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land. Asmund Drengot and his brothers, | Henry the Second crossed the Alps at the on their flight from Normandy in the year head of a powerful army. But the Ger1017, " passed through the city of Rome, mans not being able to withstand the and arrived at Capua ;"15 and in another baneful influence of the Italian climate, place it is said that they fled with their the Emperor returned in 1023, without horses and arms only." William the Blind having succeeded in expelling the Greeks.”' starting for Italy in the year 1054, with The nephews of Melo, who now gave some monks and a retinue of twelve up the contest, received from the Emperor squires on a visit to his son, who had ac- , some of his Italian fiefs, and with them quired renown and riches in the South, | Henry left the last twenty-five Normans crossed the Alps and passed through who had survived the war, and remained Rome to Apulia.” When Robert of faithful to the family of Melo. Among Grentemesnil, in the year 1061, from the these are named Walter of Canisy, Hugh fear of Duke William, went into banish- / Faloch, Gusman, Stig, Thorstein and Balment, “he mounted his steed with his bus. Most of the other Normans had two attendants, Fuleo and Urso, and rode perished as the victims of their headthrough Gaul ; he then repaired to Rome long courage and contempt of death. Of and joined Robert Wiscard in Lower two hundred and fifty who had fought at Speaking of the Normans, who in the be- the battle of Cannæ, only ten remained ; ginning went to Apulia, it is generally and already at the time when Melo went said, “ that they crossed the Tiber;" and into banishment, the three thousand warfinally, that those bands who in the year riors from Normandy had melted down to 1017, on the invitation of Melo, left Nor-five hundred. Those who, besides the mandy, having arrived at a mountain pass above-mentioned small number, faithfully on St. Bernard, (Mons Fovis,) where the adhering to the family of Melo, had escaped inhabitants by towers and gates had shut from the war, returned to Salerno and the passage in order to demand a tribute joined those of their brothers, who with of the travellers, broke open the gates, the envoys of Gaimar at an earlier period killed the guardians, and with their swords had arrived from Normandy, and still cleared their way to Rome and Apulia.''. served as regular troops (soudarii, i. e, sol

On the arrival of the Normans in Lower diers) the prince of Salerno. The comItaly, they joined those troops which Melo mander of these Normans was Thorstein in the meantime had obtained from the Scitel, of whom for long years afterwards Longobard princes, who with avidity em- many wonderful traditions were told in braced every opportunity to weaken the Normandy. Thus the chronicles give Greek empire in Italy. In the beginning some curious details, how he, in the court of the year 1018, when the cold was so of the palace at Salerno, was attacked by intense that even the wild beasts perished a lion, whom he caught with his defenceless in the mountains, Melo opened the contest, arms, lifted high in the air, and then hurled wherein he in a short time gained six vic over the battlements of the castle ; and tories ; but in the next year fortune turned how he, at last, by some Longobard traiagainst him, and after the defeat near tors, was decoyed to a dragon, whom he Cannæ, he was obliged to flee to Ger- succeeded in killing, but whose venomous many, where, a few months later, he died blood occasioned his death." broken-hearted at the overthrow of all his Provoked at the death of Thorstein, or, hopes. Dato, his brother-in-law, who as another version has it, dissatisfied at attempted to continue the feud against not being rewarded according to the agreethe Greeks, was routed and taken prison- ment, the Normans renounced their alleer in the year 1021. The Greeks mount- giance to the prince of Salerno and retired ed him, in chains, on a donkey, and carried to the marshes of Campania, tenanted by him triumphantly to Bari, where he was frogs, where they erected a strongly fortisewed up in a sack together with a serpent, fied camp, and chose Rainulf, the brother & cock, and a monkey, and thrown into the of Asmund Drengot, for their leader. The sea. After the death of Dato the nephews Normans soon began to form a political of Melo rose as leaders against the Greeks, system of their own. They would have and to their assistance the German Emperor | lost all weight if one of the petty princes of Lower Italy had succeeded in sub- | Hauteville, among the flower of the Northjecting his neighbors, and they there- men, lived in the beginning of the eleventh fore sought to maintain a certain balance century a generous and brave baron, Tanof power, whereby their service would cred, who in his younger years had visited be always considered as important; and foreign courts,” and performed many a with great artifice and without shunning gallant deed. During his residence at any danger or exertion, they fully accom- the court of Richard the Good, he once plished their purpose. The Italian chroni- went a hunting with the Duke, a pastime clers, with the most vivid colors, de | highly esteemed by the Normans. Here scribe the heroic valor of the Normans, he was attacked by a powerful wild boar," which, though it excites their enthusiasm, who had killed the pursuing hounds, but yet inspires them with great bitterness. Tancred rushed forward and thrust the They bewail “the unheard of cruelty and animal with so great force that the hilt savage fierceness of this foreign nation, who of his sword struck on its forehead, and showed a more than heathen disdain for the Duke, delighted with his prowess, rethe holy church.”» These complaints are tained him at his court, where he comcertainly in part to be regarded as the ex | manded ten of his knights. Having aggerations of the bigoted chroniclers, or spent several years in the service of the as a re-echoing of the olden time : at all Duke of Normandy, Tancred returned to events they were not able to lessen the his paternal estate, where he married Mureputation of the Normans; it continued riella, with whom he had five sons, William, on the increase, the more the princes of Drogo, Humfrey, Godfrey, and Serlon. Italy became confident, that the superior | After the death of Muriella he took anspirit, bravery and discipline of the for- other wife, Fredesenda, who bore him the eigners, nearly in every battle, gave vic sons Robert, Malger, Alfred, William, tory to the side which they espoused. Humbert, Tancred and Roger. All the Having assisted Duke Gergio in the re twelve sons of Tancred were distinguished capture of Naples, from which he had in every knightly exercise, and from their been driven by the prince of Capua, the early youth it was inculcated them, above duke, in the year 1029, generously granted all other considerations, to aspire to glory, them a portion of land between Naples and not to suffer any equal near them, but Capua, where they built the strong castle rather to risk all to bring every rival beAnversa la Normanna. They fortified the neath their sway. town with moats and high battlemented | When William, Drogo, and Humfrey walls, and Rainulf, who married the sister came of age and were armed knights, of Gergio, sent envoys with this intelligence they accepted the invitation of Rainulf of to Normandy, to invite his countrymen Anversa and departed for Italy. On the to strengthen the warlike colony by the journey they earned their sustenance with migration of new bands. Many were those their swords; and when they at last in the who followed his call: some departed be- year 1035, arrived in Apulia, and there cause they were outlawed; others to meet learned that the prince of Capua was at their relations and friends, who had emi- | war with Gaimar the Fourth of Salerno, grated at an earlier period, and others the successor of Gaimar the Great, they again from a desire to acquire wealth and changed their former intention of joining reputation with their swords. Among the the Norman colony at Anversa, and prelast were the three eldest sons of Tancred | ferred to enter the military service of the of Hauteville.

Duke of Capua. But they soon became II. In the neighborhood of Cotentin," in aware of the avarice of this prince: they Normandy, lay the castle of Hauteville, left him again and marched off to Gaimar close to the present village of the same of Salerno, who at that time had pername. There are now few ruins of the suaded some hundred other warriors, lately castle left, but the surrounding meadows arrived from Normandy, to join his banner. still preserving the names of Parc, Bois, At the head of these Salernitan Normans Colombier, clearly indicate that they, dur- | William and his two brothers performed ing the middle ages, formed the feudal the most daring and heroic deeds, and estate of a nobleman. At the castle of were liberally rewarded by Gaimar. Yet the timid and suspicious Italian soon be made a sally from the city and drove back gan to become distrustful of his foreign the Greeks with great loss, until the Normercenaries, and to fear that these wild mans, forcing their way through the press guests might become dangerous to him- of the fugitives, put spurs to their horses self and his own dominion ; be therefore and not only compelled the Arabs to make secretly sought a pretext to get rid of a stand, but these being terrified at the them.

sight of their unknown enemies and reIn the mean time the fame of the won-treating in the greatest disorder to the derful valor of the Normans had spread city, the Normans pressed hard upon all over the Orient, and they were thus their rear and rushed together with them called away to new regions and new vic- into the city, which thus fell into the postories. The Byzantine emperors had never session of Maniakes. From Messina the forgotten the loss of Sicily ; but all their | Greek army then penetrated into the inteefforts, however strenuous, to regain pos- rior of Sicily, and captured thirteen other session of that fertile and beautiful island, towns.30 Before Syracuse a pitched battle had hitherto been rewarded with continual ) was fought, which gave William of Hautedisasters. Michael the Fourth, the Paph- ville his surname Bras-de-Fer or Iron-arm, lagonian, who now occupied the imperial because he thrust his heavy lance with throne, resolved at last to take advantage of such violence into the breast of the the internal dissensions among the Arabs Arabian general," that the point passed in Sicily, and to make another attempt to through his back. Some time afterwards reconquer the island. A large army was Maniakes gained another great victory at assembled for this purpose, and the com- | Traina (Traianum) over the Saracens, who, mand of it was given to the Italian Cata- though their number is given at fifteen pan Georgios Maniakes, who formerly had thousand, *2 were manfully charged by acquired the reputation of an able general | three hundred Normans riding in the van by several victories he had won over the of the army, and totally routed before Saracens of Syria.28 Maniakes requested Maniakes could bring up his Greeks. But Gaimar to lend him those Normans who while the Normans were pursuing the were in his service, and the prince of Sa Saracens, the Greeks reached the battlelerno instantly seized this opportunity to field and plundered the Arabian camp, remove his northern guests, who willingly without leaving any portion to those to listened to the splendid promises of the whom they owed the victory. Provoked imperial governor. They met Maniakes at this, the Normans sent a Lombard, and the Greek army at Reggio, and, united | Ardoin,33 who had joined their standard with them, they for the first time crossed and understood the Greek language, to the strait and landed in Sicily.

interpret their complaints to Maniakes ; We possess different accounts of the but the haughty Greek governor being first expedition of the Normans to Sicily, accustomed to servile obedience, looked in the year 1038: Byzantine by Zonaras upon this action as a punishable mutiny, and Cedrenus ; Icelandic in the Saga of and ordered Ardoin to be flogged naked Harald Haarderaade and Normanno, Ital- | all around the camp of the Greeks. The ian by Malaterra, William of Apulia, and Normans, exasperated at this outrage, Aimé, the chronicler of Monte Casino. All would instantly have taken a bloody rethese sources being contradictory, and it venge, yet they were induced by Ardoin being hardly possible to bring them in himself to tarry with their vengeance until harmony with each other, except by loose he succeeded in obtaining a Greek passguessing or arbitrary reforming, it would port, 34 with which they could more easily seem that one of them ought particularly get back to Italy. As soon as this was to be chosen as a guide ; and about the accomplished, they suddenly, during the choice there can hardly be any doubt in night, left the Greek camp. this case, the Norman chronicler Jeffrey The Normans having recrossed the strait Malaterra being the one who in every of Messina, invaded with fire and sword respect appears preferable. He relates the possessions of the Greeks, and adthat Maniakes having disembarked on the vanced to the frontiers of Apulia, where coast and besieged Messina, the Saracens they halted to deliberate on their further undertakings. Hitherto they had given | marched against Malfi ;" but when the Northemselves up to their anger without fol- mans boldly went out to meet him, he atlowing any well concerted plan. They tempted beforehand to try, if possible, would not return to Salerno, knowing the to persuade them to retire without combat; disposition of Gaimar, but at the sugges- and, therefore, sent a messenger to sumntion of Ardoin, they sent him as an envoy mon them within the space of three days to the settlement of the Normans at An- and three nights to quit Italy. But the versa, to solicit reinforcements. Anversa Normans replied that the way to their was still governed by Rainulf, who, re- home was very long, and that they had membering the expedition under the com- | not wandered so far, dastardly to retun; mand of Melo, was disposed even now to and their refusal to the Greek messenger renew the warfare against the Greeks. terminated with a show of strength, wbersReinforcements were sent to Apulia, and by they possibly intended to frighten the new bands of emigrants arriving, as it Greek with their Herculean force. Hugh seems, from Normandy,an army was Tudebod, who had been standing near the formed, consisting of twelve hundred war-| Greek envoy, patting his horse, lerelled riors, who were commanded by twelve so tremendous a blow with his fist on the chieftains. Among these were Rainulf, head of the animal," that he felled it dead William, Drogo, and Hugh Tudebod (Tu-to the ground. The Normans placed the debæuf.)" The leaders of the Normans terrified Greek on a fresh horse, and per

dopted now the plan of Melo, totally to mitted him unhurt to retire to the Greek expel the Greeks from the peninsula : they camp. Still Michael Dokeianos did not bound themselves by oath to divide the | suffer himself to be discouraged from fightconquests in equal parts among each other, ing; he crossed the river Ofanto, attacked and began their enterprise most success- the Normans—who, according to the chirfully during the night of the 21st of March, I alresque usage of the times, had appointed 1041, bv forcing their entry into the city the place and the hour for the battle and of Maldi, which, according to Aimé, by the followed at the onset the Greek tactics of strength of its site and fortifications, might wearying out the enemy, by charging with be considered as the key of Apulia. The one division of the army after the other. following day, the Normans, merry and But the Normans instantly took advantage singing, rode away from Malfi, and sub- of this, and though they did not count dued the neighboring towns, Venosa, As- more hundreds than the Greeks thoucoli, and Lavello, so

sands, they drew up their battle array in It contributed very much to the good the form of a wedge, and thus broke fortune of the Normans in Italy, that through the whole army of Dokeianos, a Apulia and Calabria were left unprovided great part of which, on their flight, perwith troops, the Greek army having been ished in the Ofanto. When the Greeks, concentrated in Sicily. Here Georgios before the combat, crossed the river, ass Maniakes had lost the command a short the chronicler, it was so narrow and lov, time after the departure of the Normans, that the water hardly reached to the on account of his having punished the thighs of the horses, but when the battle brother-in-law of the emperor, the Admiral was lost and the Greeks fled, they found (Navarch) Stephanos, who had disobeyed the river overflowing its banks, although his orders. On the recall of Maniakes," the sky was serene and beautiful, and no Michael Dokeianos was appointed gover- rain had fallen during the action. Michael ner, with the special command of the em Dokeianos escaped with only a few fugiperor to rid the Italian provinces of the tives, but these be joined with the rest of barbarian robbers of the north; yet it was the Greek army, which, in the mean time, enjoined on the Catapan not to kill all the had been expelled from Sicily by the barbarians, but to capture some of them Arabs, and then he a second time attacked living and to send them in fetters to Con- the Normans near Montepiloso." Here stantinople, for the diversion of the em- the battle continued yet undecided at sunperor and the imperial court. According down; when William of Hauteville, who to this order, Michael, at the head of the was suffering from the ague,"4 and had witPhrygian legion and part of the Lydian, nessed the combat from a neighboring bill,

by an extraordinary effort overcame his | Malfi should be possessed by all in comweakness, put on his armor, and chanting mon. The city was divided into twelve the war-song of the Normans, charged and shares, in each of which one of the Norman killed the general of the enemy, at whose counts possessed his own dwelling. fall the Greeks retreated. After the bat Giannono remarks that this Norman contle of Montepiloso, the Greeks evacuated the stitution resembles that of the Longobards, open country and shut themselves up in during the first ten years of their dominion the cities. Fresh troops were in vain sent in Italy, who, not choosing a new king after from Constantinople to their relief,“and the death of Klephis, divided the kingthey soon began, one after another, to sur-dom in such a manner, that each of the render to the Normans, who had succeeded | thirty-six chieftains governed his own disin conducting their enterprises with more trict; and all met in Pavia, when it was union and strength, and perhaps to win expedient to deliberate on the general the confidence of the Italians by electing affairs of their confederacy. There appears, Argyros, the son of Melo, their duke. This however, to be this difference, that while election took place near Bari, in the year all the Longobard dukes (duces) were 1042, on a general assembly of the Nor | alike, the Norman counts (comiles) chose mans, and here Argyros was raised to his a primus inter pares as their leader and new dignity, by the warriors lifting him president. This was for the first time the high on a shield, 47 amidst loud acclama- case with William of the Iron-arm, who tions and clashing of arms. Yet, when he was succeeded by his brother Drogo. some time afterwards disappointed their | The valiant Drogo being assassinated by expectations, the former convention was a treacherous Lombard, in the year 1051, renewed, and the twelve chieftains having the chief command was transferred to the finished the conquest of Apulia in the year third brother, Humfrey, with the surname 1043, the Normans again assembled near Bagalarde, who formerly had been roaming Malfi, where now the whole country was about on the Adriatic, and afterwards obdivided in twelve shares among the victors.tained the county of Lavello. In order to William of Hauteville received Ascoli, explain the immediate succession of the which lay nearest to the capital of Malfi, three brothers, as leaders of the Apulian and his brother Drogo, Venosa. Hugh | military republic, the Italian historians, Tudebod obtained Monopoli; Arnulf, La- | who supposed the presidency hereditary, vello; Peter, Trani ; Walter, Civita; Thor- have either erroneously asserted that none stein, Montepiloso; Herulf, Trivento; and of the elder sons of Tancred had left any Archangelo was allotted to Budolphus, the male descendants, or have assumed, withson of Betena ; Ralph received Cannæ; out any foundation, that it was a custom Ascelin occupied the rocky region of As- among the Normans, to prefer the brothers cerenza, and his brother Rainulf, of of the deceased to his sons, when the latAnversa, received for his share the district ter were younger than the former. But of Mount Gargano, where he, eighteen it appears certain, that the sons of the years before, in alliance with Melo, for the twelve Norman counts inherited only the first time had planned the war for the ex- territories of their fathers, without enjoying pulsion of the Greeks. The Norman chief- any personal claim to be chosen general tains and their vassals now hurried to take | leader and president of the commonwealth. possession of the territories which had been III. In the year 1047, a band of foreign assigned to them, and fortified themselves travellers arrived at Malfi with bags on there by the erection of strong places of their shoulders and staves in their hands. refuge.“ In these classical regions of an- They were five high-born Normans, who, tiquity, surrounded by forests of pines and with a retinue of thirty squires, had left cypresses, there rose, within a short period, Normandy and undertaken the journey numerous castles built in the northern through Middle Italy, dressed like pilgrims, style, and from the heights of the moun- in order to avoid the insidious snares of tains of Apulia waved the blood-red ban the Romans, who, with envy and hatred, ner of the Normans.

were watching the growing prosperity of At the partition of the territory, it was the northern strangers. After the departsettled that the strong central town of ure of William, Drogo and Humfrey from

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