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and which is nowhere so successfully dis- | missionary operations of the day, will be played as on the soil that nourished “our presented at the close of this paper. And noble ancestors.” Through the reign of here—“as in the middle watches of the the Normans, the Plantagenets, the houses night "-we leave the church, to note the of York and Lancaster, and the first Tu progress of that enterprising disposition first dor, (Henry VII.,) this religious independ begun under her promptings, fostered by ence was not extinct, but slumbering. her instrumentality, and encouraged by Rome had partly triumphed; and king her auspices; for, previous to the time of oppressed noble, the nobles oppressed the the conquest, the church took the lead in people; while a gradual tide of wealth, every movement of social and civil proflowing into the religious houses, corrupted gress, extended her benign influence as an the ecclesiastics and impoverished the incentive to every noble enterprise ; and, kingdom.* But the good providence of when she afterwards refused to attend the God was yet visible; though John had triumphant march of free principles and bowed before the legate, and Henry been political regeneration, she was left behind. scourged at Becket's tomb, the people were | Thus the once servant became the leader, waking to the echoes of the reformation.t and the church lost all her enormous priv
Such as we have feebly portrayed ileges, while humanity gained all for them, were the aspects of this religion in which it aimed ; and Protestantism, with those early days; and such, or similar, milder beams, irradiated the land once would not be found to mark the experience blessed by the prevalence of the Catholic of any other people. Unrivalled Then was (that is, the, then, pure) faith. Many tenthe Anglo-Saxon race in religious favor; dencies are at work, now, which mar the unequalled now in moral excellence, or the purity, and cripple the efficiency of the means of social culture. Their benevolent church. One of these is the augmenting efforts have led back the benighted Hin- exclusiveness, the socialism, so lamentably doo to his ancient source of safety, and characteristic of our country. This broods their labors defied the perils of Afric's over the altars of the Most High; and, clime! On China's hitherto inhospitable until it be destroyed by a spirit of Chrisshore has Christianity sought and effected tian liberality and expansive feeling, the a lodgment, under the guidance of British church will never attain the position, the statesmanship--a permanent home.
vantage-ground, designed by Providence, In view of these facts and impressions, for her efficient guidance of the destinies we cannot resist the conclusion that Proy- / of mankind, or our own. idence has raised up, and sustained, and II. Nor is it their zeal for the welfare qualified the Anglo-Saxon race, to perform of the Siberian, the Negro, or the Indian, a great work in reclaiming the world; their interest in the spiritual welfare alone has guided and protected them from of these benighted tribes, that commands temptation, or brought them from it puri- our wonder. Science, inciting their enterfied, and ennobled by every scene of trial; prising disposition, has had its boundaries and has given to them—to us—the desti- enlarged, its efficacy renewed by their disnies of the world. That a moral responsi- coveries. The vast oceans encircling the bility-a political accountability rest here, poles, have first greeted the “cross of St. whose extent is measured only by the George,” and the accompanying “stars limits of mankind, and for the discharge of and stripes.” England's sturdy sons “a which we have not the means alone, but thousand years” had braved the battle the disposition and ability, seems probable. and the breeze in those ordinary bays and Bome inquiries as to this destiny, and the coasts; but now the stubborn enterprise of point we have already attained in its ful- her Parrys and Franklins has wrested its filment, as most beautifully evinced by the laurel from the ceaseless roar of cir
cumpolar waters, ice and snow; and
the keels of Europe press on to search Edinburgh Review, (before cited,) pp. 163,
those untrodden fields. In the thrilling 168. † Mack. p. 193. For a perspicacious sketch of " seeking counsel of her country's gods,”
address of the priest to Boadicea, when their gradually increasing acquisitions the curious reader will find no better guide than Mackintosh. | we notice the prophetic words :
“ Regions Cæsar never knew,
1 of Juggernaul has been, until very lately, Thy posterity shall sway,
undemolished, and even made a source of Where his eagles never flew,
revenue to its coffers ! None invincible as they ;'
We cannot trace, in detail, the progress
of this exploring spirit, nor pause to noand their rapid fulfilment seems vested
| tice its peaceful triumphs.* Learning has with all the truth as well as enthusiasm
aided such explorations, and been herself of poetry.
improved. With ceaseless rapidity, literaAttracted by these wondrous evidences of
ture and intelligence are now filling up, - a comprehensive policy—one, too, bound
where English discovery has paved the ed only by creation's limits—other nations
way. Knowledge and virtue shout in have reared the cross on Greenland's
chorus as civilization welcomes their prodreary shores, and taught her rude children
gress in the North and South, from the the blessings of religion and civilization :
East to the late untrodden West. The have planted colonies on the farthest
mental improvement of such a people has limits of our north-western continent, as if
been marked by a rapid development and a world were too narrow for their ventur
useful permanency, which now extort the ous spirit.* In this “labor of love" Eu
admiration of their fellows in other parts rope is not alone. Recently the southern
| of the earth. England's soil has numcross has joyfully witnessed the efforts so
bered a thousand generations, and her perseveringly made by American vessels
people, in all essential particulars, are still to penetrate those secluded regions, where,
the same-invincible, as when a Cæsar since the “morning stars sang together,"
| vainly strove to crush and curb their spirit nought had scanned their boundless diver
or daunt their valor. sities of ice and sea, but the eye of their
A thousand years
subsequent, they had exchanged their Creator; while on the lonely isles of many
ruder arms for the bow and arrow, introa group repose the reliques of our loved,
duced by the Normans. “The bow was the and lost, and honored dead.f
emblem of freedom, and the pre-eminence It cannot be denied that much has tarnished the English name where such at
of the English archers shows that the po
litical condition of England was superior tempts have been made : witness a Has
in the fourteenth century to that of any tings in India, and the progress of the
continental nation. British arms in China. The simple native has been, too often, forced to exclaim, with
---" These gallant yeomen, the ancient Caledonian, ubi soliludinem England's peculiar and appropriate sons, faciunt, pacem adpellant. But such results, Known in no other land. Each boasts his though frequent, are not a necessary part bearth of the policy to which reference is design- And field as free as the best lord his barony, ed Nav each victory seems to have been | Owning subjection to no human vassalage, overruled for the spiritual regeneration of
Save to the king and law. Hence are they
resolute, the vanquished :
Leading the van in every day of battle,
As men who know the blessings they defend. “ Tor, with the avergers came the word of
| Hence are they frank and generous in peace, peace;
As men who have their portion in its plenty. With the destroyers came the breath of life.”
No other kingdom shows such worth and happi.
ness, How different the course of missionary | Veiled in such low estate.”+ zeal in India, from what is disclosed by the melancholy annals of Cuba, Goa, and the Stern and vast, wild and active, are her French as well as Spanish West Indies. energies. And thus, as her physical emSo far has this toleration of the supersti- | pire has extended over the globe, her tious faith which flourishes on India's soil mental superiority is attested by her been carried by the Company, that the car
* The interested inquirer may observe some**That the French are not behindhand in these thing elucidating this, in Ed. Rev., Jan. 1838, pp. movements, see American Review, June, 1816, 171, 187, Am. W. Rev., 666, et ante; and South. p. 667; July, p. 699, et aliud.
Lit. Mess., July, 1815, p. 420. + South. Lit. Mess., May, 1815, pp. 315, 316.
+ Hallam, pp. 41, 42.
Shakspeares and Miltons ; her Newtons | try) the under-current of this tendency, it and-Lockes; by her educated statesmen, is none the less true that the importance her intelligent peasantry.* The action of of man, us man, was first prominently vinher press and literary issociations, her dicated by the “resultant force” of the universities and learned societies, pecu- American Revolution, and that our nation liarly ennobles her. To her enterprising has ever been guided by the principle disposition, we unite a spirit of freedom at “ that Government has for its mission the home, which tells us how to benefit our full and unequivocal maintenance of the selves by benefitting others; with her be- rights of man, of each and every man, in nevolent activity, we combine a reverence all their plenitude.” Has the learned for the freedom of religious worshipwriter reflected how much the English which teaches our people to serve their race has been instrumental in evolving the God and not their“ Church.” And necessary relation of individual exertions these have we received as our dearest, to the state (the culture and improvepriceless legacy from our venerated fore- ment) of society ; how much they have fathers. Palsied be the hand, which, | done to make virtue commensurate with whether in our halls of legislation or else | knowledge ? Our civilization, be it rewhere, would sap the earnest trust of our membered, is the type and product of our people in the value of religious influence political enterprise-is the mirror of ourfor the stability of nations!
selves. The efficient feature, then, in modern III. There are some important princicivilization, is enterprise-social, moral, in- ples which civilization has marked in the tellectual, and political enterprise ; and in very vitals of the English race, as their this race for distinction, England and progress developed its improvement. We America have been first and foremost. are justified in claiming that here the abIt has been said by Guizot, that the prime stract principles of jurisprudence are made element in modern European civilization most practically beneficial, as they are, is the energy of individual life, the force of undoubtedly, best understood. From the personal existence. In aliis verbis—"po- age of the Saxon Wittenagemot to the litical equality was, and still is, the grand time of William the Conqueror, and from aspiration of the nineteenth century." that period to the restoration, (1666,) and While discussing the difference in the the independency of the British House of spirit of the ancient and modern govern- | Commons, (A. D. 1832,) these great founment, Lieber says, with much truth, | dations of Justice have been scrutinized, “ The safety of the State is their principal which are the bulwark of nations. Hence, problem, the safety of the individual is “ nowhere has the science of the law been one of our greatest.”I In the mediæval carried to such perfection ” as in England period it was the standing of man as and America. The rude elements of conbishop, priest, or knight which gave tone stitutional freedom, existing during the to his consideration in society : the man middle ages, have been exchanged for and was lost in his office; but modern civiliza-moulded with those improvements which tion (steering a medium course between time has suggested and experience happily the tendency, among the ancient Republics, confirmed. absorptive of the individual in the mass, A more extended view as to the manand the other extreme just defined, has ner in which these different discoveries, clearly exemplified the rank, and elevated these evolutions of the great problem of the position of the individual abstracted Human Rights, have been effected and infrom the State. While the “ tyranny of corporated with the frame-work of Eng. the majority " has ever been (in this coun | lish society, may be, here, not injudiciously
given. In this brief investigation, we shall * Intelligent, not as they should be, but as compared with the mass of the same population in
| present some incidents, to aid “in tracing other countries of Europe.
out” the originals, the actualizations, † “ The very spirit that impels Anglo-Saxon blood in the wilds of Asia, impels us here in the
“and as it were the elements of the law;" wilds of America ; and all the high characteristics some considerations to assist in “tracing of courage and fortitude, that distinguish the Anglo
them to their fountains as well as our disSaxon race there, distinguish us here." | Political Ethics.
tance will permit.”
The history of the middle ages discloses | few centuries subsequent. Speaking of it, to our view three distinct classes of peo- Blackstone says, that “these encroachple, the thanes, ceorls, and villeins; the ments grew to be so universal, that, when first of whom received their title from the tenure in villenage was virtually abolished Danes, and the others were a necessary by the statute of Charles II., there was offspring of the mixture of Saxon and hardly a pure villein left in the nation.''S Danish character.
What an advancement in the code of hu
man rights, and from hence what an im“ Under the Sixon government there were, | pulse was given to the progress of true as Sir William Temple speaks, a sort of people freedom! in a condition of downright servitude, used and
There is one memorable instance in the e.nployed in the most servile works, and belonging, both they, their children, and effects,
progressive actualizations of this firm adto the lord of the soil, like the rest of the cattle or
herence to the liberties of mankind when in stock upon it.* These seemed to be those who danger, recorded on the pages of English heid what was called the folk-lands, from which history : when a proud monarch demanded they were removable at the lord's pleasure. / of the rude and haughty barons at RunnyOn the arrival of the Normans here, it seems
mede by what title they held their lands, not improbable that they who were strangers
each stalwart knight clasped his sword, exto any other than a feodal state, might give some sparks of enfranchisement to such wretch
claiming, “ By this we acquired, and by this ed persons as fell to their share, by admitting
we will maintain them ;” an impersonation, them, as well as others, to the oath of fealty, an evolution of that far-seeing regard for which conferred a right of protection, and rais- human rights, and individual sovereignty, ed the tenant to a kind of estate superior to , whose correspondent type is illustrated by downright slavery, but inferior to every other
the triumph of the English arms at Navacondition."
rino, when an oppressed people invoked the An important concession, this, even of
of sympathy of Humanity. The main features
of this protection ! Observe, now, the progress of this enfranchisement in the lapse of a
6 Devotion to the right with their last breathResistance of the wrong even unto death,”
* See also Hallam’s Middle Ages, (Harper's N. have often been displayed to the world durY. Edit., 1811,) P. 90.
| ing this interval of nearly a thousand years 2 Blackstone's Comm., (Chitty's N. Y. Edit. | 1813) p. 92.
between the two events here specially noted. 1 We are not aware that the English operatives Who, then can say that national character are now under any protection; a privilege (it may be remarked in passing) at that rude period confering
will not develop reciprocal phases, after valuable advantages. They should remember that centuries of change, which annihilate everythe condition of multitudes (Judge, Carleton says, I thing but the attachment to Freedom. thal " out of the 26,000,000 who inhabit the three kingdoms, twenty millions, men, women, and | which ages never subdue ; or that there is children, daily feel the yearnings of unsatisfied ap- no divine Providence guarding the sacred petite."'Dem. Rev., Jan. 1814, p. 33. See also Blackwood, May, 1815, pp. 531, 543–518,) of these heritage conferred on one people, and that poor “villeins,” (nomine mutato,] now in their one, our own race? midst is but little superior to those of whom Judge Carleton speaks, “degraded indeed for a being endued with reason ;” and cease taunting us with the barbarism of American Slayery,
* 2 Black. p. 96. Warren's Law Studies, p. 311.
WRITTEN IN AN ALBUM, WITH THE QUILL OF AN EAGLE KILLED AT NIAGARA FALLS.
BY THE LATE GEORGE H. COLTON.
The following verses were an extemporaneous effusion from the pen of the late George H. Colton, the Editor and Founder of this Journal. Some two years since, being on a visit in the country, he was asked to write in a young lady's album, and consented, but afterwards forgot his promise, until within an hour of his departure. Being then reminded, he took a pen and wrote the lines as they are given below, while the family were talking and laughing about him. The whole did not occupy him twenty minutes.
The verses, with the above particulars, were sent to the Editor by an elder brother of their author, who was present with him at the time. Though inferior to much else that he wrote, they serve to illustrate his surprising facility, harmony, and correctness of ear and fancy. The vein of melancholy and pathos which appears in these verses—the same which affects the reader in the pathetic passages of his poem of Tecumseh, and in the eloquent and powerful verses to the Night Wind in Autumn, published in the number of this Journal for Nov. 1846—proves them to have been a true effusion of the soul. In the qualities of fullness, power, and harmony of verse, Mr. Colton had no superior among the poets of our own country. With the spirit and scope of almost every species of verse used by the moderns, he was practically familiar; nor did any appreciate better the peculiar excellencies of our great poets. His taste in this department of letters was at once universal and discriminating. In a Memoir of him that will appear in this Journal as soon as the necessary materials can be collected, a review will be given of his works and character as a poet.—ED.
Of me--poor minstrel of one struggling hour,
Whose strains shall perish on th' unresting wind —
To hold my image in thine absent mind.
For I, upon the sluggish waters cast,
Meseems, have lost the power that thrilled of yore:-
Methinks mine image lives with thee no more.
Around my steps dark Lethe seems to flow,