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in print, we may pass them by. The first tor governs the world ; and in order to obtain a step, then, in our general answer will be: complete knowledge of these laws, he resolved that we have to do with the enunciated

to study simultaneously the highest and lowest principles of the leaders who have given

orders of creation in the universe. He consid

ered the stars as the highest order of creation, name and existence to the various parties.

mankind as the middle term, and the inferior We cannot accept the dilutions and trans orders of creation as the lowest step in the scale. formations that certain followers of a party He supposed that there must be certain genemay insist on as the true explication of ral laws of unity common to these three orders their master's meaning, and this least of all, of existence, or it would be impossible for them when such explications serve only to confuse

to compose one harmonious whole; and he instead of simplify the principles involved.

hoped that by studying all that was known in To take the case in point for an example. I discover the natural laws of correlativeness.

the positive sciences concerning them, he might Charles Fourier, who is set forth by his which bind them together in unity and eterfollowers, sometimes as the author of a nity. His principal lever in the work of disnew revelation and sometimes as the dis covery was a sort of algebraical calculation, coverer of a new science, promulgated a

by which he supposed that every law that was certain theory for the re-organization of

common to any two of these terms, must be

common to the third; and he never abandoned society. This theory is founded on sun

any branch of study until he had discovered dry imaginary principles of cosmogony, I those principles of nature which were common psychology, and harmony, which are in a to the medium and to the two extremes.”—PP. measure peculiar to himself. If they be 20, 21. false, or rather if they be not indisputably proved true, nothing can be built upon | “He resolved ;" “ He considered;" “ He them, and the very name of Fourierism, supposed ;” “He hoped !” These were as a system, must cease. But if they be the scientific principles of Fourier's “dis. assumed as true, there are certain results covery." He resolved to become omnisin social and moral life that are their rig- cient, and as the first step he rejected the orous consequences. These results, it is authority which had taught man all that true, shock the common sentiment of the he knows of “the highest and lowest orpublic, and cause the rejection with hor- ders of creation." He considered a part ror of the principles whence they flow, of the material world as “the highest oreven by those who may not be competent der;" the stars as more noble, more high to the analysis of ontological formularies in the scale of being, more divine than or to the detection of their philosophical man, whose special glory the Christian repoison. But we claim the protection of ligion had taught us is to have been made this moral disgust, excited by the tendency in the image of God, and to have been and end of Socialism in behalf of existing preferred before any other, for that alliinstitutions, and by no means allow to ance which was consummated between theorists the privilege of cloaking the God and his creatures in the Incarnation correlatives of their system till they have of the Eternal Word. He supposed cer. first contaminated the community with the tain "orders” as the true series and the unperceived venom of their error, by pre- perfect complex of the universe, and that senting it under amiable professions and these were all and in all their parts, one palliated names. Looking thus honestly, harmonious whole, and subject to “comtherefore, at Socialism, we are ready to mon laws of unity.” “He hoped that show that in any of its phases, it must end by studying all that was known in the in the utter decomposition of society, and positive (or physical) sciences,” or to exthe brutalizing of the human race.

press it more clearly, by generalizing the In order to present in the fairest man- principles of the Newtonian philosophy, ner the bases of Fourier's plan, we shall he hoped to resolve, consider and suppose give so much of it as we here have need them applicable to all orders of being, the of, in Mr. Godwin's words, in the “Popu- | highest as the lowest, spiritual as well as lar View” already referred to:

| material.

These being the substrata of Fourier's “Fourier found that attraction and repulsion “science,” he proceeded to build or were the two principal laws by which the Crea- rather to pile upon them, hypothesis after

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hypothesis, and among the rest the though without any proof, that they are « axioms," which in their turn were to effects of some of Fourier's twelve, and

support the practical part of his system.) are produced by the obstacles that the 25 Such was the fancy of universal interlock- latter meet in attaining their end. But in

ing series; an idea borrowed from music, what manner it can be shown that pride is and which he extended to planetary or avarice, or sloth, are thus in all in

worlds alike, and to all the inclinations stances called into being, or by the action and attractions of the human soul ; which of which of the twelve, or its repression, last, with deeper truth than its advocates we are not told. If it be objected that admit, are, in the societary system, resolved metaphysicians, with whom the whole

simply into passions. He supposed again, subject of the passions has proved a so groups upon each of these passions boundless field for discussion, have not

arranged as the gamut of a harpsichord, followed one another in their enumeration with key-notes, major and minor modes, of the emotions to which this name has sharps and flats, and the full musical nota- been attributed, it may be conceded that tion; and susceptible of the symphonies of the name and number of the passions is, thirds, fifths and octaves. In this system in a sense, arbitrary.* But this is not the like passions, or rather the same, are to be prominent and real error. What condemns found in each planet, and in its individual his arrangement of the passions is, that he inhabitants; for the soul of man, he teaches makes them constitute the entire soul of us, is but a parcel or atom of the plane- man ; that he makes them include and

tary soul. These passions are to the govern all other parts of the being. In the number of twelve. Five are attributed this from Pythagoras to Aristotle, from

to the five senses respectively, and are Aristotle to Aquinas, from Aquinas to called sensual; the rest belong to the Leibnitz and Bacon, and from their days soul, and are divided into four affective, to his own, Fourier would find no counand three distributive. The former are tenance from philosophy, if we except friendship, ambition, love and family affec- such shallow sophistry as was put forth tion; the latter, which are also called by the pantheistical naturalists who were mechanical, are, in the unintelligible cant his cotemporaries, and from whom he in of the school, the cabaliste, the papillonne, effect gleaned his ideas. But their specuand the composile. The last is the blind lations could be proved as false in physiexcitement, or ecstacy, consequent on the ology as in morals. meeting of two or more pleasures, one of We cannot take up the twelve passions the body, the other of the mind, and is of Fourier to criticise them in detail ; but the principle of accord. The cabaliste is let any one possessed of right principles the taste for intrigue, &c., and is the and accustomed to reflection review the principle of discord, which, strangely enumeration of them we have given, and enough, is as essential in the state of har- he will understand sufficiently the enormony, as is the other. The papillonne, mity of such an idea of man. It makes as its name (butterfly) indicates, is the him a mere animated atom of the globe taste for change, for variety, for contrasted he inhabits, subjected to irresistible attracsituations.

| tions, and therefore stripped of free will, Here we must entreat our readers' pa- and without any personal intelligencetience, as we feel the need of it ourselves, in this exposition of the science of Fourierism. These details have a direct import • It may be questioned, however, whether the ance in obtaining a just view of practical

number and titles laid down by Aristotle have ever

been bettered by alteration. He reduces the pasSocialism. The twelve passions enumera sions to eleven-love, hatred, desire, aversion, joy ted make up the entire soul of Fourier's or delight, sorrow, hope, despair, presumption, fear,

anger ; and St. Thomas Aquinas, adopting these, man. As to what we have been accus classified the first six as concupiscible, because they tomed to hearing called by the name of depend simply on the presence or absence of their

objects, and desire (concupiscentia) prevails in passions-hatred, desire, aversion, joy,

them; and the last five he called irascible passions, sorrow, hope, &c.; or again, pride, ava because, added to the presence or absence of the rice, sloth, envy, jealousy, &c., &c.—no

object, there is some difficulty or obstacle to sur.

mount which appeals to anger or courage. This mention is made of them, or we are told, I division prevailed in the schools.



for we cannot consider that as intellect, that the sounds he is about to draw forth which is but the instrument of natural de- from the various keys will be the same sires.

that he produced one half hour before ; And yet Fourier persuaded himself that but what security has the Fourierite that man was such ; he contemplated him as the persons composing his diapason shall such, when he formed the project of group- not ineanwhile have experienced, one an ing the members of the human family in | increase, and another a diminution, of his new formed associations. His was energy and intensity, according to the professedly a passional arrangement. He caprice, or the variety of the passion in charged it as a fault on Christianity that the subject ? it taught the necessity of repressing the So much, then, for the musical analogy, passions and inclinations of nature, that it which is so necessary a part of Fourier's had imposed habits of self-restraint, and plan; and we might conclude already by mortification of the desires of the flesh. saying, so much also for the harmony of And he proclaimed it as the sum and the passions so unblushingly assumed as essence of his doctrine and discovery that: certain, in the proposed associations. Yet ATTRACTIONS ARE PROPORTIONAL TO DES- as the exorbitant and untrue imagination TINIES. That man has but to throw him- of Fourier did not intend his theory of the self unhesitatingly upon the attractions that passions to remain as an idle speculation, solicit him, to follow his bent or bents | but made it the very life and essence of the which way soever, or however far they system he proposed to construct in outmay lead him, in order to attain his true ward society, we cannot be too explicit in destiny and to fulfil his mission. Is it ne- pointing out its errors. The denial of cessary, after the mere enunciation of such a liberty to the human will is in nowise acciproposition, to go into the discussion as to dental to the rest of the plan, but, on the whether man, being such as we know him, contrary, is one of its fundamental princiand such as all time and all institutions ples. For if we leave in each individual have proved him, and such as all revealed of the human race the power of choosing religions have pronounced him, can exist or rejecting, of following or resisting the in any society where notions like these shall various attractions that solicit him, there be instilled into him, and shall not drag will be an end of this necessary harmons. down to irreclaimable ruin the whole struc- Indeed, in an association such as Fourier ture of human existence? In contradic- imagines, personality seems itself a contion with authority and with facts, Fourier tradiction, as the theory requires that treats of human passions, which he never what are called persons should be incapatheless makes the only motives of the soul, | ble of occupying any place or following any as if they were the keys of an organ, sleep- bent but the one that destiny has, a priori, ing in a perpetual calm till the hand of the measured out for them. We find a most master of music shall touch them softly or striking example in matters of love, which with emphasis, protracting or cutting short | he classes as one of the affective passions : their sound. We will not say how much it is clear that he considers each man or there is in this fatal to his doctrine of uni- | woman as swayed and controlled by a par,, versal analogy, or how much of confusion | ticular phase of this passion. It is love in itself. Does he not make the keys of l in the abstract and not in the concrete that the passions self-moving, and even carry- he dreams of, when he supposes it is to ing away with them the soul on which operate in harmony, and he farther supthey act? Where then is their analogy poses that it is this abstract phase which with the keys of an organ, that are mute is to carry each one to the group where it till the musician touches them? But sup- properly belongs, and that there it will pose that the passional keys are also mute find its satisfaction without any contrariety. till the presiding genius shall call them out. But how different will the real passion and Suppose the world Fourierized, and the the real group prove from the imaginary! omniarch, or one of the douzarchs, or onz- In the former it will be love in the concrete archs, to propose a symphony upon some that will sway the individual. This man particular passion! When the musician will be attracted towards that woman, who sits down to his instrument he is certain in her turn has been attracted towards another man. Yet in all the cases that it be not a scandal to apply the term marmust arise from these various attractions, riage to such unions, and what a picture there will be no jarring, no awaking of the does it present of the morals of Fourierpassions of envy, jealousy, grief, or hatred! ism! We cannot better illustrate it than For Fourier attributes these to the subver- by a passage from a report made by a sive order, as only arising from the faults converted Saint Simonian of a dispute beof the present civilization. In the har- ' tween Enfantin, the “Supreme Father” of mony of Fourierism, forsooth, either no Saint Simonism, and two of his revolted two men will ever love the same woman, children who had declared their intention or the mutual knowledge of this affection of withdrawing from him “and from his will never excite any other emotion than doctrine, which at bottom was nothing else one of complacency in the breasts of each! | than a hideous promiscuity.” Or to vary the case: either death will itself be forever abrogated by men turning Carnol.—“Your doctrine is the making a Fourierites, (which has not quite been

rule of adultery.

Enfantin.-6. This doctrine will never lead asserted as yet—at least in its absolute

| to adultery; adultery exists only because one form,) or, when the wife, the mother, or

nature is crushed by another, for which it has the child dies, it will so happen, as a law no attraction. The ideas that I advance, on the of nature, that at the same moment the contrary, will prevent adultery.' affection of the friends of such an one 1 Dugiel. It is true there will be no more towards her will have been fully satisfied,

| adultery, for vice will be legitimatised, reduced and will then turn away cheerfully to form to rule. It is in this sense only that you can

say there will be no more adultery. You yonirnew relationships. Truly, this new science

self can judge that it is so, if you have studied would be wonderful were it not absurd.

| the general principles on which all these ideas It is here that we should properly treat rest.»* in detail of Fourier's doctrine respecting the intercourse of the sexes. But as this And it is to the study of these very is always a delicate subject, so in respect principles that we would earnestly invite to Socialism, and to Fourier's principles in the candid among tne Socialists, if it might particular, we doubt whether even the ad- be, but at any rate, we demand such an vantage of overwhelming his abominable examination on the part of persons not system with a torrent of public indignation identified with Socialist theories, and to could compensate for defiling our pages whose opinion, whether with reason or and the English language with a bare not, weight may be attached, before they recital of the outrages that he proposes venture to speculate as to the permissinot only against Christian morals but bility or the innocency of Fourierism in against the modesty which man has any shape, or with any amount of modifihitherto been found to cherish even in the cations. Every odious abomination of Combarbarous and savage states. Our pen munism that has been charged on Fourierrefuses the task, and we confine ourselves ism is a legitimate consequence of the first to generalities. As we have seen, it principles of the latter system, and would is Fourier's general principle that man's inevitably follow quick upon the reduction true destiny is to follow all the attractions of the Socialist theory to practice. Socialists of his nature : and he avows it as one of substitute aggregations of the race as the its legitimate results, that as there should basis of civil life, instead of the marriage, be groups of vestals in his association to or family relation, which God made the satisfy the passion or attraction for chas-basis, and which their highest pretension tity, so there must be groups and series for is but to tolerate as a phase in association. gallantry and mock sentiment; and so on And into this association are to be invited down to lower and lower groups, even to the men and women, to whom it is to be said : bacchantes and bayaderes, for whom he has “ You are now delivered from the rereserved a place of honor and consideration. 'straints of civilization, which are evil; Add to this the instability of marriages, henceforth your passions are to be your which he makes depend on the temporary only guides, and the satisfaction of them caprice of the united pair, who are free to be divorced and re-married indefinitely, (if * Religion St. Simonienne, p. 42.

your inheritance; only enter with zeal | in such matters must appear to its author upon your heritage, and act yourselves an excusable diversion. To show that we out!” When the avowed intentions of a are not judging rashly in this point, we given set of men are to establish such will cite a passage from his memoir of associations, and to inculcate and act on one whom he styles a “social architect," such principles, what attention is it neces- and “one of the most extraordinary men sary to pay to any extenuations they may that ever lived ”—being no other than attempt of their infamous crimes! What Robert Dale Owen, of Lanark. After reembarrassment are men of sense, and who counting his earlier progress, Mr. Godwin believe at least in natural virtue, to feel at continues :the reclamations of Fourierites that their founder—"the true Teacher, whose system

“But while his popularity was at its flood, he fulfils all the aspirations of the past”*_

ran foul of the breakers. Before this, he had has “resolved," has “considered," has

| not developed his opinions on the subject of re

ligion and politics, satisfying himself with a “supposed," has “hoped," that the pas

une pas. | negative toleration of creeds and parties. His sions thus fomented would be found to act | business had been to organize labor; he now in perfect harmony with each other and undertook the criticism of church and state. with the universe! For our part we hold He openly accused all existing religions of the mission of such propagandists in ab- ' falsehood and impotence; he denied the personhorrence, whatever may be their apparent

al responsibility of the individual, whose desti

ny, he said, was controlled exclusively by soci. amiability, for we know its tendencies, and

ety; and he argued that all systems of reform, have good reason to distrust its source.

other than those which looked to a reform of In vain, with other Fourierites, Mr. | outward circumstances, must inevitably lead to Godwin repeats to us that it is “only the injustice, oppression, and misery." practical side of Fourier's doctrine which is universally adopted and defended by . It would seem that Fourierites think to the whole school of Societary Reformers;" keep off the reefs, by continuing longer and that the doctrines “ of Customs. Be- / the exclusive profession of “organizing liefs, &c.," that shock the moral sense of labor," and holding in abeyance the rest mankind now, « are to be accepted or re- / of their doctrines. But our object in this jected by the generations of the future, citation was to animadvert on the followaccording to the light which time and ing analysis of Owen’s principles, which is investigation may throw upon them.” | presented to us as complete: For only six lines before, he has acknowledged: “It is obvious that Law, Govern

“ His errors are the denial of personal respon

sibillty, and the doctrine of common property, ment, Manners, (Morals,) and Religion,

which we hold to be utterly untenable in arguwould all be more or less affected by a ment, radically defective in morals, and of unitary régime of Industry, as they would course, extremely pernicious to society. But all be influenced to bring themselves under our limits will not allow us to discuss the matthe operation of some unilary law;"+-this ter. law. þeing pantheism, materialism, or a

“ His truths are, or rather his services have jumble of both. We have found it diffi

been, that he has taught moralists and the cult, here, to persuade ourselves that

world the important, almost vital, influence of

outward circumstances upon inward well-being delusion itself can have so blinded the and happiness. He may be called the Apostle eyes of such theorists, as that they should of Circumstance."* not have been aware that they were making use of a trick instead of an argument. But So, in Mr. Godwin's estimation, it was no in the pamphlet from which we have just error in Robert Dale Owen, that he “ unquoted, there prevails such a cynicism in dertook the criticism of church and state :" respect to all religion, whether natural or that “he openly accused all existing relig. revealed, and to all the doctrines that the ions of falsehood and impotence;" and effect of Christian teaching has domiciled again it was bis crowning excellence that in the public mind, that to trifle or beguile) he laid down “reform of outward circum

stances," that is to the contempt, or at • Godwin's Popular View, p. 18. † “ Popular View,” &c., pp. 73, 74.

*“Popular View," pp. 16, 17.

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