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thousand men, well armed. He is very cruel towards his subjects.

We landed, via Corfu, at Otranto, and traversed the whole of Calabria to Naples. The opinion of the inhabitants was there divided. The new nobility and soldiers liked Murat, the old nobility and merchants were attached to their legitimate Sovereign; and the English are much esteemed by the Calabrians and all over the kingdom of Naples. They said that, without free intercourse with England, they could not pay the heavy taxes Government imposed on them. The price of oil was 40 per cent. higher as soon as the first English merchantman arrived in the port of Naples, and the silk trade revived immediately.

At Naples, the English Consul was Mr. Walker, formerly a merchant, very little known, who lives very retired. At Rome, the Abbot Taylor presented Englishmen to the Pope; and there is another British agent, whose name I do not recollect. The Romans are polite and attentive to the English. They complained bitterly against the present Governor of Rome, who is said to be cruel and partial. The French have warm partisans in this city, particularly among their countrymen established there, who have been supported by some men of the revolutionary tribe who reside in Rome, and are of course not friendly to the English.

At Florence, the confusion was so great, in consequence of the approach of the Neapolitan army, that we stayed there only a few days. The Tuscans are much attached to their Sovereign, the Grand Duke, and hate the French. They showed great attachment to the English, in assisting them to get off before the Neapolitans arrived.

We passed Bologna with Lord Granville Somerset and Lord and Lady ("lare, and I waited on the Duke de Gallo for him to inspect our passports, and to inquire if we could pass through the Neapolitan army. He received me very politely, and requested me to assure those distinguished personages that not only we might pass, but that every assistance would be given to us. I was surprised to see the aides-de-camp of Murat wearing all blue great coats, like the English, and I understood that Murat wished to impress the inhabitants with a belief that they were English officers. The inhabitants were rather des tétes chaudes. They walked in the evening in procession, with torches and music, crying, “ Vira Joachimo Napoleone!” The towns where the French revolutionary spirit is still rooted are Bologna, Lodi, Milan, and Venice. We crossed the Tyrol, through Brixen and Innspruck, to Salzburg. The Emperor of Austria is much loved in Tyrol, and the patriotism is there very great. They hate the French very sincerely, and esteem the English, and spoke of them with the highest eulogy, acknowledging that all Europe owes its salvation to the English Regent and to the present Government. They are all soldiers, and are expert in using firearinS. All over Bavaria, the people are much attached to their Sovereign, who is very affable, though not a prince of a great mind. He is whimsical: he never rides on horseback, and is frightened to death when he mounts a horse, fearing it will kill him. The Queen has a strong mind: she guides the Ministers, and the King follows her advice. Eugene Beauharnois is a great favourite with the Queen, but more so with the King. The Queen hates the French, and shows much attention to the English. When I was at Munich, the Empress of Russia was with her sister, the Queen of Bavaria, and showed at the Court particular attention to two young English noblemen of my acquaintance, who dined very often at Court. Luxury is disliked by the King; and each individual of the royal family was extremely affable to all. We went from Munich to Frankfort on the Maine, to the kingdom of Wirtemberg, through Stutgard, and I had the honour of being presented to Mr. Taylor by the Earl of Conyngham, where we were very kindly received. The King is not much liked by the inhabitants, and accused by them of being partial to the French, having in his own apartments paintings representing battles where the French defeated the Germans. The person who showed us the palace observed that it was too elegant for the King, whose revenues were not adequate to his expenses. The Queen is much loved, and every apartment showed proofs of her industry. During the absence of his Majesty, Lady Conyngham and Lady Elizabeth, her daughter, had the honour of dining with the Queen. Lord Conyngham, Lord Sunderland, the Honourable Mr. Perceval, Colonel Maxwell, and myself, dined at the inn at Ludwigsburg, for the purpose of seeing the gardens during the time the King and Queen were absent.

We went from Stutgard to Cassel: I found, to my surprise, many of the inhabitants there regretting the loss of the imaginary King, as he expended large sums to gratify his taste for luxuries; and I am sorry to add that there are yet remnants of a French party remaining, which the present police ought to destroy, to secure fully the happiness of the inhabitants.

We went through Hildesheim to Hanover. I conversed with the postmaster at Brügge, one post before Hildesheim, and he told me the sentinels are not strict enough in seeing the passports of travellers, nor the innkeepers to inquire ; in consequence, many French deserters roved through the country. He arrested, three weeks before our arrival, a French officer of rank, who was sent to Hanover. He saw him riding before the post-house out of the town. The postmaster, an officer of the Landsturm, pursued the French fugitive, overtook him three miles from Brugge, arrested him, and brought him back: he did this alone, without any assistance. He likewise told me the inhabitants of the new countries complain of the existing ground taxes; that a merchant opposite to the post-house, the richest in the town, paid not a quarter of the taxes he does, though this merchant is twenty times richer than he is ; that many instances of this kind were in the town; and that, under the Prussian Government, they paid taxes according to their fortune. I heard in Hanover the same complaint, and I found the military all over the kingdom very neglectful of inspecting passports ; though, at that period, in May, 1815, it was very necessary, as, from the absence of the troops, many bad subjects may get into the kingdom. The inhabitants show everywhere a loyal attachment to his Majesty's Government, and hate the French.

We went through Hamburg to Copenhagen. I heard from good authority that, in the present Senate of Hamburg, there are still some persons who are attached to French principles : the inhabitants are strongly attached to the English, and if among them there exist some French partisans, they are only among the females of the gallant circles.

I never witnessed such false patriotism as in Denmark. As soon as we left Holstein, the Jacobin sentiments began, and invariably continued till we got again into Germany. The Danes hate not only the English but the Germans, and all other nations, except the French Jacobins, who are adored. I had the honour of visiting Mr. Foster, but was prevented by indisposition from accepting his invitation to a dinner which he gave on the 6th July to the corps diplomatique and the first Danish noblemen, on the glorious event of the battle of Waterloo. All the hotels of foreign Ministers were elegantly illuminated: the hotel of Mr. Foster was the most splendid: on the front were the Duke of Wellington and Prince Blucher crowning Louis XVIII., and above was La belle Alliance. At nine o'clock, after some toasts had been given, Mrs. Foster retired to her apartment: the crowd before the house was then very great, and she distinctly heard cries of " Vire l'Empereur !---vire Napoleon !" Soon after, some stones were thrown at the windows where she was, and at the porter's lodge-three pares were broken, and the painting of the Duke of Wellington torn. The gendarmes immediately arrested four of those persons--two students, one officer, and one soldier; the crowd then disappeared. The inhabitants exaggerated this incident, stating that it was a tumultuous riot, and that all the windows of Mr. Foster were broken.

It was understood at Copenhagen that the King had been advised by his Ministers to give up his alliance with France; but he persisted in not doing so, and said he had promised, and would not depart from it. They generally acknowledged that, had England not taken their fleet, many of their ships would have been sold to the French, and the greatest part of their fleet given to them, until a general peace was signed. Many Danish sailors were sent to Antwerp to man the French ships. Little is thought of the Queen and Crown Prince. The country is very poor, and the army badly equipped, and of French sentiments.

I passed the Great Belt with forty-eight officers of different ranks, going to the army with their contingent. I conversed with almost all, and found that one sentiment of Jacobinism prevailed; they were all attached to the late usurper of France.

We went from Copenhagen, through Bremen, to Münster and Westphalia, and found that the inhabitants hate those French who destroyed the peace of Europe, and were strongly attached to the English Government.

We went through Utrecht to the Hague and other parts of Holland. I found the Dutch Government attached to England, and English travellers are here much respected; but, among the inhabitants, particularly of the Netherlands, the French have many partisans. I had the honour of visiting Mr. James, and brought over despatches from him to the Foreign Office, Downing Street.

We were obliged in a heavy gale, coming from Cyprus, to enter the uninhabited island of Stan Dia, (!] twenty-four miles north of Candia, and we found the port very safe. The entry is easy, and in the port there is water and room for frigates

VOL. XI.

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