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pects, but will not get, from the public | therefore to predict, that instead of thirtylands, and the amount wanted will be one millions of dollars from the customs, twenty millions. Thus he says :

| the treasury will not receive over twenty

six, and probably less than twenty-five - The new tariff has now been in operation millions. Had the Secretary given us the more than twelve months, and has greatly aug imports and exports from the first of Demented the revenue and prosperity of the coun

cember, 1846, to the first of December, try. The net revenue from duties during the

1847, we could have predicted with more twelve months ending 1st December, 1847, under the new tariff, is $31,300,000, being

| confidence. Supposing, then, that all the $8,528,396 more than was received during the other estimates and calculations of the twelve months preceding, under the tariff of Secretary are correct, which they are far 1842. The net revenue of the first quarter of from being, and he will need a loan, the the first fiscal year, under the new tariff, was

present year, of more than twenty-five mill$11,106,257 41 cents, whilst, in the same

ions of dollars. Now an addition of sevenquarter of the preceding year, under the tariff of 1842, the net revenue was only $6,153,826

teen per cent. to the present duties, 58. If the revenue for the three remaining

properly distributed over the whole of quarters should equal in the average the first, our imports, would have produced just then the net revenue from duties during about that sum, and this would be a much the fiscal year of the new tariff would be more statesman-like measure, than a loan $44,425,029 64. If, however, the comparison

of twenty-five millions of dollars in the is founded on all the quarterly returns for forty

present, or any other condition of public eight years, (as far back as giveu quarterly in

credit likely to exist, under the administhe treasury record,) and the same proportion for the several quarters applied to the first

tration of President Polk and Secretary quarter of the year, it would make its net rev

Walker. enue, per table C, $40,388,045. Although the On the 14th of March, 1842, Sir R. net revenue from duties already received, being Peel, then Premier of England, made the $15,506,257 41, during the five months of this following exhibit to the House of Comfiscal year, would seem to indicate its probable

mons, as his estimate of the sources and amount not less than $35,000,000, yet it is estimated at $31,000,000 for the fiscal year ending

amount of the British revenue, for the year 30th June, 1848, and $32,000,000 for the suc ending the 5th of April, 1843 :ceeding year, in view of the possible effects of the revulsion in Great Britain. Although our I estimate the revenues, says the Premier, atprosperity is ascribed to the famine there, as Customs, - - - £22,500,000 though Providence had made the advance of Excise, - - - 13,450,000 one country depend upon the calamities of an Stamps, - - - 7,000,000 other, yet it is certain that our trade with Great Taxes, (land tax, we suppose,) 4,400,000 Britain must be greater in a series of years, Post Office, - - . 500,000 when prosperity would enable her to buy more Crown Lands, - - . . 150,000 from us (especially cotton) and at better prices, Miscellanies, - - - 250,000 and sell us more in exchange, accompanied by an augmentation of revenue."

Total, £48,350,000

To realize the Secretary's anticipations from the above table it will be perand estimates, our exports, during the ceived that more than one hundred millpresent year, must come nearly up to | ions of dollars, almost one half the two hundred millions of dollars. Sup- enormous income of England, is derived pose the average tariff on all our im- | from the customs. The amount of exports ports to be seventeen per centum, which and imports, upon which that enormous is nearly two per cent. more than it was sum was to be collected, are not given, last year, and that our imports do not and we have not at hand the means of exceed our exports more than five per ascertaining, but we may be sure, that the cent., which they probably will not do; then imports rather fell short than exceeded to raise a revenue of thirty-one millions | two hundred millions of dollars, and of of dollars, will require our exports to ex- ' course, the average duty on the whole ceed one hundred and seventy millions of import exceeded fifty per centum. This dollars, which every well-informed man is the English doctrine of free trade! which knows will not be the case. We undertake Secretary Walker lauds so highly, reduced to practice, for the British tariff has l'oppressiveness of English taxation pronot since been so modified, as to reduce ceeds from the excise, the land tax, the the amount of revenue from the customs window tax, and the hearth tax-in short, a single million of dollars. The only ma- from the taxes properly so called, and not terial reduction in the British tariff, which from the imports, which, properly speakour free trade party bruit so much, is the ing, are not taxes. Except for the necesreduction of the duties on bread stuffs saries of life, no man pays an impost and provisions, which never amounted to unless he pleases, and the necessaries of a million of dollars a year.

life are the subject of imposts to a very The population of the United States small extent in any country, because, as may be estimated at twenty millions, and a general rule, every nation produces its until the last year our exports of domestic own necessaries of life. A nation that products, in value, never exceeded about depended on other nations for any conone hundred millions of dollars, sometimes siderable portion of the necessaries of life, a little morè, and sometimes a little less. would be in a very precarious condition, The population of the British isles may and could not long exist as a nation. be estimated at twenty-eight millions. Besides, the domestic product in every There can be no doubt, but what the nation always regulates the market for exports of the United States, in propor- the necessaries of life, such as bread and tion to their population, are, and always meat; and hence, the importer, or foreign have been, equal to the exports of Eng- producer, and not the consumer, must pay land in proportion to her population. As the impost on these articles. Therefore England manufactures nearly everything it is, that the market price of flour in for herself, it is natural to suppose that England regulates the price of flour in ours would be the largest, but suppose Ohio. If a duty of one dollar a barrel them to be equal; then if twenty millions is laid on flour in England, flour immediof people export one hundred millions of ately falls a dollar a barrel in Ohio. If produce, twenty-eight millions of people that duty is taken off, flour rises a dollar would export one hundred and forty mill- a barrel in Ohio; so that an English imions of produce ; or if we take the last post on flour is, in reality, a tax on the year as the base of our calculations, and people of Ohio and others, who supply that twenty millions of people exported the English markets, and not on the peoone hundred and fifty millions of produce, ple of England. A duty of a dollar a then, by the same rule, twenty-eight mill-barrel, would not raise the price of flour ions of people would export two hundred to the consumer ten cents a barrel. The and ten millions of produce, so that the | balance of the impost would have to be average of duties would still be about fifty paid by the producer. Hence, the hunper centum upon the whole imports of Eng-dred millions of dollars of revenue, which land. This exhibit of the English Premier England annually collects from her comshows what an enormous amount of reve merce, is not paid by the people of Engnue may be collected from imports with- land, but by the people of the whole out oppression or inconvenience to the world with whom she deals. This is one people. Although England collects over of the main-springs of England's power. one hundred millions of dollars per annum She levies tribute upon the whole world, from her commerce, which does not ex- but pays tribute to nobody. She merely ceed the commerce of the United States humbugs the nations with the phantom of more than one-third, yet this enormous free trade. sum is annually paid by somebody, with! So long as no duty is imposed on tea, little or no complaint by the people of coffee, and spices, an opulent farmer and England, except the trifling sum collected a comfortable liver in our country will be on bread stuffs. Take away the corn under no necessity of consuming a single laws, which have not yielded a hundred article in his family on which either a tax thousand pounds sterling a year for the or a duty has been paid by anybody. last twenty years, and there has been little How absurd then to talk about an impost or no complaint by the people of England, | being oppressive to the people. What about the duties on English imports. The we call the comforts and luxuries of life, are the principal subjects of duties, and sions absurd, as we shall proceed to show. these are usually prized in proportion to We owe an apology to our readers, for so their cost. The stronger an article smells long a quotation of such stuff, but we of money, the more distinction its use will could not well abridge or divide it without confer, and the more it will be coveted by marring its beauty. The Secretary says: those who have the means of paying for it. / “In my report of July 22,1846, it was shown There is therefore no danger that high that the annual value of our products exceeds duties will ever prevent the importation of three thousand millions of dollars. Our populaforeign products, to the full amount of our tion doubles once in every twenty-three years, exports. The history of English commerce

and our products quadruple in the same period

-that being the time within which a sum comfurnishes abundant proof of this fact. A

| pounding itself quarter yearly at six per cent. duty of four or five hundred per centum interest will be quadrupled—as is sustained does not prevent the consumption of to- here by the actual results. Of this $3,000,bacco in England, from which the govern-000,000, only about $150,000,000 was exment derives an enormous revenue. The ported abroad, leaving $2,850,000,000, used greater portion of this revenue, it is true, is

at home, of which at least $500,000,000 paid by the consumers, but up to some

is annually interchanged between the sev

eral States of the Union. Under this system, thirty or forty per cent. the producer would

the larger the area, and the greater the pay a part. So a duty by our govern

variety of climate, soil, and products, the more ment, of two or three hundred per cent. on extensive is the commerce which must exist wine and silks, would not prevent them between the States, and the greater the value from being imported and consumed in of the Union. We see then here, under the large quantities. Who ever heard of an

system of free trade among the States of the

Union, an interchange of products of the anarticle of luxury being so dear, that no

nual value of at least $500,000,000 among our body would buy it ? High duties are as

twenty-one millions of people ; whilst our total much and even more complained of by

exchanges, including imports and exports, producers, than by consumers ; but if the with all the world besides, containing a popuduties are included in the price the con lation of a thousand millions, was last year sumer pays for the goods, the producer $305,194,260, being an increase since the new would have no cause to complain of the

tariff over the preceding year of $70,014,617.

Yet the exchanges between our States, consistduty. If a duty of a dollar a barrel on

ing of a population of twenty-one millions, beflour raised the price of flour a dollar a

ing of the yearly value of $500,000,000 exbarrel in the English market, what cause

changed, make such exchange in our own would the American producer have to country equal to $23 81 per individual annually complain of the duty ? Every nation of our own products, and reduces the exchange strives, by treaty or otherwise, to have its

of our own and foreign products, (our imports products subjected to as low a duty as

and exports,) considered as $300,000,000 with

all the rest of the world, to the annual value possible by foreign governments; but if the

of thirty cents to each individual. That is, one consumer pays the duty, they need give

person of the Union receives and exchanges themselves no trouble on that subject. If,

annually of our own products as much as then, England collects a revenue of over a seventy-nine persons of other countries. Were hundred millions of dollars on her com- , this exchange with foreign countries extended merce, how easily could the United States to ninety cents each, it would bring our imports collect half that sum on their commerce.

and exports up to $900,000,000 per annum, But Mr. Secretary Walker will find that

and our annual revenue from duties to a

sum exceeding $90,000,000. An addition of this cannot be done by reducing the duties

thirty cents each to the consumption of our on imports.

products exchanged from State to State by For what purpose the following fanfaro our own people, would furnish an increased nade was put into the Secretary's Report market of the value only of $6,300,000 ; we are at a loss to conceive. Perhaps he whereas an increase of thiriy cents each, by a thought he could darken counsel by a

system of liberal exchanges with the people of

all the world, would give us a market for an cloud of statistics and big figures, and

additional value of $300,000,000 per annum of thus conceal his blunders from the public

our exports. Such an addition cannot occur eve: but if this was his object, he will find by refusing to receive in exchange the products himself mistaken. His facts in the follow- of other nations, and demanding the $300,ing quotation are all false, and his conclu- | 000,000 per annum in specie, which could never

be supplied. But, by receiving foreign pro- ducts of last year, the largest ever made ducts at low duties in exchange for our ex- in the United States, did not exceed, and ports, such an augmentation might take place.

probably fell short of fifteen hundred millThe only obstacle to such exchanges are the duties and the freights. But the freight from

ions of dollars in value. New Orleans to Boston differs but little from

It is a well established principle of pothat between Liverpool and Boston; and the litical economy, that the consumption of a freight from many points in the interior is nation must, and always will, about equal greater than from England to the United States. its production. If then three thousand Thus the average freight from the Ohio river millions were produced in a year, three to Baltimore is greater than from the latter

thousand millions must, in some form or

thousand place to Liverpool; yet the annual exchanges

other, be consumed in a year, or it would of products between the Ohio and Baltimore exceed by many millions that between Balti

not answer the purpose for which it was more and Liverpool. The Canadas and adja- / produced. Now does any man in his senses cent provinces upon our borders, with a popula believe, that this nation ever consumed, in tion less than two millions, exchange imports one year, products of the value of three and exports with us less in amouut than the

thousand millions of dollars ? Suppose the State of Connecticut, with a population of 300,

people of the United States to be twenty 000; showing that, if these provinces were united with us by free trade, our annual ex

| millions, and the average consumption of changes with them would rise to $40,000,000. / products per capita would be one hundred It is not the freight, then, that creates the chief | and fifty dollars in value. Now can any obstacle to interchanges of products between man who has any knowledge of the daily ourselves and foreign countries, but the duties. fare of the great mass of our population, When we reflect, also, that exchange of pro believe, that men, women, children and ducts depends chiefly upon diversity-which is

slaves consume upon an average products greater between our own country and the rest of the world, than between the different States

of the value of one hundred and fifty dolof the Union-under a system of reciprocal

lars per annum ? The thing is wholly infree trade with all the world, the augmentation

credible. One hundred and fifty dollars arising from greater diversity of products would would enable each individual to pay two equal the diminution caused by freight. Thus, dollars a week for his board, and have fifty the Southern States exchange no cotton with

dollars a year wherewith to clothe himself. each other, nor the Western States flour, nor

The people of the United States would be the manufacturing States like fabrics. Diversity of products is essential to exchanges; and

much indebted to Mr. Secretary Walker, if England and America were united by abso

if he would make good his assertion with lute free trade, the reciprocal exchanges be regard to their wealth. The great mass tween them would soon far exceed the whole for- of our population do not consume food of

yn commerce of both ; and with reciprocal free the value of thirty dollars a head per year, trade with all nations, our own country, with its

and although a great many (yet a small pre-eminent advantages, would measure its an

number in comparison to the whole) connual trade in imports and exports by thousands

sume ten times that amount, yet if we set of millions of dollars.”

down sixty dollars a head as the amount This learned Report, in which the Sec consumed by each individual, it will probaretary says he has shown that the annual / bly be a liberal allowance, which would amount of our products exceeds three make the annual consumption twelve hunthousand millions of dollars, we have dred millions for twenty millions of people ; never seen, and we are therefore unac | and this is probably the full amount of our quainted with the process of reasoning by annual production. which he thinks he has shown that mag- There is another process of reasoning nificent fact. We suppose, however, that which will conduct us to about the same he has made use of the statistical tables conclusion. Exclude women and chilmade out under the direction and superin- dren, and those classes who do not labor, tendence of the Commissioner of Patents. / and it will leave about one-fourth of the But we care not for his statistics or his population for productive laborers. In a estimates. We know, and every man of population then of twenty millions there common sense who will reflect a moment will be five millions of productive laborers. upon the subject, may know, that they Now these laborers must average six hunare false to an enormous extent. The pro-dred dollars each in order to make an aggregate of three thousand millions. But every | dred millions are exchanged annually man who knows anything about labor, among the States, equal to twenty-three knows that such a supposition is utterly ab- dollars and eighty-one cents per head of surd. If we suppose each laborer to pro- our whole population, and this, we are duce two hundred and fifty dollars a year, told, is in consequence of free trade among it will be a liberal allowance. This would the States !. “If our foreign commerce were give an annual product of twelve hundred increased to ninety cents per head for the millions. In the division of this product whole world, (estimating the population of between labor and capital, we should prob- the world at a thousand millions,) it would ably be required to give to labor two-thirds, give us an annual revenue of at least ninety equal to eight hundred millions, and to millions of dollars.” Surely, Mr. Secrecapital one-third, equal to four hundred | tary, were the sky to fall we should catch milllons. As women and children engagelarks. “An addition of thirty cents for in some labor, it may be thought that our each individual to the consumption of our estimate of the number of laborers is too products exchanged from State to State, by

nall; but there are those who consider our own people, would furnish an increased the number of voters in a State where suf-market of the value of only six and threefrage is universal, a fair measure of the tenths millions of dollars, whereas an innumber of productive laborers. If so, crease of thirty cents each by a system of then our estimate is too large. But if we liberal exchanges with the people of all have under-estimated the number of pro- the world, would give us a market for an ductive laborers, we have also over-esti- | additional value of three hundred millions mated the product of each laborer, as every of dollars per annum of our exports." man knows who has been either in the Very true, Mr. Secretary ; but should we habit of laboring himself or employing have the three hundred millions to exothers to labor for him.

change ? The proper way to cook your But extravagant and absurd as the Sec- hare, we are told, is first to catch him. retary's facts are, his reasoning upon those But the Secretary tells us, that, “by refacts, is, if possible, still more extrava-ceiving foreign products at low duties, in gant and absurd. Our population, he tells exchange for our products, such an aug. us, doubles every twenty-three years, and mentation might take place!" Very like a our products quadruple in the same time. whale! The only obstacles, says the SecAnd by what process of reasoning, gentle retary, are the duties and the freights. reader, do you suppose he arrives at such We opine, on the contrary, that our labora sage conclusion? Why, forsooth, the ers would find other obstacles to an inSecretary says, that “any sum compound-creased production of three hundred ing itself quarter yearly at six per cent. million dollars worth of products. “The interest, will be quadrupled in that time." | Canadas and adjacent provinces upon our Now if there be the slightest connection borders, with a population of near two between his premise and his conclusion, 1 millions, exchange imports and exports we are not able to perceive it. Can it be with us, less in amount than the State of possible that the Secretary of the Trea- | Connecticut, with a population of three sury of the United States believes that our hundred thousand, showing that if these productions were four times as great in provinces were united with us by free 1847 as they were in 1824, and that they trade, our annual exchanges with them will be four times as great in 1870 as they would rise to forty millions of dollars.” were in 1847? It is to be feared that the Surely, Mr. Secretary, you don't say this statistics of the learned Secretary have in sober earnestness! The Secretary winds addled his brain, and confounded his pow- up his fanfaronade with the following ers of ratiocination.

flourish : “If England and America were Of this three thousand millions of pro- united by an absolute free trade, the recipducts, only one hundred and fifty millions rocal exchanges between them would soon are exchanged with foreign nations, equal far exceed the whole foreign commerce of to only fifteen cents a head on the whole both; and with reciprocal free trade with all population of the world. The balance is nations, our own country, with its pre-emused at home. Of this balance five hun- | inent advantages, would measure its annual

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