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sense of that humility which should | sion of their crimes. But discretion, says always characterize the true Christian. Charlevoix, would not permit this ; for the For this it was that they had neither system of espionage could not be deprived window nor chimney, nor seat nor bed, nor of its moral tyranny; it was essential to more than one apartment. This last, of the enjoyment of the largest liberty! He course, contributed to the cultivation of expressly informs us, that during the act of domestic virtue and female modesty; and contrition, which is a portion of the divine the smoke of the fires, which had no issue, mysteries, “they sob and sigh, and would and the modicum of daylight, which had publicly confess their faults, did not the no entrance save the door, by marked con- missionaries employ all their authority to trast made them adore the God of Nature, | | prevent it.” To binder all possibility of ever present in the spontaneous richness of “scandal,” moreover, the new Christians their highly favored land. Moreover, from were married to the brides chosen for them a fatherly regard for due physical develop- by the Jesuits. This, too, aided in the ment, the women were made to take cultivation of the domestic affections—the abundant "exercise in certain rustic labors purest and most precious gift of God to not beyond their strength.”
These willing and subordinate creatures This “ Christian Republic" is now before having been made sufficiently submissive to our readers, as the facts are furnished by their spiritual lords, we learn that the next one of its most ardent defenders, himself a step was to petition the King of Spain to prominent member of the mission. Can allow them the use of fire-arms. Charle they say, with the Bishop of Buenos-Aires, voix says, that this was to prevent their when speaking of the company of Jesus in falling into the most cruel slavery ; that his letter of 1721 to Phillip V.: “How there could be no apprehension of anything beautiful is a chaste generation, when like a revolt among the Neophytes, for joined with the lustre of a pure and burntheir happiness and security depended upon ing zeal! the memory of such a generation their loyalty, which nothing but an attempt is precious in the sight of God and man ?” upon their liberties (?) could impair. But truly we are sick of our subject; nor Accordingly the new Christians were drill- can we waste our time any longer in ed every week, and rendered competent comments on the Rev. Father Charlevoix. to fight the battles of the Jesuits, which Were we to follow out his narrative, every indeed they did, most faithfully, for many page might furnish a proof of contradiction; years.
for his whole work is but a verbose, and These communities where no quarrels or not always subtle attempt to conceal the law-suits were to be seen, where mine and deep-dyed hypocrisy of plans which, yours were synonymous, were occasionally under the overshadowing mantle of the visited by the Bishops of Paraguay. These pure religion of Christ Jesus, created a prelates have affirmed, says our author, tyranny more thorough and more effectual, that their tears of gratitude to God for than that of the Council of Ten, or the such manifest favors to the benighted | Holy Inquisition itself. heathen, never dried up during all the time. The Jesuits had three principles of govtheir visitatioa lasted! To assist in prevent- ernment. The first was, that they were a ing all attempts upon the liberty of the body distinct from either the civil or ecclesiNeophytes, and in consideration of their astical powers of the community at large. natural levity and inconstancy, it was They professed, indeed, allegiance to the thought proper to establish in the Reduc- king, but allowed neither their institutions, tions the practice of public penances, upon their laws, nor their practical management to the same footing which prevailed in the be interfered with by him, his deputy, or the primitive ages of Christianity. Therefore bishop. Aided by their perseverance and inspectors were appointed to search out all vast wealth, as well as by their distance facts capable of giving scandal. Then fol. from both regal and papal authority, they lowed the penitential habit, an obligation well nigh succeeded in making Paraguay of public confession, and a whipping. Of an empire of their own. Secondly, the course, through fear of discovery, this complete subordination in which every operated to make many volunteer a confes- member of the order lived to his Superior, at once enabled one overmastering mind to the power they exercised over those whom control the whole. The very senses of they had peaceably subjugated by the each individual were subjugated to the vo- | entrails of Christ.” To this the Jesuits lition of the one next removed above him, | most reasonably objected. Hence arose and the lips dared not to breathe a sigh for dissensions, strife, and all ungodliness, and independence. This horrid discipline, sure- each party endeavored to supplant the ly, could accomplish anything short of ab- other in the good graces of His Catholic solute impossibilities. Lastly, the com- | Majesty of Spain. The Jesuits consistently munity of goods and the perfect equality followed out in their representations the of the Neophytes, was perhaps the most hypocritical plan they had adopted from characteristic trait of the Jesuitical form of the commencement, and persisted in saying, government. Ridiculous and unnatural as that they did not hold the new Christians this system, even when fairly administered, in personal service. The Spaniards, in is generally allowed to be, how great an their turn, beset the court with horrid tales imposture as well as fallacy must it not of the cruelty and extravagant versions of have involved, when it was nothing but a the wealth of the fathers; falsehoods name? For the poor Indian was made to about the existence of gold mines were work in all departments for his lords and poured into the ears of the avaricious minmasters, and received out of the whole isters, and no effort was left untried to produce of the Reductions, only a scanty subvert the now firmly settled missions of supply of coarse clothing, coarse food, and the hard-working and guileless Jesuits. a mud hovel. Latterly, it is true, that the Amidst the continued storm of words, Jesuits, in order to stifle the clamor raised the latter seem to have prevailed at against them, gave to each family a small court for a considerable length of time. parcel of land, and three days in the week At length, however, a royal visitor was apto work it. But what became of the pro- pointed in 1613, to investigate the mutual duce ? No market was offered to them at charges of the hostile parties, and if possihome, nor ships with which to transport it ble gain such information as might lead to abroad. Nor had they any domestic an impartial judgment. The better to fultrade, for they could only exchange com- fill his duties, he proceeded to the seat of modities in kind. The whole product of dissension. After conferring in private this extra labor, therefore, went into the with several persons who best understood hands of the Jesuits, as offerings to the the nature of these difficulties, he came to Virgin Mary—“consecrated to our good a conclusion hostile to the interests of the Mother,” says our author, “who will never Spaniards, and deprived them of the perabandon us in our distress.” And thus, sonal service of the Indians for eleven through the perfect subjugation of mind months of the year. But from this deand body, which the Jesuits had secured cision H. C. Majesty was pleased to subover their Indian proselytes, this appa- | tract another month. He furthermore derently liberal allowance of land and time clared that neither the tribes of the Gualeft their condition, for all practical pur- | ranis nor the Guaycurus should ever be poses, precisely as it was before.
placed under the subjection of serfdom We must close our relation of these won or slavery, upon any pretence whatever ; derful Reductions with one more refer- and that the Jesuits alone should be ence to Charlevoix. It is his version of their charged with the care of instructing and downfall which we would quote, adding civilizing them. thereto the evidence of contemporary wri | We are informed that the visitor had ters. Then, after an account of their wealth scarce left Ascension, before there arose in the height of their prosperity, we will so furious a storm against the Jesuits, as pass to more agreeable topics.
being the authors of this new regulation, It seems that the Spanish settlers of this that they were obliged to retire from the country of Paraguay most unnaturally con- city; whereupon the Spaniards began ceived that their right to the personal ser- | again to treat the Indians with their usual vice of the Indians they had conquered by cruelty and injustice. The great distincforce of arms, was quite as good as any tion between the hostile parties was, that that the Jesuits could urge in support of the Spaniards debased the Castilian dignity
in holding the Indians to service by brute | authority. The rapid accumulation of force, and without giving them anything their power and wealth alarmed the jealbut a living in return; whilst the fathers of ousy of the king, whose mind was conthe Society of Jesus contented themselves stantly inflamed by the sympathetic feelings with first enslaving the mind, and through of his various governors and viceroys in the this more intellectual and certain method, New World. At last they arrived at the preserved the services of their bodies, giv- clear conclusion, that if they did not oust ing them only yucca root to eat, and some the Jesuits, the Jesuits would oust them, flimsy garments to clothe their nakedness. and the Christian Republic become entirely The difference was nothing, so far as it con- | independent of the mother country. cerned the calculations of rival avarice; The extraordinary council of H. C. M. but it was great in the modus operandi, for Charles III. issued a rejoinder to the reply one side avowedly worked for themselves, of Pope Clement XIII. to the royal letter, while the other labored professedly for announcing that the Jesuits had been exthe glory of God and the honor of the pelled from the Spanish dominions. Virgin Mary!
Therein they are accused of altering the This is substantially the view which theological doctrines, and of doubting the Charlevoix gives of the matter. The re- authenticity of the sacred writings. “In mainder of his work is devoted to a tedious China,” it proceeds, “and in Malabar, narrative of the constant wars and blood- they have rendered compatible the worshed which the rascally Spaniards waged ship of God and Mammon. In Japan, against the meek and unresisting Jesuits; they have persecuted the very bishops in which the last mentioned were always and the other religious orders, in a manner the injured party, and bore with unflinch so scandalous, that it can never be blotted ing resignation the miseries inflicted upon from the memory of man; while in Euthem by the former. But he is careful to rope, they have been the focus and point avoid all deductions which, by possibility, d'appui of tumults, rebellions, and regi. could criminate his brethren, and really cides.” “It is proven against them by gives us no intelligible account of the rea- | the undeniable testimony of their own sons which led to their total expulsion by papers, that in Paraguay they took the Charles III. He simply ends his work field, with organized armies, to oppose by saying that “the prosperity of these themselves to the crown; and now, at this new churches, watered with the sweat and very time, have they not been, in Spain, manured with the blood of so many apos- | endeavoring to change the whole governtolic men," has no further reliance save in ment, to modify it according to their own the piety of a prince who sent orders pleasure, and to promulgate and put in from Spain for their extermination. We practice doctrines the most horrible ?” will, therefore, look elsewhere, and give Here, then, we have the reliable evidence the testimony of Don Gonzalo de Doblas, of a formal document of State, from which who was appointed by the Viceroy Vertiz, the reader can draw his own deductions. in 1781, Governor of Conception in the The manner of their expulsion was not Missiones. This writer was upon the spotless secret and conclusive, than the detersoon after the expulsion of the Jesuits; mination which led to it. On the 27th of but he allowed fourteen years to elapse February, 1767, Charles III. issued a before he wrote anything upon the sub- royal decree, banishing the Jesuits from ject-a period quite sufficient to have ena- all his dominions. Shortly after this, the bled him to gain information of an impar- prime minister, Count de Aranda, sent tial nature, no longer warped by the peremptory orders to Bucareli, Viceroy of bitter animosity of the hostile parties. Buenos-Aires, to take immediate and active We are willing to place confidence in his measures for simultaneously seizing them statements upon this ground. We learn in their strongholds, and shipping them then from Doblas, that the Jesuits planted to Europe.* Bucareli received this order the first seeds of their own ruin in the
* Robertson's Four Years in Paraguay, vol. II. fundamental principle of their government. pp. 62, 63, et seq. The Messrs. Robertson profess to Professing an honest allegiance to the have gained much of this information from unpub.
| lished Spanish manuscripts, in possession of Sir crown, they aimed to monopolize all real | Woodbine Parish.
on the seventh of June in the same year, | distance of more than 2,100 miles ; that and, from the facilities in his power, found they possessed twelve colleges ; more than that he could fix upon the 22d of July fifty estancias and settlements, made up following, as the day on which all the Jesuits of a vast number of servants and slaves ; should be instantaneously eradicated. At thirty towns or Reductions of Guarani midnight, therefore, of the 22d of July, | Indians, inhabited by one hundred thou1767, they were swept from their homes sand souls ; and twelve thousand Abiand possessions to a man. None escaped, pones, Macobies, Lules, and various other They were marched to Buenos-Aires, from nations of Chiquitos; not to speak of many whence, as Bucareli expresses it, they were more, of whom, through the Jesuitical remitted in parcels to the amount of five principle of keeping the Indians from all inhundred, as a present to Pope Clement tercourse with the Spaniars, we know XIII. His Papal Majesty was much in- nothing.” Furthermore, speaking of these censed at the impertinent presumption of possessions he says, “ Empire it may truly his vassal, the powerful monarch of Spain be called ; because, counting Indians, and the Indies, and refused to grant his slaves, and other servants, they have in “holy and apostolic ” benediction upon this vast country more vassals than the this measure. His successor, Pope Cle king.” ment XIV., more pliant to the wishes of | We copy from Robertson a condensed the king, ratified, in 1773, the proceedings statement of the value of the missionary against the Jesuits; and issued a complete establishment of San Ignacio Mini : brief—not very brief-consisting of forty
3,500 Indians, valued at . . $700,000 one articles, which we have not seen.
5,000 head of horned cattle, . 10,000 Therein we are told that he exonerated
1,600 horses, King Charles from all blame, and in direct
. . . 1,600 2,000 mares,
1,000 terms made many and weighty charges
700 mules, . against the down-stricken Jesuitical order.
1,400 . 500 asses, .
500 Such was the disastrous end of this “ Christian Republic.”
2,500 5,000 sheep, . Its foundations so
Church and caza de residencia, 100,000 firm-its superstructure so grand, which,
Territory twelve miles square,. 3,200 for the space of one hundred and eighty
Church ornaments and plate, 120,000 six years, had excited the envy and the wonder of mankind-in a single day were seen no more. Alas, for the Jesuits! Their
Total, $940,000 goods and chattels—their dwellings and On the day of the expulsion we find the churches--their land and cattle—their sil- number of cattle in the thirty missions was ver and gold--their tools and workshops—| as follows:-* their subjects and slaves, were all lost to Tame cattle, . . . .
743,608 them, and added to the crown of their
Oxen, . .
44,114 jealous sovereign. With all their wisdom,
| Horses, . . . . ..
31,603 caution, calculation, strength, wealth, learn
64,352 ing, and double-dealing, the Jesuits were
3,256 out-jesuited at last; and at the moment
12,705 when each individual was aspiring to ad
7,469 vancement, and every one thought his
225,486 house built upon a rock, the followers of Loyola found, to their cost, that the Count This aggregate list of cattle, when comde Aranda and Bucareli were stronger pared with the corresponding list in the than they. From that day to this, they mission of San Ignacio Mini, shows a prohave not sought an open return to these portion of thirty to one. If we take this countries. Though many, undoubtedly, rule for our guide, we shall find the whole exist in South America, none are to be wealth of the thirty missions to have found in Paraguay.
amounted to twenty-eight millions two In the height of their power, we learn, from a dispatch of Bucareli, that “five
*“Memoria sobre las Missiones." Don Pedro hundred Jesuits were distributed over a l de Angelis. Buenos-Aires, 1836.
hundred and six thousand dollars. And and feet, it resembles the swine ; its teeth if we estimate this according to the are sharp and regular, like those in the usual standard of difference between the lower jaw of a calf, save only that it has value of money in that day and in our four tusks in each jaw, similar to those of own, the result will be found to exceed by a wild boar. When enraged, the upper far one hundred millions of dollars at the lip is projected to an extent which reminds present time. But the combination of one of a proboscis. A smooth, short and priestly influence and political power bare appendage supplies the place of a ruined them, as we have seen already. | tail. The stomach contains a pouch, in “So long as they confined themselves,” says which are often found a number of polyRobertson, “to the care of their flocks, gonous bezoar stones. To these the naand whilst their political situation was tives ascribe extraordinary medicinal virfeeble or precarious, they went on and tues, either altogether imaginary, or, at prospered; but when they had made those least, greatly exaggerated beyond their Hocks subservient to their aggrandizement, real value. and from year to year, by papal bulls and There is no animal of our continent royal concessions, had isolated and with which seems to be so little known as this, drawn themselves from under the control and about which so many contradictions at once of diocesans, viceroys and gov- exist, even in the histories of the most ernors, they got into a false position, and celebrated naturalists. In the “Naturalpaved the way for their own downfall.” ist's Library,” edited by Mr. A. A. Gould,
proceed to the other topic intended for our authority the works of Cuvier, Griffith, present communication. The work of Richardson, Geoffroy, Lacepede, Buffon, Father Martin Dobrizhoffer is on the Goldsmith, Shaw, Montague, and others, whole the best guide to what is known of we find it stated that the Anta has three the Natural History of Paraguay proper ; toes upon the anterior feet, and four upon but this we shall occasionally improve, as the posterior. Goldsmith himself, on the well by our own recollection of what we saw other hand, says it has four claws upon there, as by the accounts of other writers each foot. In a work by Mr. Bennet, enupon the contiguous countries of a much titled “ The Garden and Menagerie of the more recent date. For the upper regions Zoological Society Delineated,” it is said of the river Amazon and the rivers Paranà to have four toes upon the anterior and and Paraguay, as far as any knowledge of three upon the posterior feet. Father them has reached us, are very similar in Dobrizhoffer, however, who spent twentytheir spontaneous productions, though not two years in Paraguay, asserts that its in their geological conformation. We fore-feet are cloven into two hollow nails, shall commence with the principal quadru- / and the hind-feet into three; and this peds.
agrees best with the specimen which we The Anta, or LA GRAN BESTIA, (the saw during our own brief residence. great beast,) from its superior size, as well! The inaccurate historian of “ Animated as its dissimilarity to all known animals, | Nature” also ascribes to this animal small, claims our first attention. As far as it bears long and pendent ears, and a fondness for any resemblance to other quadrupeds, it may the water which almost makes it amphibe likened to the Rhinoceros. It has the same bious. But both these statements are extremely thick hide, the same long upper erroneous; for it has rather short, straight lip, with which to collect the same food, ears, inclining forwards, and only takes to viz., the grass and herbage, and it is nat- | the water when pursued. Its favorite urally of a mild and gentle disposition. 1 haunts are the deepest recesses of the Here, however, the similarity must end : most rugged forests, almost inaccessible to in all else it is sui generis. Dobrizhoffer's both stags and horses, where it sleeps by description is the best we have read, and day and feeds by night. The Anta becorresponds with a specimen it was our longs to the Pachydermatous tribe, so fortune to see in Paraguay. Its size is called on account of the extreme thickness about the same with that of a full-grown of the skin, and farther characterized by ass; in shape, if we except its eyes, head, I the toes being entirely enveloped in in