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nity, he assumed the dress of a warrior; and others, the practice of celibacy was fully despising the prohibitions of the Saxon super- operative. Indeed, although every age stition, mounted the favorite charger of Edwin.
has marked the prevalence of this sentiBy those who were ignorant of his motives, his conduct was attributed to a temporary in
ment, none has presented brighter exsanity. But he disregarded their clamors, pro
amples of its faithful observance. From ceeded to the nearest temple, and, bidding defi
their early teachers were derived the inance to the god of his fathers, hurled his spear stances of its carefully-instilled importance; into the sacred edifice. It stuck in the opposite and we are almost ready to agree with wall; and, to the surprise of the trembling | Lingard, that spectators, the heavens were silent, and the sacrilege was unpunished. Insensibly they re “ Had Augustine and his associates been incovered from their fears, and, encouraged by volved in the embarrassments of marriage, they the exhortation of Coiffi, burnt to the ground
would never have torn themselves from their the temple and the surrounding grove."*
home and country, and have devoted the best
portion of their lives to the conversion of disFor the instruction of the clergy, semi- | tant and unknown barbarians.” (p. 57.) naries were founded, in which, “ With the assistance of the best masters, the
It was, probably, the consideration of young ecclesiastics were initiated in the differ- such sentiments that afterwards induced ent sciences which were studied at that period, Bacon to say : “He that hath wife and while the restraint of a wise and vigilant dis children hath given hostages to fortune ; cipline withheld them from the seductions of for they are impediments to great entervice, and inured them to the labors and duties
prises, either of virtue or mischief. Cerof their profession. According to their years
tainly the best works, and of the greatest and merit, they were admitted to the lower orders of the hierarchy; and might, with the ap
merit for the public, have proceeded from probation of their superior, aspire at the age of
the unmarried or the childless man, which five-and-twenty to the rank of deacon, at thirty
both in affection and means have married to that of priest.”
and endowed the public. ... Unmarried Nor were these provisions for education
men are best friends, best masters, best confined to the monasteries. The great servants. . . . A single life doth well with mass of the common people shared in the
churchmen; for charity will hardly water
the ground where it must first fill a pool.” labors and instructions of the missionaries.
Seneca, it seems, was of the same opinion: “ Bede has drawn an interesting picture of “Vita conjugalis altos et generosos spiritos the avidity with which the simple natives of frangit, et a magnis capitationibus ad huthe most neglected cantons were accustomed to millimas detrahit.” (Ibid., p. 58.) hasten, on the first appearance of a missionary, Without entering on the discussion of to beg his benedictions and listen to his instruc- l this auestion
this question, we may briefly mention that tions, and the celebrated St.Cuthbert frequently
these are the times when no such principles spent whole weeks and months in performing the priestly functions among the most moun
are in vogue—that the moderns will hearken tainous and uncultivated parts of Northumbria.” to no opinion of this kind ; and yet we are (P. 51.)
not certain that enthusiastically unselfish, The priests were exhorted to be satisfied vital piety is any more extensively prevawith the revenue of their churches ; and the se
lent now, than when the self-denying earnverest censures awaited him who presumed to
estness of Anglo-Saxon religion graced demand a retribution for the discharge of his
England with those exemplars, which after functions."
years have delighted to commemorate, To prevent the secularization of their though, perhaps, not to imitate.* minds, (the necessity of which is painfully
In his third chapter Dr. Lingard passes, evinced by the history of the Moravian
by a natural digression, to the temporal missionaries in Greenland,) many arrange
support of the ministers of religion. It ments were sedulously carried out. Among
was derived from donations of land, termed
“glebe lands,” (which were exempt from * Alcain has celebrated the fame of Coiffi in his poem on the Church of York :
* There are of course two sides in this question. “O nimium tanti felix audacia facti,
Mackintosh, “ Hist. Eng.," vol. I., cap. 2, pp. 46 Polluit ante alios quas ipse sacraverat aras." --50, has sketched the origin of clerical celibacy,
(Pp. 25, 26.) | and the corruption engendered by it.
taxation ;) from the voluntary oblations of | imperial city likewise. (P. 69.) But unthe people; from lithes, whose institution worthy advantage was taken of this liberal has been noticed above; and various other spirit, so diffusive among the Anglo-Saxons, charities, as “the plough alms,” (consisting by the imposition of the Rome-scol, a tax of one penny for every hide of arable which was originated by Offa, established land, exacted within fifteen days after by Ethelwulf, and continued by Alfred; Easter ;) the kirk-shot, col-shot, and last, “and which,” in the time of Gregory VII., (though not least, for it was the right of “amounted to something more than two the clergy to exact it,) the soul-shot, “a hundred pounds of Saxon money.”* (P. retribution in money for the prayers said | 71.) in behalf of the dead.”
| Nor did the violent escape the penalty of These were willing offerings. The Saxon their neglect :people were not hard-fisted, nor unworthy of the privileges Heaven had given to them. “In the laws of Ethelred and Canute, the
ence made for the 'grithbryce, the penalty for violating the peace
of a church of the revenues of the clergy, and most of the
Sbillings. institutions for that purpose have come 1st class was 5 240
1200 down to our own time. The Saxon clergy 2d
300 appear both to have known and taught
30 the pure morality of the Gospel. Their
(P. 274.) preachers sedulously inculcated that the first of duties was the love of God, and
The same reverence for the sacred office the second the love of our neighbor.
| is displayed in the rates of “the manbote,"
where the bishop comes after the king, - To subserve this latter object, the aggre
thus evincing their recognition of a superigate amount of all these perquisites composed in each parish a fund, which was called the ority granted only by Heaven,—and one patrimony of the minister, and which was de running through all the variations of voted to 'nearly the same purposes as the reve- Anglo-Saxon social institutions as well as nues of the cathedral churches. After two- | laws. thirds had been deducted for the support of the clergy and the repairs of the building, the re
"In the time of Edward the Confessor, the mainder was assigned for the relief of the poor manbote to be paid to the king or archbishon for and of strangers. In a country which offered
the murder of one of their retainers, was three no convenience for the accommodation of trav
marks; to a bishop or earl, forty-eight shillings ellers, frequent recourse was had to the hospi
of five pennies=20 of 12, or half of a mark; and tality of the curate : and in the vicinity of his to a thane twenty-four of five pennies, or residence a house was always open for their
ten of twelve, or one-fourth of a mark, which reception, in which, during three days, they
was two-thirds of a pound, or one hundred and were provided with board and lodging at the
sixty pennies.”+ expense of the church.” (Pp. 58, 66.)
The clergy were eminently adapted, both Here no Achæan host graced the festive by spirit and education, for modifying the table with the refinement of habits and rude customs—for forming and mollifying suavity of manners, which made Hellas the laws; and their assistance was cheerrenowned through all antiquity ; but the fully given. How beautifully Christianity toil-worn traveller found, among the Anglo- | moulded their ferocious valor, and made it Saxons, a race anxious to minister to his auxiliary to the life and spread of true comforts, “ given to hospitality.” The religion, may be seen from the scanty rights of sanctuary, and the peace of the records of contemporaneous history. It was church, were institutions that softened the by their persuasion, that Ethelbert pubmanners and elevated the generous senti- lished the first code of Saxon laws; and ments of those almost semi-barbarians, to thus the civil power, in the infancy of its an extent elsewhere unsurpassed in the annals of civilization. “Royal alms” were
* Edinburgh Review, January, 1838, pp. 163, 168.
The result of “a careful investigation into the proconveyed to Rome, and the benefactions of gress and success of these clerical encroachments Ethelwulf to the pontiff were munificent :
lf to the montiff were munificentil after the conquest,''(particularly in regard to tithes,) nor did he fail to give to the people in the
is here given.
+ Vide also Mackintosh, vol. I., p. 75.
vigor, was much indebted to the superior chastity appeared the most arduous effort of knowledge of the clergy. It would seem human virtue; they revered its professors as that their authority, too, was consenta
beings of a nature in this respect superior to neous; for he who relapsed into idolatry
their own; and learned to esteem a religion
which could elevate man so much above the inwas amenable to the civil power, which
fluence of his inclinations. As they became punished him “by the forfeiture of his acquainted with the maxims of the Gospel, their estate and disgrace of the pillory, unless veneration for this virtue increased ; and whoredeemed by the contributions of his ever compares the dissolute manners of the friends."
pagan Saxons with the severe celibacy of the Perhaps the name of St. Columba
| monastic orders, will be astonished at the imhallowed by succeeding ages—will give us
mense number of male and female recluses
who, within a century after the arrival of St. no inappropriate idea of the spirit and
Augustine, had voluntarily embraced a life of character of the age ; and remind the perpetual continency.” (P. 85.) titled sons of power, how worthless are the
Monastic industry was equally conspicuapplause and favors of worldly wealth, compared with the lustre which lives with
ous. While their churches were adorned him whose life has been dignified by heroic
and elegantly furnished, the wild luxuriance virtue.
of nature was not less subdued “by the Columba irradiated the distant isles with the inspiration of a true and fer
unwearied industry of the monks.” vent Christianity; and “his memory was
“ The forests were cleared, the marshes
drained, roads opened, bridges erected, and the long cherished with every testimony of
waste lands reclaimed. Plentiful harvests veneration by the northern nations.” He was
waved on the coasts of Northumbria, and luxuthe founder of a monastery, far off in the sea riant meadows started from the fens of the Giroii. girt isle of Iona, the works of which were The superior cultivation of several counties in honorably noticed by Bede, and the influence England, is originally owing to the labors of the of which was felt throughout Christendom.
monks, who at this early period were the Nor was Columba the only one of royal
parents of agriculture as well as of the arts."
(P. 95.) race, who thus devoted himself to solitude, and usefulness, and immortality. Princesses,
. It is impressive to reflect on the harmony leaving the homes of their ancestral splen
and beauty of the ceremonies attendant dor, eagerly hastened to the cloistered | upon the consecration of a nun, in Anglohalls of some distant abbey beyond the
Saxon Britain—more impressive still to foaming waves, or, with pious zeal, erected
know that they ever regarded their vows, and endowed monasteries in their own
and dispensed a light as cheering and effecdomains. Thus, while “crowds resorted
tive as it was pure and illuminating. to Faremontier, Chelles, and Audeli;
| (Cap. vii. p. 135.) Whitby, Coldingham and Ely were soon
How comprehensive and simple the inthronged by those illustrious for station
junction to the candidate for holy orders. and piety.” Eauswilde, Mildrede, and
After all preliminary ceremonies were conElthelburge, among the Southern Saxons, cluded, the bishop, — in Northumbria Hein, Hilda, and numerous " Having placed the stole' across the left others, have been remembered.
shoulder of each, as they successively knelt be
fore him, put in his hand the book of the Gos“ The monasteries were held in the highest pels, saying, “Receive this volume of the Gosestimation : the most distinguished of the Saxon pels; read and understand it; teach it to othfemale saints, and many of the most eminent ers, and fulfilit thyself.' Then holding his hands prelates were educated in them; and so edifying over their heads he thus continued : O Lord was the deportment of the greatest part of these God Almighty, the giver of honors, distributor communities, that the breath of slander never of orders, and disposer of functions, look with presumed to tarnish their character. The
complacency on these thy servants, whom we monastery of Coldingham alone forms an ex humbly ordain to the office of deacons, that they ception.” (P. 83.)
may always minister in thy service. We, With our ancestors, monastic chastity
though ignorant of their judgment, have exam
ined their lives, as far as we are able. But was venerated.
thou, O Lord, knowest all things; the most hid* To the Saxons, in whom, during the tide of den things are not concealed from thy eyes. conquest, the opportunity of gratification had | Thou art acquainted with all secrets; thou art strengthened the impulse of the passions, a life of the searcher of hearts. But as thou canst ex
amine their conduct by thy celestial light, so that handed down from the records of dim canst thou also purify their souls and grant antiquity has been preserved, and almost them the graces necessary for their functions.
imbodied in the naïveté of language by Send, therefore, on them, O Lord, thy Holy Spirit,
which it is presented. that, in the execution oftheir ministry, they may
grace. May thy precepts shine in their conduct'; - The ceremony began with the coronation may thy people learn to imitate the chastity of oath. Its origin may be traced to Anthemius, their lives; and may their fidelity in their present the Patriarch of Constantinople, whose zeal restation raise them to a higher dignity in thy fused to place the crown on the head of Anaschurch. He then completed their ordination tasius, a prince of suspicious orthodoxy, till he by anointing them with oil and chrism, pray
| had sworn to make no change in the established ing, that through the merits of Christ, what- religion. But the oath of the Anglo-Saxons ever they should bless, might be blessed, and was more comprehensive: it was a species of whatever they should hallow, might be hal compact between the monarch and people, lowed.'” (Cap. vii., p. 139.)
which the bishop, as the representative of
Heaven, ratified with his benediction. “RectiWe shall trace other fragments evincing | tudo est regis noviter ordinati, et in solium subthe spirit and social culture of those distant | levati, hæc tria præcepta populo Christiano sibi days. Such was the Anglo-Saxon Episco- subdite præcipere: imprimis ut ecclesia Dei, et pal Synod, which is still appropriately
omnis populus Christianus veram pacem ser
vent in omni tempore. AMEN. Aliud est, paralleled by the House of Convocation. |
ut rapacitate et omnes iniquitates, omnibus graHow interesting to the enthusiast, who looks
dibus interdicat. AMEN. Tertium
est, ut far into the future, must have been the ' in omnibus judiciis æquitatem et misericordiam spectacle when the bishops and mitred præcipiat, ut per hoc nobis indulgeat misericorabbots-venerable by the weight of indiviual diam suam clemens et misericors Deus. AMEN.' excellence, as well as the sacredness of A portion of the Gospel was then read; their official character-gave the first and
three prayers were recited to implore the bless
ing of God; and the consecrated oil was poured most harmonious specimen of a true legis
on the head of the king. While the other prelative body, ere Anglo-Saxon energy had |
lates anointed him, the archbishop read the evolved and consolidated such an organiza prayer: '() God, the strength of the elect, and tion in its political relation. From the the exaltation of the humble, who by the uncchurch were derived the most valuable im- tion of oil didst sanctify thy servant Aaron, and pressions of popular equality; it was a
by the same didst prepare priests, kings, and pure democracy, realizing itself in, and in
prophets, to rule thy people Israel ; sanctify,
Almighty God, in like manner, this thy servant, corporated with the most useful sugges
that like them he may be able to govern the tions for the arrangement of popular
people committed to his charge. assemblies. True, the Wittena-gemote was “At the conclusion of the prayer the principal typified in their ordinary “assemblies" thanes approached, and, in conjunction with ihe before the diffusion of Christianity; but bishops, placed the sceptre in his hand. The none the less did the church concentrate its archbishop continued : Bless, O Lord, this fragmentary evolutions, and infuse into
| prince, thou who rulest the kingdoms of all
kings. Amen. them an improved and elevated spirit.
« May he always be subject to thee with fear: (Cap. v. p. 98.) The mutations of society
may he serve thee: may his reign be peacehave abolished the rule which prevailed in ful: may he with his chieftains be protected by regard to the dower of a widow, (for in thy shield: may he be victorious without bloodthose simple days, it was the whole of her | shed. AMEN. husband's estate, if they had issue; if not, “« May he live magnanimous among the asthe half;) but the form in use at the matri
semblies of the nations : may he be distinguished monial ceremony, has come down to us
by the equity of his judgments. AMEN.
Grant him length of life for years; and may since the beginning of the thirteenth cen- l justice arise in his days. AMEN. tury. (Pp. 133-135.)
66 Grant that the nation may be faithful to him ; We annex the following to show how and his nobles may enjoy peace, and love nearly the coronation oath of the Anglo
666 Be thou his honor, his joy, and his pleasure; Saxon kings, corresponds with that now
his solace in grief, his counsel in difficulty, his established in England, after the lapse of
consoler in labor. AMEN. almost nine hundred years. We shall be
“ May he seek advice from thee, and by thee surprised to see how carefully the spirit of may he learn to hold the reins of empire, that
his life may be a life of happiness, and he may those in the councils of Nice and Chalhereafter enjoy eternal bliss. Amen.'
cedon. The language is SO choice, só “ The rod was now put into his hands,
elevated, that we transcribe it here :with a prayer, that the benedictions of the ancient patriarchs, of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,
"Notum sit paternitati tuæ, quod sicut primimight rest upon him. He was then crowned,
| tus a sancta Romana, et apostolica sede, beaand the archbisbop said, · Bless, O Lord, the
tissimo papo Gregorio dirigente, exorata est, strength of the king, our prince, and receive
ita credimus.” (An. 800, p. 117.) the work of his hands. Blessed by thee be his lands with the precious dew of the heavens, and
The influence of their religion over the the springs of the low-lying deep; with the fruits brought forth by the sun, and the fruits
civil concerns of society in the aggregate, brought forth by the moon; with the precious
was not superior to that which it bore in things of the aged mountains, and the precious the simple scenes of domestic life. things of the eternal hills; with the fruits of the earth, and the fullness thereof. May the “ Among our ancestors religion was not a dry blessing of Him who appeared in the bush rest and lifeless code of morality: she constantly on the head of the king: may he be blessed in interested herself in the welfare of her childrer his children, and dip his foot in oil: may the she took them by the hand at the opening, she horns of the rhinoceros be his horns; with conducted them with the care of a parent to the them may he push the nations to the extremi- end of life.” ties of the earth. And be He who rideth on the heavens his helper forever.'* Here the people! In addition to “the three great sacraexclaimed thrice, . Live the king forever. Amen, ments” of baptism, the Lord's Supper and AMEN, AMEN.' They were then admitted to
penance, they were wont to regard the kiss him on his throne. The ceremony con
imposition of hands by the bishop, ordinacluded with this prayer: O God, the author of eternity, leader of the heavenly host, and con
tion, marriage and the extreme unction with queror of all enemies; bless this, thy servant,
much veneration. It was, indeed, somewho humbly bends his head before thee : pour thing remarkable to find that the idea of thy grace upon him : preserve him with health death presented no terror to minds so well and happiness in the service to which he is ap- cultivated and reposing with such unquespointed, and wherever and for whomsoever he tioning earnestness in the triumphs of the shall implore thy assistance, do thou, O God, I
Christian faith. be present, protect and defend him, through Christ, our Lord. Amen.'t
“The directions of St. James were religiously By those who linger among the shadows
observed; the prayer of faith was read over the
| dying man, and his body anointed with conof far antiquity--who venerate whatever
secrated oil." comes gifted with the spells of mysticism because its origin is scarcely percepti- Such was St. Cuthbert's death. The ble—the East has ever been considered as | last rites of one to whose zeal and success the land of religious favor; but may it not we have previously alluded, are thus be equally just to regard it as the soil where described by Bede : (par eminence) error has been most incessantly grafted on Christianity ; where dim “Ecce sacer residens antistes ad altar, eyed philosophy has been resorted to, and Pocula degustat vitæ, Christique supinum adored, for merging with and polishing the Sanguine munit iter,vultusque ad sidera et almas doctrines of religion?
religion? But the converts
But the converts Sustollit gaudens palmas, animamque supernis among the northern nations were more simons were more sim. | Laudibus intentam lætantibus indidit astris."
P. 119. ple and less inquisitive. “Without suspicion they acquiesced in the doctrines taught by
Nay, more-after their spirits had filed their missionaries, and carefully transmitted
with pardonable zeal, they desired to b them as a sacred deposit to the veneration
entombed in the monasteries founded by of their descendants.” Two hundred years
their wealth, and dignified with their pro after Christianity had been planted, the
tection. prelates of Cloveshoe made a “confession of their faith,” worthy of record by the side of
"Such were the sentiments of Alcuyn, the
ealdoman of East Anglia, and one of the found* Taken from Deuteronomy, c. xxijii.
ers of Ramsey. Warned by frequent infirmities † Lingard, pp. 143-5.
of his approaching death, he repaired, accom