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least the “negative toleration of creeds a commencement is their natural and obvi-
The effort of the Fourierites to separate will find, that they have left a great void in the theoretical from the practical side of their system, and that they “have negtheir system fails in justice. They should lected one of the faces of nalure, and that remember in the first place that with their the most noble and most beautiful of its founder practice and theory were alike faces--that of love, or of woman." This mere reveries, which, despite the talent and was the case also in the St. Simonian devotion that have been wasted on the “family,” or “religion,”* to which Foucause, have never been able to be realized. rierism bears so close a resemblance that But quite apart from this fatal defect, | the history of the former might serve at when they say that they do not necessarily once as an account and a prophecy of the jar with received doctrines in morals and latter. We have just said that at its first religion, because their school contemplates organization, this sect devoted itself to the only “industrial organization,” they are development of what they termed positive guilty of another fallacy. If they con- ideas on labor and the organization of Intemplated the organization of labor in sub-dustry. But those who in the end proved ordination to received, conservative, Chris-themselves the true heirs of the “family" tian institutions, their plea would have some and retained its name, were organized but validity. But we owe them small thanks a short time on the industrial basis, ere for their exclusive devotion to “industrial | they complained of this “too exclusive organization," when we have learned that attention to positive and material quesit is because it makes a negation of the old tions.” They said that the religion of the religion and morals; because it exalts Productives, (as the conductors of the material interests to the place of first journal called Le Producteur were styled,) importance; and makes material “or- was imperfect, being fitted only for men, ganization ” the “unitary rule of opera- but that to be true it must embrace women tion” in “ law, government, morals, and and men. Then the Producteur was sureligion."
perseded by the Organisateur, a great disFourierism subjects all things to material play was made of the rehabilitation of the interests; and in this keeps up its agree religious sentiments, of conscience, of perment with its twin-brother St. Simonism. / sonal revelation, and inspiralion ; finally, by The last named “religion ” expressed its the “ appeal to woman" the “ family” beearliest characteristics in the name of its came and took the name of a “ religion.” first periodical publication—the Produc And what was that religion? It is an teur; and the score of writers who con I entire subject by itself, but if we had space tributed to its columns, with a single ex. to discuss it, it would be easy to show that ception, applied themselves almost entirely it was from the first involved wholly, and to industrial or material points of view. therefore a legitimate development of the This exception was a distinguished St. fundamental principles common to all parSimonian, Augustus Comte, who systema- ties of Socialists. Socialists are tolerant tized what his co-laborers had done. But of all dogmas purely theological, because the system which alone was found to they believe in none, and because, if their answer was one which should essay to general principles are admitted they will elevate what they called moral and politi- in their development root out all remains cal sciences to the scale of physical sciences, which latter of course were consid
* Some of the uninitiated have supposed that the
name Saint Simonians has been given to this sect ered as of chief importance. When there
on account of their having canonized one Simon, fore the Fourierites profess to devote who was their founder. For those who are ignothemselves exclusively to the organization
rant of their history, we think it worth while to
mention that their founder was Count Henry de of labor, it is not at all from acquiescence Saint-Simon; and that, therefore, Saint-Simonians in the moral and religious principles which
was their original appellation, long before the they have found in force, but because such land of his successor Enfantin.
apotheosis that they did make both of Saint Simon
of a now detached and lifeless creed that to veil herself and be silent in the temple. Her may be yet lingering in the minds of any. word and her flesh are agreeable to God; and But we are now occupied, not with the prin
if, like the church, we expect of her modesty, ciples of their religion, but with its histori
reserve, shame, delicacy, propriety, constancy,
firmness, meditation, reflection, contemplation cal progress. When the St. Simonian re
even to ecstacy, we know also that God has ligion was found lame without the admis
put in her the love of luxury, of show, of pomp, sion of woman to her part in the scheme, of dress, ..., and the dreams of an excitethe terms of her association needed to be ment and enthusiasm which reach even to madforthwith defined. But if man is the author of his own moral laws, as Socialism teaches he is, the same pantheistic princi
Finally, in his public protest in 1832, ple requires that woman should also be | Rodrigues makes this statement : independent, and be the author of her
“I have affirmed that in the St. Simopian morality. And therefore, when she was
family, every child should be able to know us oun to be introduced to the St. Simonian com
father. Enfantin has expressed the wish that munity, all old laws, all ancient morals woman alone should be called to explain herself were to be annulled. It would be absurd on this grave question." for them, who were men, to fix beforehand the laws that were to govern woman; all These disagreeable details of the prothat they could do was to call for her ad- gress of St. Simonism cast a flood of light vent to them; to await the “ Woman
on the reserved doctrines of Fourierism. Messiah," to whom it belonged to reveal Only, in the latter system, woman is made the laws that would be agreeable to her- | to take her place from self.
ganization; and, as in the earlier stages of It was justly remonstrated by Jules St. Simonism, a sort of understanding is Lechevalier, who was one of themselves, professed that her intercourse with the that an association should never be form other sex is to be limited to an indefinite ed in which such questions should be left number of successive marriages and diopen. But in what sense they were really
vorces. But in this, again, like all parties ft open might have been predicted, and among the St. Simonians, Fourier and his at any rate was soon made evident, when followers defer the normal adjustment of it was proclaimed that this Woman Mes- sexual passion to the future judgment of siah might probably be found among the woman-after she shall be duly educated public prostitutes of Paris, and that such for the task by a long and full indulgence an one would be very proper :
of her natural passions. Meanwhile they
will seem to grant to the actual notions on “ To institute in morals a kind of devotion the subject of marriage some shadow of an as complete as we (the disciples of St. Simon) existence, and the grace of a gradual metahave done in politics. We know not by what
morphosis in such proportion as opinion in power of love and of seduction she will draw
their associations may become reconciled to away the adulterer from marriage, as we draw away the mob from the public places : .....
a more natural order. The apologies and a free and voluntary alliance of men and wo- explanations, nevertheless, that have been men of a higher order in humanity, we know given to form even this shadow are reduced, not what new revelation will spring from such upon analysis, to the permission of a conan union, but we have faith that it will take tinuance of such relation, so long as a muplace. ... Then will be seen what hitherto
tual and exclusive attraction shall exist has never been, ... men and women giving themselves to many without ever ceasing to be
between the parties. to one another, but whose love on the contrary
We will not trust ourselves to sketch, in would be as a divine Banquet, augmenting in contrast with this social and moral chaos, magnificence by reason of the number and choice a portrait of what Christianity has done for of the guests."
woman; for should we commence the
theme we would find nowhere to stop. And Enfantin, their Supreme and dei
| We should rather, and as more germain to fied Father, quickly followed up this avowal
our plan, if we had space, bring out the in language still more plain :
* Le Globe. First volume for 1832. This paper “We will not, like St. Paul, say to woman I was their chief organ.
noble eulogies that were lavished, in this pense worthy of your heart. God wishes you respect, upon the Christian religion by those for a spouse; you shall be the spouse of Christ. who became shocked at St. Simonism and
Is it not true, that if you did love upon earth,
you would know how to love really ; that you forsook it, though singularly enough they
could be faithful ; that you would undergo all refused to return to the Christianity which
tortures for him you loved; that you would die they so admired. We would thus first for him every momemt of your life ? Learn call forth Bazard, for a while the intimate then my secret: ... this Lover exists, he is and highest associate of Enfantin, to bear the greatest; he is the most beautiful ; he is testimony that
the most Divine of all, and he wishes that you
suffer for him. Keep only your faith towards “Christianity, in requiring the consent of
him, and you shall one day see him! woman as a necessary condition of her union
“ Michael Angelo, the sublime painter, transwith man, in abolishing polygamy, in condemn
lated this thought, when he represented the ing adultery equally in husband and wife, in
wife in women in his List Judgment as rising naturalpronouncing their union indissoluble, has pluck
ly towards heaven, as the iron is drawn toed woman from a state of slavery, has made
wards the magnet. her the associate of man, in one word, has
" But, to-day that this magnet that drew them founded marriage."*
towards heaven is destroyed, (i. e. in systems
like Fourierism that contemn supernatural reSocialism is never tired nor ashamed of ligion,) towards what will you that they gravicrying out that it alone, it first, is going to emancipale woman, by making her independent of man; to emancipate her,
| Once more, after wading through the again, by giving her up to follow her pas- | pollutions of Fourierism, let us bathe our sions. And we in answer could not desire / imaginations in the sentiments of one who, better than to quote whole pages from the at least as poet and as dreamer, could conpen of another of the early associates of ceive thus of the Christian religion. Let the St. Simonians ; one, however, who, like | us listen to the explanation of an allusion others of his philosophy, talks of Christi- / which he has just made to the Last Judganity as beautiful in its time, but alas, quite | ment of Michael Angelo : worn out-quite dead! We mean Pierre Leroux, in the Revue Independant. This " What there is to me most beautiful in this writer uses a language, whose confidence | picture ... is the group of women at the right and noble force show at once from what
of Christ, who lift up themselves from the earth,
and mount towards heaven, not alone, but cararmory he has borrowed it, while he as
rying men with them. serts that it is in another manner that the
" As if their sufferings, as women, had freed true enfranchisement of the sex is to be ac- , them of the sluggish bond which holds men complished; and that not the indulgence down to the earth, they rise by their own but the repression of the passions is the weight, so to say, towards the heavenly abode, instrument of her true happiness. It is
without wings and without angels to assist almost indifferent at what page we open,
them. Nay, they themselves bear up, and help
their brothers and lovers to ascend. but let us first hear him saying :
leaning on their shoulders and on their breast, “Love is a form of equality or of justice, the
indicate wonderously well the property that same that equality or justice is a form of love.
these women have to ascend, as a body lighter Christianity gave equality to woman under the
than the air, an aerostat, for example, rises so form of love, in its promised paradise, the same
soon as one has broken its chain..... It as to the poor, and to the lowly in this world, it
seems to me that the particular condition of gave equality under the form of the goods it
women on earth, under the law of Christianity
is expressed there with a sublime art. Suborpromised them in another." . . . . “ Once more then, again, nothing is more
dination upon earth, but a redemption proportioncertain, Christianity subjected woman to man.
ate when the trumpet of the last judgment shall ... But behold the admirable law of compen
sound. ..." sation !. At the same time ... Christianity
“ Marriage supposes heaven for corrective. established an equilibrium, justice, equality, by
1... St. Augustine ends a sermon on marriage saying to woman : You are a being of devotion
by showing women that the true marriage is and of love; know that I have for you a recom
that which they are to contract in the heavenly Jerusalem. All Christian priests have done as
St. Augustine; all have said to woman: Suffer * “ Discussions Morales,” &c., première partie. npon earth! serve man, thy chief ; thou art the
spouse of Christ ; Jacob who served Laban to man, the earth, the universe, and evers. espouse Rachel is thine image.”
thing that exists, is essentially Eternal and " Christianity has made love the very check | Uncreated. But these are the attributes of love, by substituting the love of God for the
of Godhead and incommunicable. Let us love of earth. Then there could come a wo
| hear the enumeration of this universal man as full of love as Theresa, and Christianity | have no fear: Suffer! it says to her; and trinity:she translating suffer by love, cries : Not only do I consent to suffer, but I wish to suf “Ist. Gud or MIND, (also life, Passion ;)-the
active and moving principle.
“ 2d. MATTER ;--the passive or moved prisSuch then is the sublime law of self-de- ciple..
" 3d. JUSTICE or MATHEMATICS; the peuter votion which Christianity has taught, and
or regulating principle.”. which, even in the acknowledgments of one who does not embrace it, has been actually! Here is a theology with a marvel! practised upon the earth : “I have said principle which is eternal and uncreated is and I have proved that the normal aphor- I also independent. Fourier has therefore ism of woman under the law of Christian
supposed three independent principles, ity was this wish, which, in effect was ' which must destroy his fundamental idea uttered by the soul of St. Theresa : Lord! |
of unity. His three principles can never either to suffer or to die.” That is, to suf- / be resolved into one principle, and that fer on earth for the love of heaven, or to
more evidently from the absence of any die that she might love better in heaven.
property of co-ordination among them by But Socialists sneer at the love of heaven,
which they should hold their being the and take away even the possibility of love one from the other. Yet we have found on earth. For, as has often been remark his admiring followers reject as absurd ed, love, such as it is understood in Chris- | the doctrine of the Christian Trinitr, in tian society, is no longer possible, when / which, nevertheless, there is but one esthe indissoluble sanction of marriage is sential principle, and a co-ordination of removed. We join then with the same the Three Persons. writer when he cries, “With selfishness But we shall find Fourier's definitions for your law, and pleasure for your aim, I of God self-destroying in other respects. go on, society !" Go on, Socialism! Go
He attributes to it the necessity of another on Fourierism ! “with these two pilots you principle, noi it, for its regulator. This cannot fail to find quickly the shipwreck
“regulating principle” is in morals “jusyou are seeking !”
tice,” in physics “mathematics." The Having spent so much of the space that principle, then, which he calls God, he we feel free to devote to this subject in conceives of as distinct from justice, and the consideration of the “ practical side” of without the property of self-regulation; as Socialism—the industrial and social reve he says himself, it is Passion. And by ries in which it feels so strong—it is fitting what is it to be regulated ? The only now that we advert in few words to some
agent that could be found in his system is of the more abstract principles of the so
a principle which has no activity, (a concietary school. For the theological no tradiction in terms,) no free will, no origitions of Fourier, we have to be indebted
nating power. The regulator is a neuter principally to his disciples, as he himself principle, though to regulate is something seems to have announced scarcely any for- wholly active. But we shall hereafter mal dogmas of religion. But no long show that it is truer to Fourier's system search into his system is necessary to find to say that it is unregulated. Such are that it is pantheistic. “Fourier says that the egroti somnia of Fourier. In every Man, like his Planet, like the Universe, ) universal system, which Fourierism is, if it like everything that exists, is composed of be anything, theology proper, or the docthree Eternal, Uncreated, Indestructible | trine concerning God, is the master and Principles.”+ Therefore he maintains that fundamental science. Can, then, these
ravings of a disordered and shameless ima
gination, be the real basis of the societary * Revue Independante, t. I. pp. 27-36. † Popular View, &c., p. 99.
theory, which has engaged the affections
and efforts of so many young men of tal- | principles would be in harmony in man, ent and Zeal? We shall examine the were it not for the artificial embarrassments question a little. It seems that in their of the present civilization. Some who vain efforts to escape the charge of mate- have not carefully examined Fourier's rialism or pantheism, Socialists have been principles, might charitably conclude that unwilling to perceive or acknowledge the he intended the “active principle or pasreal bases of their system, or at least that sion” to be controlled by the “neuter they show a foolish anxiety to keep up principle" of mathematics or justice. some of the terms of Christianity, which Nothing could be further from his real have no place or office in Fourierism. | intention, and this is shown by his calling Thus the very term God has in this system this passion-principle God. No! passion a most odd sound, and it would do much to and justice he makes of accord, and the simplify matters if it were wholly omitted. / “ regulating principle” has no task but in The world, man, and his passions, being the transformation and preparation of socirendered independent, would then become ety and matter for the full and unrestrained “divine." Each would be God to each. play of all the passions. Fourier was in With this key to Fourier's religious system, the condition of a man standing between we may proceed to consider, as respects his conscience and his passions, and hearman, psychology and theology as iden- ing the appeal of both, and who should tical.
accuse his conscience of falsehood, and The contradiction and conflict that in proclaim his passions as his God and his all ages man has felt within himself, the highest end. And because reason desting of passion that urges him to lawless clares that the gratification of his pasaction on the one side, and the natural sions, of his natural inclinations generally, virtue on the other, which is the founda | is not the end for which man is created, tion of conscience, and consists in a prin- | Fourier dements reason itself, for he prociple by which the light of human reason nounces that passional attraction legitiperceives the principles of all virtue united mate and good, “which persists in spite to a mysterious inclination of will answer of the opposition of reason.” Thus crime ing to the light-this contradiction and is no crime because it is God, or the work conflict, it has been the prerogative of the of God; and it is God because God is Christian revelation to explain. But the ex- passion or action unregulated, and because planation is humbling to man's pride, for it outside of man himself there is none who tells him that he is the inheritor of a degen- has the right to call him to account. To erate nature, and that, so surely as in the the pure Pantheism of St. Simonism, body death and corruption is the tendency Fourier contributes the contradictory adof the natural life, so surely in the soul junct of a necessary Atheism. there is an inclination to spiritual corrup
“GOD IS ALL THAT WHICH IS.” tion, which may be combated and check- Such was the St. Simonian confession ed, but, no matter what the efforts, can of faith ; and Fourier may be said only to never be rooted out—no matter what the have differed from it by the confusion of • ransom, can never be legitimatized. This saying,
lesson it is that error has in all ages ex GOD IS NOTHING IN PARTICULAR. hausted itself in unlearning, and if it ap- That Fourier's system is utterly panthepeared not in the beginning, it has found istic would be further apparent, should a place at least before the end of every we attempt to follow him through his real heresy.
wild theories of cosmogony. His whole Fourier responds to this question in a plan commences with the trite figment of manner unequivocal. Man, according to human souls being but pieces of the him, finds in himself “three eternal prin- greater planetary soul. This planetary ciples, "-"mind,” which is also passion, soul, again, has two phases, one divided impulse, desire, &c., “matter,” which is among its inhabitants, the other indivisible, simply passive, and “justice or mathe- and forming the intellect of the planet. matics,” which is to be resolved into the These planets form groups, the groups a complex of the eternal laws which regu- | Universe, the Universes à Biniverse, the late the movement of matter; and these | Biniverses a Triniverse, and so on till at