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another begging of a question. But, fur- | bating club of very young men, but, in our ther, it must be borne in mind, that “the judgment, is utterly unworthy a moment's consent of Congress” must precede this attention of a practical statesman. levying of a tonnage duty by a State ; ! We here conclude a discussion--already too and as this consent may be refused, the ar- | long protracted—which we regret has not gument in hand is liable to the objection fallen to abler hands. There are those who already urged against the argument de- think the Report which we have examined, duced, for another purpose, from the refutes itself, and therefore requires no power of two States to make a compact, elaborate criticism to expose its errors. to which the same contingency is attached. This may or may not be just. Whether

The distinction between a harbor for so or not, however, there is a power about commerce and a harbor for shelter, is, to | Mr. Calhoun's name and position, which our apprehension, utterly without meaning, I would make it worse than in bad taste, to The only possible difference between the regard any state paper slightingly that two, that we can see, is, between a vessel's | comes from his pen. He is, without doubt, lying at a wharf to take in lading for a one of the master minds of this country voyage, and her lying at the same place to and age, and thousands take their law wait the passing of a storm. There is a implicitly from his opinions, however extray. wharf in either case, and it serves both agant in themselves, or feeble in the argupurposes equally well ; and why we should ment that would sustain them. It is to not be permitted to call that a “ facility" such, that we would especially address what to commerce which gives the conven we have said, in the hope, that though we ience of shipping the freight that is the may not succeed in producing conviction, substance of it, as well as that which pro- we shall not entirely fail to awaken thought. tects from the winds the vessel in which

W. G. such freight is shipped, may be a curious Cincinnati, Dec., 1847. question for the wits of a metaphysical de- !




The present age is developing, with | understanding and appreciation of their lastartling rapidity, the national characteris- | bors and wants—to seize some prominent tics of races which must ultimately be sub- traits of social excellence early exhibited, ordinated to one. Inquiry has recently re- and trace them through all the vicissitudes ceived a new impulse, and the future com of time down to our own age. plexion of society is rousing the attention. It is wise, at times, to fathom the mysof the statesman, the philosopher and tic future; to scan the coming age, and scholar. Whatever results may spring from sketch its characteristics and destinies, their investigations, it is obvious that, even through the light of the present. And now, the means of stimulating and direct- though the veil which conceals its imprint ing successful inquiry are neither few nor be closed to our view by an all-wise Provsparsely distributed. On the other side | idence, yet nature instinctively urges us to of the Atlantic societies have been formed, trace the influence of the present on the and volumes published,* for our information future history of our descendants. It is as to the long-neglected literature of “our the closing prayer of the patriot to his sucnoble ancestors ;” and we propose to fur- cessors, remember the deeds of your fathers, nish some brief indicia to a more intimate and by them receive guidance for the future.

When man first issued forth from Ba* Among others, Palgrave's and Allen's, (noticed in Warren's Law Studies, pp. 161, 162, 163.) bel's plain, his domains were assigned him. Each form where blend the lily and the “Our first authentic accounts of Eng. rose was fixed in a cool and fertile clime.* land, are at the landing of Cæsar, nearly Each frame whose swarthy hue distin- two thousand years ago.” The merest guished its possessor from his “ fellow school-boy is familiar with the pages of the dust,” departed for the torrid vales of Af author-warrior, and we need not dilate rica. Yet, age after age and convulsion upon the character and spirit of the ancient after convulsion have passed, and the for Britons. Yet we cannot pass over the mer have retained the most of their primitive Druids—whose name generally awakens excellence wherever fate may have cast vague conceptions of barbaric priests their lot. And now the European sweats chaunting their hymns to some bloody under Congo's sultry sky, or shivers be deity in the recesses of the forest, and, neath the polar blast. The Englishman amid the over-hanging rocks, invoking his and American of the nineteenth century protection, or soliciting his favor by the meet amid the palmy groves of Ceylon, sacrifice of human victims. Perhaps our or the coral isles of the Pacific, and minds will start at the idea, that they were hail each other brother. Over “ the the political soul and guides of their sevsteppes” of Central Asia, or through the eral tribes, the life-blood of civil liberty, forests of the wild New-Hollander, they the unswerving champions of their people shout the watchword, Onward, onward. against the tyranny of the Romans; and

There must be some elements which fur- yet such may have been the case-if we nish the key to such a vast superiority over believe Cæsar and Tacitus, such was the their fellows; as we shall carefully estab-case.* The stern, mysterious rites of the lish hereafter. These will meet us—they Druids--with all their folly-reveal a have forced themselves upon the notice of spirit of religious activity only too widely every other race; and we shall consider stimulated. The direction of the current these characteristics somewhat more in de was right, but its impetuosity engendered tail. It is (among other causes, less obvi- the most terrible outrages. Then all Engous, though, perhaps, not less important) land was a living representation of that to their moral integrity, their ceaseless en vast, intangible and darkly impressive idea, terprise, (their roving habits stimulated by a God—whose attributes corresponded to nalural inquisitiveness, and improved by their own rude, mysterious feelings. Each their advantages,) their intellectual activi- plain was redolent with sacrifices—was ty, and, lastly, to the social elevation of vocal with the Druids' nightly reverence women, we assign this pre-eminence. ascending to Him. Such ideas and expecfeeling, productive and suggestive of civil faith, that yet remained linked with the liberty;* and, amid the systematic attempts singularly simple habits and unwavering of Rome, afterwards, favored with learning, fidelity of the Britons. We are frank to wealth, tact, and the affection she had in confess that this period was not so remarkspired, to erect an undivided sovereignty able or important, religiously considered, over the hearts and arms of the Anglo as a future one. Probably the virtue and Saxons, this same spirit has never decayed. energy of the Britons are more conspicuFirst evinced when the intrepid Druids ous in their civil relations ; for the first plunged from the smouldering hamlets of phase in the development of these germs of Mona,t preferring death to Roman servi- free institutions, that so slowly expanded tude, and thus cheering the faith of their afterwards, was here visible; and yet their countrymen ;t the counterpart may be ob- attachment to religion must have been conserved, gifted with a more spiritual imper- | siderably operative, for it sustained them sonation, amid the fires of Smithfield, and under the grinding oppression of the “misowning such men as Latimer and Ridley. tress of the world," then ruled by one of But their defence (heroic as it must have her most ruthless tyrants. The astute been) was unavailing ;? for who could re- and critical scholar, as his eye lingers with sist the colossal power, who could curb fond delight on the limnings of the brief, the iron legions, of “the seven-hilled city ?'' sententious Tacitus, will not fail to trace The extension of Roman authority gener- | many offshoots from the rude institutions ally softened and subdued the fierce valor of the ancient Germans transplated, develof the Britons ;ll and, as wave after wave oped, and now operative in our varied of their more independent foes (the Picts) forms of social life, as well as our princirolled down from the north, instead of ples of government and modes of political manfully repelling the ferocious invaders, procedure. * Probably they were one race they invoked the aid of the Saxons, who with the Britons. Of both it may be said, became more formidable as allies, than that “ their souls were raised by taking a they ever could have become as enemies. | free part in concerns more dignified than During the Roman domination, the Britons those of individuals. The energy was had received some faint sparks of Chris- awakened, which, after many ages of storm tianity. ** We have spoken of the Druids : and darkness, qualified the Teutonic race it was on this predisposed stock that its to be the ruling portion of mankind, to lay pristine influences were grafted in their the foundation of a better-ordered civilizapurity, and from the feelings to whose ex- tion than that of the eastern or ancient hibitions we have alluded, they took their world, and finally to raise into the fellowwarmest, most ineffaceable impress. “The ship of those blessings the nations whom word of life" had reached them, and was they had subdued.” (Mackintosh, “Engreceived into the affections of a people | land."'). whose earnest care and self-denying efforts The first permanent conversions to Chrishave been to exhibit it to the world, and tianity, occurred during the reign of Ethtransmit it to others unimpaired. The en- elbert, (A. D. 596,) and were accomplished ervating influence of excessive luxury, | by the enterprising devotion of St. Augus(which “ savior armis incubuit, victum ulciscitur orbem,") and the fires of persecu- * Inter al:"the hundreders,'( Murphy, tion, have equally failed to crush its ener- | note 9 :) limited authority of iheir kings, vii. ; the gies. Of the latter there were two: the

1. At present it might appear as singu tations derived a thrilling impressiveness | lar as it will be found true, that the Anglo- from their mighty, dark, and solemn forSaxon race has ever been distinguished estst-their ceremonios performed during from all others, by moral elevation, by re- | the hours sacred to repose, in the solemn ligious fervor. How much of this should be shades of night, combined with the conattributed to a direct interposition of the stant presence of His ministers among the Deity in their behalf,+ and how much, on people. To them the intercourse of their the other hand, belongs to their own silent hoary priests seemed like a near approach efforts, we need not determine. But if from heaven, too dread and too sublimely an attentive view be cast upon them in real to be neglected. Whatever we may their earliest and most simple “ strivings" think of them as Christians, we cannot reafter the sublime idea of a God, in their fuse the meed of praise to such pure-minded more remote endeavors to grasp that of though heathen patriots. We can well “the Increate," not dimly seen by them in sympathize with the heroic devotion of His works—a hope would arise that such the Druids; for the religious teachers of an investigation may be amply repaid. our ancestors could " fightas well as * To this fact Humboldt ascribes the superiority

preach : they cherished a wild, patriotic of the inhabitants of temperate climes over all others. (Am. Review, June, 1816, p. 600). “Though the desire and feeling be common to all, they alone Tac. Annal., Lib. xiv. sec. xxx. (Murphy, p. 257, are able to satisfy it."

note.) Hist. Lib. iv. sec. liv. Cesar, De Bel. Something strongly confirmative of this conjec Gal. passim. ture may be found in Ward's 'Lectures on Ancieni Is. De Mor. Ger., ix. (Murphy, n. 5,) xliii., n. Agrael,'noticed in "The Anglo-American,'Jan.24,1846. ' ricola, xxvii. (n. 9)

influence of woman over them, especially on the

| battle-field, vii. and viii.; customs of "wager of batfirst raged under Diocletian ; and the iles," "duel,” &c., the origin of chivalry, ibid. note Saxons, ferocious pagans as they were,

4 ; their political assemblies, (commune consilium,)

the type of the Wittenagemot," and origin, through soon annihilated the vestiges of a milder it, of the British Constitution, xi. n. 5; reckoning

by nights instead of days, ibid. n. 7 ; their punish* Mor. Ger. ii. (Murphy, n. 5 and 8.)

menis pecuniary, (“mulets.') xx.xxi., illustrated by + Annal., Lib. xiv, sec. 29 and 30; Agric., xiv. “Deodands," n. 4, and voluntary "tribute,''xv., n. 6; (Murphy, n. 11.)

Parliament (the influence of ;) reverence for the I Agric., xvill.

sanctity of the marriage relation, xviii. xix.; and $ Ibid (Murphy, p. 600, note.)

influence of “Salique” law, xx. n. i.; and respect 11 Agric. xiixviii., XX.-xxi. xxxiv.

for the dead, xxvii. A. 1). 416, (just 1400 years ago)

+ This seems to be the increasingly probable ** Fuller, Eccl. list., (Lond. Edit.,) vol. I. pp. 7, opinion of the best authorities ; vide in connection, 17 ; Waddington, idem, p. 133.

Mor. Ger. xl. (Murphy, note 6, ibid.)

tine. From this period to the landing of able race, yet Wilfrid's superior zeal or William the Conqueror, the faith and confi- | address introduced Christianity even here. dence of the Anglo-Saxons (though subjected to trials and seductions of no ordinary “ Expelled from his diocese by the intrigue of character) met no annihilation. Here was

his enemies, he wandered an honorable exile the golden age of English religious energy;

among the tribes of the south, when Edilwalch, for no subsequent period has been marked

King of Sussex, who had been lately baptized,

invited him to attempt the conversion of his by more unity of aim, by a more unswerv

subjects." ing attachment to the doctrines and practice of the uncorrupted Christian church. Thus, guided by the glowing pathos of That a more particular and satisfactory his eloquence, his « slaves were first conview of Anglo-Saxon Britain may be en- verted, and generously restored to their joyed, we shall take the liberty of quoting freedom on the day of their baptism ;" an from a work, whose spirit and excellencies eloquent commentary on the sentiment, are appreciable by the simple-minded “he is free whom the truth makes free"Christian, never unwelcome to the refined paralleled but once in the records of hisand critical scholar.* Our limits will per- tory, (that in the Sandwich Islands, to mit but brief glances at some of the most which we shall hereafter refer.) prominent features of this age-an age whose records are crowded with an inter “ Thus in the space of about eighty years was esting portraiture of those who suffered, successfully completed the conversion of the labored, and died, having accomplished the

Anglo-Saxons; an enterprise which originated work allotted to them.

in the charity of Gregory the Great, and was

unremittingly continued by the industry of his Little was the resistance to that strong I disciples, with the assistance of several faithful incentive of propagating Christianity by the co-operators from Gaul and Italy.” sword, in the minds of most northern mon- | | “The acquisition of religious knowledge inarchs, as is abundantly evident from the troduced a new spirit of legislation ; the presrecords of Swedish history.t No such con

ence of the bishops and superior clergy im

proved the wisdom of the national councils; and versions, however, took place in England;

laws were framed to punish the more flagrant all was peaceful and voluntary.

violations of morality, and prevent the daily

| broils which harass the peace of society." “ Mercia received the faith from the pious industry of the Northumbrian princes, who Even such, to this day, has been the were eminently instrumental in the dissemina- state of Scandinavia--the primal germ tion of Christianity among the numerous tribes

again bursting forth, in fresher luxuriance; of their countrymen. Peada, the son of Penda,

for the “House of the Clergy” there reKing of Mercia, had offered his hand to the daughter of Oswin, the successor of Oswald ;

tains an elevating and conservative check but the lady spurned the addresses of a pagan, upon the other branches of the legislature, and the passion of the prince induced him to and all who visit Sweden are surprised study the principles of her religion. His con- | at the happy results of such influence.* version was rewarded with the object of his af

Perhaps it may be useful to consider fection”-and he became a sincere adherent to

whether some slight imitation of this arthe dew faith.

rangement might not be practicable in our Sussex was peopled by a fierce, intract

own body politic. That they are highly necessary, none who have sedulously noted

public affairs, will fail to perceive.f ** History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon 1 Then royalty, meekly obedient, sought Church, by John Lingard, D. D." Philadelphia Edi- the more permanent aid of religion, and tion, M, Fithian, 1814. Excellent as this volume is, there is much room for improvement. Some of

worshipped at other shrines than those of our enterprising publishers might publish an edition | lust, or passion, or ambition. containing judicious translations of the numerous Latin extracts which form a large portion of the

“In the clerical and monastic establishments, body and notes of the work. Under the guidance of a good editor, other improvements might be

the most sublime of the Gospel virtues were made which would render it more adapted for the carefully practiced : even kings descended from popular mind.

Dr. Baird's Visit, (N. Y. Edi. 1841,) pp. 41, 123, Dr.Baird's Visit, vol. II, p. 101, 176. et alibi.

t Qu.?-ED. VOL. I. NO. I. NEW SERIES. 3

their thrones, and exchanged the sceptre for | enjoy the free exercise of her religion, and had the cowl. Their conduct was applauded by extorted from the impatient suitor a promise, their contemporaries; and the moderns whose that he would impartially examine the credibilsupercilious wisdom affects to censure it, must ity of the Christian faith. With these conditions at least esteem the motives which inspired, and Edwin complied, and alternately consulted the admire the resolution which completed the Saxon priests and Paulinus, a bishop who had sacrifice. The progress of civilization kept accompanied the queen. Though the arguequal pace with the progress of religion; not ments of the missionary were enforced by only the useful, but the agreeable arts were in the entreaties of Edilberga, the king was slow troduced; every species of knowledge which to resolve, and two years were spent in anxious could be obtained, was eagerly studied; and deliberation. At length, attended by Paulinus, during the gloom of ignorance which over he entered the great council of the nation; respread the rest of Europe, learning found, for a quested the advice of his faithful Witau ; and certain period, an asylum among the Saxons of exposed the reasons which induced him to preBritain.” (Lingard, p. 35.).

fer the Christian to the pagan worship. Coiffi,

the high priest of Northumbria, was the first to Such names were given to the different reply. It might have been expected, that presections of the country as have withstood judice and interest would have armed him with the mutations of a thousand years : for

arguments against the adoption of a foreign

creed; but his attachment to paganism had instance, we have Cent, (Kent,) South

| been weakened by repeated disappointments, Seaxe, (Sussex,) Oxenford, (Oxford,) and

and he had learned to despise the gods, who Grantebrige, North-Humber-land, and nu- had neglected to reward his services. That merous others. Such arrangements for the religion he had hitherto taught was useless, the jurisdiction of the clergy, and their he attempted to prove from his own misfortunes, support, were originated, as have met very

and avowed his resolution to listen to the reafew changes in later ages. Canterbury

sons, and examine the doctrines of Paulinus.

He was followed by an aged thane, whose disthen secured (after severe conflicts) its

course offers an interesting picture of the simpresent pre-eminence, and the present sys

plicity of the age. When,' said he, O king, tem of tithes obtained as early as the year you and your ministers are seated at the table 750 ; but Offa, King of Mercia, first invest in the depth of winter, and the cheerful fire ed them with a legal relation, and Ethel blazes on the hearth in the middle of the hall, a wolf, about sixty years after, enlarged

sparrow, perhaps, chased by the wind and snow, them for the whole kingdom of England. *

enters at one door of the apartment, and es.

capes by the other. During the moment of its At this early period, too, the right of tem

passage, it enjoys the warmth ; when it is once poral investitures was yielded to the king,

departed, it is seen no more. Such is the naand “as soon as any church became vacant, ture of man. During a few years his existence the ring and crosier, the emblems of epis is visible; but what has preceded, or what will copal jurisdiction, were carried to the king follow it, is concealed from the view of mortals. by a deputation of the chapter, and re

If the new religion offer any information on turned by him to the person whom they

these important subjects, it must be worthy of had chosen, with a letter by which the

our attention.'” civil officers were ordered to maintain him

Right worthily spoken, though by one in the possession of the lands belonging to l who never trod the starry halls of science! his church.” (Lingard.) This useful

for, in the words of the poetmeasure soon engendered intolerable abuses, though it was William Rufus who first “ Nothing of life abideth ! all is change! “prostituted ecclesiastical dignities.”

Nor whence we came, and whither we shall go,

He knoweth who hath sent-nor deem it We meet with interesting records of the

strange conversion of Northumbria, of which Ed

If whence and whitherward the ocean's flow win was the puissant king. He

Ages have known not, nor shall ever know.”

"To these reasons the other members as- Had asked and obtained the hand of Edil sented. Paulinus was desired to explain the berga, the daughter of Ethelbert ; but the zeal principal articles of the Christian faith, and the of her brother had stipulated that she should king expressed his determination to embrace

the doctrine of the missionary. When it was

asked who would dare to profane the altars of * Black. Comm. pp. 25, 26.

Woden, Coiffi accepted the dangerous office. + Fuller, vol. i. p. 279.

Laying aside the emblems of the priestly dig.

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