Understanding Second Language Acquisition
Whether we grow up with one, two, or several languages during our early years of life, many of us will learn a second, foreign, or heritage language in later years. The field of Second language acquisition (SLA, for short) investigates the human capacity to learn additional languages in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, after the first language -in the case of monolinguals- or languages -in the case of bilinguals- have already been acquired. Understanding Second Language Acquisition offers a wide-encompassing survey of this burgeoning field, its accumulated findings and proposed theories, its developed research paradigms, and its pending questions for the future. The book zooms in and out of universal, individual, and social forces, in each case evaluating the research findings that have been generated across diverse naturalistic and formal contexts for second language acquisition. It assumes no background in SLA and provides helpful chapter-by-chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading. Ideal as a textbook for students of applied linguistics, foreign language education, TESOL, and education, it is also recommended for students of linguistics, developmental psycholinguistics, psychology, and cognitive science. Features: * Accessible and completely up-to-date overview of SLA concept, theories and methods. * Does not assume previous knowledge of SLA * Highlights connections between theory and practice * Includes summary tables, chapter summaries, and suggestions for futher reading and research * Balances the treatment of current theories and research * Written by an up-and-coming young academic
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The linguistic environment
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ability accuracy activity additional language adults Alice Kaplan Arabic attention behaviour bilingual cent Chapter classroom cognitive communication competence contexts crosslinguistic influence developmental discourse Dornyei Ellis emergentism evidence example explain explicit extraversion findings foreign language French grammatical human Hypothesis identity implicit implicit learning individual differences input instruction interaction interlanguage interlocutors investigated Japanese knowledge L2 acquisition L2 aptitude L2 development L2 learners L2 learning L2 motivation L2 speakers language aptitude language learning Lantolf learner language learning the L2 levels lexical linguistic long-term memory markedness meaning memory capacity MLAT monolingual morphemes morphology native speakers negation negative feedback negotiation orientation Output Hypothesis participants patterns phonology positive predicted Preterite processing production proficiency psycholinguistic psychology question recasts relative clauses Schmidt scores second language acquisition self-determination theory SLA researchers social sociocultural Spanish stage strategies Table target language task teachers theory transfer verb vocabulary