedy or alleviate, and towards which, even in absence, your pen may do more than your presence. That such a country and such a people can never be kept permanently prostrate on the earth is a decree of Heaven, which will not pass away. Our great anxiety is, lest they should lengthen their sufferings by premature and abortive attempts to end them, and our wish that they may have patience yet awhile, until dissensions among their enemies may give them a choice of friends. In general it is sinful, but now pious, to pray for war and strife among nations, as the only means of dissolving their criminal combinations.

I congratulate you on the happy union of your daughter with a peer and patriot of France, and, should your son realize the hope you hold up to us of visiting this sanctuary of the unfortunate of every country, where “the wolf dwells with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid,” he will be hailed as the son of Madame de Staël and grandson of M. Necker, and will see an example, in the peaceable reunion here of so many discordant worthies of his own country, how much more happy the tolerant principles of his great ancestor might have made them at home.

Permit me here to renew the assurances of my high consideration and esteem.

THOMAS JEFFERSON.

Lord Castlereagh to Lord Stewart.

London, December 17, 1816. My dearest Charles-Since I returned here from Ireland I have been intolerably fagged by business, and can write to you but a few lines. I send you a copy of my instruction to Clancarty upon the business at Frankfort. If the sainte lenteur is the order of the day, we must take our share of the accommodation of this principle. We have long enough made the advanced guard, to save time, and having no possible interests ourselves at stake, to smooth matters to others, but we must pull up. I trust, however, no ill-humour will be suffered to arise, as the game of delay, and the arts of throwing merit and odium where they are not justly due, are not peculiar to the affairs at Frankfort. We must make Prince Metternich at length feel that he is a principal in the case of Beauharnois, and not a mediator; that we have no question direct with Russia, but with the three Powers; and that he is not to play between Russia and us, and between Naples us, and to make his ground good with both at our expense; but that he must, at last, make his own appearance, as a principal performer, on the stage. You must not, however, probe these little tricks too deep : I have told Clancarty not to do so, for it never does much good; and when the system is established you might as well quarrel with the complexion. I wish, as I have told him, that both you and he could borrow a dose of my indifference, and you would not then be so much on the Qui rive with each other. I have given you both my unreserved opinion on your last controversy, and I beg you will immediately write him such a letter as may bury all these little feuds in oblivion. Fred" set out in the mail, the night before last, for Mount Stewart. He dined here, with Turner, the day before, and I think him very much improved. He is the picture of health; and the way in which he supports a long journey is the best proof he is robust. I left my father not quite recovered from a severe chill and cold, but the last accounts are altogether satisfactory. The Prince is at Brighton, where the family is assembled, and we Ministers all in town, labouring to get our business in shape for Parliament, where we shall have hard work, with our estimates and our sinecures. John James is in a very odd state; he neither loses nor gains ground, but desponds about himself. Em. bears up wonderfully. I had a very pleasant time in Ireland, and nothing could be more cordial than all descriptions of people were to me. I went little from home, and passed seven weeks there in great domestic comfort. We often longed for you to complete the family group. God bless you! CASTLEREAGH.

* The present Lord Castlereagh.

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