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war and strife among nations, as the only means of dissolving their criminal combinations.

I congratulate you on the happy union of your daughter with a peer and patriot of France, and, should your son realize the hope you hold up to us of visiting this sanctuary of the unfortunate of every country, where " the wolf dwells with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid," he will be hailed as the son of Madame de Stael and grandson of M. Necker, and will see an example, in the peaceable reunion here of so many discordant worthies of his own country, how much more happy the tolerant principles of his great ancestor might have made them at home.

Permit me here to renew the assurances of my high consideration and esteem.

Thomas Jefferson.

Lord Castlereagh to Lord Stewart.

London, December 17, 1816. My dearest Charles—Since I returned here from Ireland I have been intolerably fagged by business, and can write to you but a few lines. I send you a copy of my instruction to Clancarty upon the business at Frankfort. If the sainte lenteur is the order of the day, we must take our share of the accommodation of this principle. We have long enough made the advanced guard, to save time, and having no possible interests ourselves at stake, to smooth matters to others, but we must pull up. I trust, however, no ill-humour will be suffered to arise, as the game of delay, and the arts of throwing merit and odium where they are not justly due, are not peculiar to the affairs at Frankfort. We must make Prince Metternich at length feel that he is a principal in the case of Beauharnois, and not a mediator; that we have no question direct with Russia, but with the three Powers; and that he is not to play between Russia and us, and between Naples us, and to make his ground good with both at our expense; but that he must, at last, make his own appearance, as a principal performer, on the stage.

You must not, however, probe these little tricks too deep: I have told Clancarty not to do so, for it never does much good; and when the system is established you might as well quarrel with the complexion. I wish, as I have told him, that both you and he could borrow a dose of my indifference, and you would not then be so much on the Qui tdve with each other. I have given you both my unreserved opinion on your last controversy, and I beg you will immediately write him such a letter as may bury all these little feuds in oblivion.

Fred1 set out in the mail, the night before last, for Mount Stewart. He dined here, with Turner, the day before, and I think him very much improved. He is the picture of health; and the way in which he supports a long journey is the best proof he is robust. I left my father not quite recovered from a severe chill and cold, but the last accounts are altogether satisfactory.

The Prince is at Brighton, where the family is assembled, and we Ministers all in town, labouring to get our business in shape for Parliament, where we shall have hard work, with our estimates and our sinecures.

John James is in a very odd state; he neither loses nor gains ground, but desponds about himself. Em. bears up wonderfully.

I had a very pleasant time in Ireland, and nothing could be more cordial than all descriptions of people were to me. I went little from home, and passed seven weeks there in great domestic comfort. We often longed for you to complete the family group. God bless you!


1 The present Lord Castlereagh.


Lord Castlereagh to ike Hon. F. Lamb.

London, December 19,1816.

My dear Lamb—We are desirous here of bringing matters at Frankfort to a close, or, if that cannot be, of dissolving in appearance the grand Conference there, which holds out an idea of more to do there, or more being left undone, than the question with Baden justifies: but we shall, as soon as the Diet is organized, have occasion for a Minister there; and I wish for one who knows the carte du pays and the plan of the different Courts in latter times. As I flatter myself your gout is principally caused by the ennui of Munich, and that having nothing to do is as little agreeable to you as it is wholesome, I therefore propose to you credentials to the Diet, in addition to those which you now have to the King of Bavaria. You will have a Secretary of Legation at each residence. Your personal presence can be regulated as the service may require, leaving a Charge d' Affaires where you are not.

This union of functions is not new in the service: I flatter myself it will not be unacceptable to the King of Bavaria, and it will give you an active, ostensible, and creditable field for exertion, in which, from our past intercourse, I have no doubt of your doing yourself credit.

Lord Clancarty has received an official despatch to forward to you, in case he should find your assistance necessary. It is proposed that he should return to sign what he has arranged, presenting you to the Allied Ministers as our plenipotentiary ad interim; lest your health should not admit of undertaking this task, he has a dormant authority to call upon Mr. Taylor. In case you find an excursion to Italy necessary to your reestablishment, Lord C[lancarty] will give you full information and instructions before he leaves Frankfort for Brussels.

Believe me, &c, Castlereagh.

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Lord Castlereagh to Count Fernan Nunez.

December, 1816.

The undersigned, his Majesty's Secretary of State, has the honour to acknowledge the two Notes received from the Count Fernan Nunez, of October 17th and November 30th, during the whole of which interval the British Government has remained in the anxious expectation of receiving from the Court of Rio Janeiro the promised explanations of the late events which have been passing in the River Plate. It would have been peculiarly gratifying to the Prince Regent, had he felt himself enabled, through the active interposition of his Charge d'Affaires at the Brazils, at once to allay the disquietude of his intimate ally, the King of Spain, as to the views of the Brazilian Government in that quarter.

After the full explanation afforded as well by the undersigned to his Excellency the Count Fernan Nunez as to the Secretary of State of his Catholic Majesty at Madrid, of the protest made and the steps taken by the British Chargé d' Affaires at Rio Janeiro, all of which have received the full approbation of this Government, there remains only for the undersigned to assure his Excellency that, down to the present moment, no further information has been received which can throw light either upon the progress of affairs or upon the intentions of the Cabinet of Rio Janeiro.

His Royal Highness is happy to observe that the sentiments with which his Catholic Majesty might justly view an occupation of his territory by a foreign Power, without any explanation previously given, have not had the effect of turning aside his Majesty from the legitimate course of conduct which ought to be observed in all such cases, namely, the demand of explanation and satisfaction, accompanied with an appeal to friendly Powers, who have all an interest in the conservation of peace, to interpose their mediation and influence to preserve the general tranquillity by effectuating between the two States such a settlement of all subsisting differences as may be consonant with justice, and with the ties as well of blood as of common interest which so intimately knit the two families.

The friendship and alliance which subsist between his Britannic Majesty and the august Sovereigns of both crowns, cemented, and, as it were, rendered sacred by their common exertions in the late war, must give to the Prince Regent the strongest possible motives to employ his utmost exertions to re-establish harmony and confidence between the Courts of Madrid and Rio Janeiro. It is peculiarly gratifying to his Royal Highness to have been invited to undertake this task in concert with those Powers to whom his Catholic Majesty has, with so much prudence and wisdom, thought fit to address himself on this important occasion. His Royal Highness, animated by the warmest sentiments of zeal to contribute to so just and laudable a purpose, has desired the undersigned to declare to the Count Fernan Nunez that he accepts without hesitation the invitation of the Court of Madrid to interpose his good offices, in concert with the Courts of Vienna, Versailles, and St. Petersburg, on this occasion, and he is persuaded he shall find in their tried wisdom, zeal, and justice, the surest means of conducting their joint intervention to a happy issue.

If his Royal Highness might form an additional wish upon this subject, it would be that the Court of Berlin should be united with the Courts named in the same honourable responsibility as a Court not only specially associated with them by the Treaty of Vienna, for arranging other questions in which the pretensions of Spain are involved, but as being in itself a Court as deeply interested to preserve the peace of the world by its counsels, as it has contributed to its restoration by the efforts of its arms.

The undersigned is persuaded that his Excellency the Count Fernan Nunez will be convinced that, at the outset of an amicable interposition of this nature, in which it is proposed to

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