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length he arrives—all the while in imagi- , deify the actions and passions of the flesh; nation—at the Infiniverse, which by cour- to change the notions of right and wrong tesy he again calls God, though we have among men. Historically, indeed, they already seen him give this title to one were distinct, and they differed from each only of his “three eternal principles.” It other in the details of their industrial is not easy to see whether these mad fan- plans—from which we have seen that both cies are the proofs or the consequences of took their historical commencement. And, his grand axiom, “ Altractions are pro- whether by accident, or from the greater portional to destinies ;” but it is easy to energy and practicability of St. Simonism, determine that upon which both alike rest it gained an earlier opportunity for its full -a disordered imagination. Yet it is on display. Consequently it rushed forward this fancied identity of essence between to its catastrophe, and after a tempestuous man and his planet and the universe that I existence of a few months, outraged hureposes that other fancied harmony which manity could suffer it no longer, and it was is to be produced throughout the world, dissolved. The attempt to reconstruct the and which is supposed by Fourier to be ruined edifice at Constantinople and in capable of arrangement on the precise Egypt was not more successful. Some of principles of musical notation. On the the St. Simonians returned to a profession same essential identity of “all that is,” of Christianity, some became followers of which is the principle of pantheism, re- Mohammed, and others were lost in the poses the great axiom of Fourier :—“At | whirlpool of new delusions. tractions are proportional to destinies.” | The Fourierites, likewise, even in the But we have neither space, necessity, nor life-time of their founder, attempted an inclination to chase further these vagaries. establishment at Condé, and have since It suffices to wait till they shall be at- oiten renewed their efforts elsewhere. We tempted to be proved as well as asserted. know little more of them than that they If they be a “discovery," where are the have each failed after a short existence, proofs? If a “ science,” where is their and that the leaders of the sect are at issue demonstration ? If a “revelation," where among themselves. As with the St. Siis the authority on which we are bound to monians, it will only be in the practical receive it? But if they be pure “reveries,” | workings of the system that all its enormihow strange must be the infatuation of the ties will appear, and will prove themselves men who persist in defending them! They the legitimate deductions of their first are a discovery only because Fourier principles; and, therefore, we agree with imagined their possibility; they form a the remark of M. de Lourdoueix, that science only because he attempted to sys- “ those who serve best the interests of its lemalize them; they are called a revelation existence are those who retard most the only because those who maintain them realization of its doctrines." deny any God outside of man himself, and We are no prophets. It may be, that consequently any revelation except the the new state of affairs in France will soon production of the human intellect. give the Socialists, for a moment, un
We have found it convenient in certain bounded liberty and plentiful resources for parts of this essay, to treat of St. Simon- | making their experiment. But even if this ism and Fourierism in common, so far as happen, we doubt whether the delusion of their notions have agreed with each other. the Fourierites be not so far dispelled as And, indeed, the general identity of the that their leaders would no longer have principles of the two is so evident, that the profound conviction of the feasibility the critic must be fastidious who will ob- of their plan, which alone could nerre ject to considering them as co-partners in them to such a trial. Confidence in imathe same heritage of error. Their mission gination and confidence in the hour of was professedly the same. Starting with action are two very different things, and if the assumption that “all that is, is God,” | Fourierites possessed the latter, we cannot and that the evil that is in the world is believe that they would have so long failed either no evil, or an accidental misfortune of making a complete experiment. Foufrom which man is competent to redeem rierites boast of the spread of their dochimself, they proceeded to legitimatize, to trines in France, Germany, England, and America. Yet they say, and their system deteriorations of modern society, and which requires, that the moment a phalanx is the Fourierites continue to repeat, have, established, opposition will be silenced by it is true, done something to startle the the success of the attempt. Now since public mind, and if this has urged any to but eight hundred and ten persons are ne- cling to or revive the good principles cessary for a complete phalanx, why do handed down to us by our fathers, and they not begin? Are there not of their which had been slipping away through followers in all these countries enough to want of constancy in their maintenance, it make the experiment?
is indeed a good, but not much due to So. We then reprobate Socialism because it cialism for its origin,-since il, instead of is in direct antagonism with the dogmas urging them to cling to the principles of Christianity, and because it attempts to they had been taught, would have had overturn the laws of Christian civilization. them abandon all that the experience of That there is great misery and much in- / six thousand years and the advancement justice in the heart of modern society is that man has hitherto been able to make too true, but we do not owe the discovery in obedience to the eternal, immutable of it to Socialism. The misery is the re- | laws of truth, have proclaimed as necessult of the sin of Adam, and the injustice sary to his conservation. is from the neglect or infraction of the laws And now that we have accomplished which God has by supernalural revelation all that we intended when we commenced given to man for his conduct and ameliora- | this article, it is time to come to a conclution. We object especially to Socialism, sion. If Fourierites still persist in spreadthat, under the name of emancipating, it ing their doctrines through the community, degrades woman from the rank to which a complete and analytical detail of their Christianity had raised her. For we have theory would be a useful labor, but it seen that it was Christianity alone that would demand an entire volume to fulfil it. availed to raise woman to being the equal | In the mean time, their principles should of man by the tie of love, at the same not be tolerantly judged as harmless revtime that it subjected her by the precept | eries. Quite true it is that they have no of obedience; and that the law by which element of practicability, and can never woman was thus raised to equality with take form as a society. But it is another man was the abolition of polygamy and thing whether the bad and wild notions divorce, and the substitution of an invio- that they diffuse abroad in the community, lable and perpetual marriage. We object to and which in their detached parts are it, moreover, that it contemns the tribunal caught up and adopted by multitudes that of reason, and the voice of the natural have no idea that these are a legitimate conscience which God has implanted in part of a system that they themselves the breast of every man. And, finally, condemn, may not be infecting whole we object to Fourierites the ambiguity masses throughout every country where and tergiversation of their propagandism; they are propagated with a spirit of revothat they beguile the superstitious with | lution for the establishment of unbridled the name of a revelation, the credulous licentiousness. The opportunities for such with the profession of a discovery, the self- a revolution are accidents to which every conceited with the title of a science, when | land is liable, and it would be a poor comit is clear that they have neither revelation pensation for having contributed to the nor discovery nor science for any one. fundamental convulsion, and thereby in
Nor can we consent to accord to So-terrupted the veritable progress of any cialism, in any of its for ms, the praise that society, to have been permitted for awhile some even of its enemies have yielded it, to cry, in “great words unmeet,” re-orthat in positive ideas in the field of in-ganization of labor--emuncipation of wodustry, it has made valuable suggestions. man—scientific revelations—universal hapIt would be difficult to mention any of its piness. It is then a duty for every good suggestions that either it has not borrowed, citizen and for every man of conscience to or that is not an abomination instead of a oppose and to denounce Fourierism, and thing desirable. The biting satires that every other form of Socialism. And the the St. Simonians dealt out on the actual method of doing so with effect, is not to
follow its advocates into the discussion of in religion, which have been proved by reveries whose very absurdity proves a / time and have brought forth pleasant cloak to them till they have been system- | fruits, that we are to be strong ourselves, atically studied; not to admit that, as they and to be able to strengthen others against claim; Christianity is dead and society in a the emissaries of libertinism and of state of dissolution, and therefore some change. Fidelity, in political and in social new theory must be started; but to lay life, to the plainest teachings of the New hold of the positive principles of religion, Testament, would soon reduce the number of morality and of law that we have still at of Socialists to some few occupants of a our hands, after all the labors of disorgan-madhouse : that they go at large is proof izers hitherto; to hold these up against that more heads than their own are crazed. the declaimings of Socialists;. to lay on Certainly, in a society where divorce and them the task of destroying the Christian | adultery were unheard of, Fourierism civilization, or of proving that it should be would excite more horror than it does with destroyed, instead of assuming that it is so. us; and if Paris, in 1832, had been as And as example is more potent than mere much recovered from the Jacobinism of words, it is by falling back in our own in- | 1798 as it is now, the Saint Simonians terior sentiments and in our practice upon could never have gone so far as they did the doctrines in politics, in social life and | in effect.
The political crisis in Europe emboldened that they were taken by surprise in the course the English Chartists to make a grand demon- | adopted by the Government. Sir George Grey stration. Forty-nine delegates, elected at meet- replied that the subject had been taken into ings held in some of the principal towns, made consideration at the earliest possible moment, arrangements and issued a programme for a and the Government were resolved to take the meeting to be held at Kensington Common, on course indicated. The harangues delivered at Monday the 10th of April, at which upwards of the Chartist meetings preliminary to these ar200,000 Chartists were to attend; from whence rangements, had been of a most violent charthey were to march in procession, regulated acter. Republicanism, French aid, and conand superintended by Marshals, to the House cert with the disaffected Irish, were openly of Commons, and present a petition for the talked of; and arms were at one time recomPeople's Charter, which was said to weigh be mended for the great demonstration. The tween five and six tons. The attention of the main division of the Chartists met in the mornGovernment having been directed to the sub- i ing on the north side of London, and went in ject, a notice was issued by the Police Com- procession over Blackfriars Bridge to the place missioners, pointing out that, both by statute of meeting, which is about two miles south of and common law, the intended procession was the bridge. No extra precautions were ob illegal; warning persons from taking part in served until they reached the bridge, where a it, and calling on all loyal and peaceable sub police force and a body of pensioners were jects to aid ihe constituted authorities in pre- posted, but no interference took place. Other venting any disturbance, and in maintaining bodies, who met on the north side of the public order. This having been announced in Thames, passed over the bridges in like man. the House of Commons by the Home Secre. ner, and the meeting assembled at the appointtary, on the 6th of April, Mr. Feargus O'Con- ed place about half past eleven o'clock. Alnor denied any intention on the part of the though it had been announced that 200,000 Chartists to commit a breach of the peace, and were to meet, and were to be joined in processaid their only object was to present to that sion by greatly increased numbers, there were House a petition signed by between five and six at no time present more than from 15,000 to millions of the people ; and he also complained | 20,000 persons, including spectators who took
no part in the proceedings. Mr. Feargus | Mr. O'Connor attempted to make out, that notO'Connor delivered an address, which he con withstanding the fictitious signatures, there cluded by urging the meeting to disperse, as were upwards of 5,000,000 genuine, (a number the government had taken possession of all the which exceeds the whole adult male population bridges, and the contemplated procession to the of England,) and observed that in a few days House of Commons could not, therefore, be car- | he would present a petition with three times as ried into effect without a sanguinary struggle ; many signatures; but the exaggerations and and stated that the “ Executive” of the Chartist deceptions having been so thoroughly exposed, Association would convey the petition, which the affair became speedily a subject only of ridhe would that evening present to the House. icule, and Mr. O'Connor, on the 8th of April, This recommendation appeared by no means to virtually abandoned it, by contenting himself suit the views of a large portion of the meet with moving pro forma that it be read at the ing, but it was ultimately complied with, and table. The alacrity with which the peaceable the petition, accompanied by three delegates, and well-disposed inhabitants of the metropolis was conveyed to the House of Commons in a of all classes came forward on this occasion, couple of street cabs. The proceedings for the proves that the revolutionary feeling which enforcement of order were most complete and seems to pervade the greater part of Europe, efficient. The bank, and all the public build- has not taken possession of the English people. ings, were put in a state of defence, being gar- It is gratifying to find that the French Prorisoned by bodies of troops, and the persons visional Government have discountenanced inemployed in them were all armed. The en- terference with the affairs of a foreign nation ; tire police force of London was ready to act at for the number of passports for England bea moment's notice, and the bridges, the main came so much increased as to lead to inquiry points where difficulties were likely to occur, | into the reason; and it becoming known to the were under their protection. The military were Provisional Government that the intention of not visible during the whole day, the police and the parties was to aid in the Chartist manifesprivate constables being more than sufficient to tation, they put a stop to this political emigrameet the emergency. Upwards of 150,000 tion, by refusing passports to all who could not men (more than ten times the number of give good reasons for leaving their own counChartists at the meeting) volunteered and were try. The Chartists have since continued to sworn in as special constables, so that any at- hold their meetings in various parts of the tempt at an outbreak would have been hope- kingdom, and the speeches and propositions are less. After the meeting had dispersed, large of the most inflammatory nature, and in Abercrowds proceeded towards the bridges, which deen a proposal has been made to establish an were all closed. The greatest mob was at armed National Guard. To protect the counBlackfriars, where stones were thrown and at try from these incendiary attempts, and to put tacks made on the foot police, who used their an end to the alarming state of affairs in Irestaves freely on the heads of the leaders, but land, a law has been passed for the better secuwere at last forced, by the pressure, across the rity of the Crown and Government; by which bridge; where the crowd was stopped by a the writing, publishing, or open and advised body of mounted police, and dispersed after nu- speaking, or any overt act intended to effect the merous arrests had been made.
deposition, or levying war against the SoverThe petition, on being presented to the eign, or forcing a change of measures or counHouse by Mr. O'Connor, was referred to the sels, or intimidating or overawing either House Standing Committee on Petitions, who report of Parliament, or inciting foreign invasion, is ed that instead of the number of signatures, declared a felony, punishable by transportation ; 5,706,000, as stated by the member, it was as and a temporary alien bill has also been introcertained by counting that there were not more duced, to enable the Government to send home than 1,975,496--that in several consecutive any foreigners who may be mischievously dissheets the signatures were all in the same posed. On the 11th of April, Mr. John O'Conhand-writing--that a great portion were the nell brought forward a motion, in the House of names of females, and that it contained numer Commons, for a Repeal of the Union, in referous forgeries. Among the signatures were ence to which Lord John Russell, on the 16th, Victoria Rex, Prince Albert, Colonel Sibthorpe, stated that immediately after Easter the House Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of Wellington, would proceed to the discussion of measures (nineteen times,) Snookses, Pugnoses and Flat which related to the political state of the Irish noses in great numbers, interspersed with ribald population, and declared his readiness to listen and obscene remarks. It is said that a patriotic to any proposition supported by the great mapot-boy contributed several hundred signa- jority of Irish members, having for its object tures.
the improvement of the laws and condition of The petition was also weighed by the Com- | that country ; but by discussion (if the choice mittee, and Mr. O'Connor's statement in this should be for argument) and by force (if reregard was also a gross exaggeration, for in- course were had to arms) he was determined, stead of five tons, its weight was only 57 cwt. as long as there was breath and life in him, to
VOL. I. NO. VI. NEW SERIES.
oppose the Repeal of the Legislative Union. , cure French assistance in aid of forcible measThis declaration elicited loud cheers. A sim- | ures in Ireland. M. Lamartine, after some ilar statement, in behalf of the Government, complimentary remarks towards the Irish peowas made in the House of Lords.
ple, gave a decided negative to the request. Prince Metternich has arrived in England. * We are," said he, “at peace, and we are de- , There has been a large exportation of gold from sirous of remaining on good terms of equality, England to Holland and other parts of the conti not with this or that part of Great Britain, but nent, and the bullion in the Bank of England has with Great Britain entire. We believe this considerably decreased, but fresh quantities con peace to be useful and honorable, not only to tinue to arrive from abroad.
Great Britain and the French Republic, but to The People's Charter, as it is called, con- the human race. We will not commit an act tains six heads. 1. Universal suffrage; 2. -we will not utter a word-We will not breathe Vote by ballot; 3. No property, qualification ; an insinuation at variance with the principles 4. Annual parliaments; 5. Payment of mem of the reciprocal inviolability of nations which bers; 6. Equal electoral districts. The total we have proclaimed. * * * We should be inexport of tea from China to Great Britain, sane were we to exchange such a diplomacy from July, 1847, to 24th February last, is : for unmeaning and partial alliances with even Black, 35,855,210 lbs.; green, 3,813,320 lbs.; the most legitimate parties in the countries total, 39,699,030 lbs. ; and of silk in the same which surround us. We are not competent to period, 17,089 bales.
judge them, or to prefer some of them to others; The Irish Repeal party is now divided into | by announcing our partisanship on the one side, two distinct sections; the O'Connells, with a we should declare ourselves the enemies of the numerical minority, having declared firmly other. We do not wish to be enemies of any against exceeding the bounds of constitutional of your fellow-countrymen. * * * We ardentagitation ; whilst the majority, headed by Smith ly wish that justice may bind and strengthen O'Brien, Mitchell of the United Irishman, and the friendship of races; that equality may beothers, are inflaming the populace with writ come more and more its basis ; but while proings and speeches of the most incendiary char claiming with you, with her, (England.) and acter, urging the people to arms, openly defy with all, the holy dogma of fraternity, we will ing the Government, and declaring their inten perform only acts of brotherhood, in conformity tion of effecting Repeal by force of arms. with our principles, and our feelings towards Those of the latter party, whose arrest was the Irish nation.” Smith O'Brien, and the mentioned in our last number, have been in other parties indicted, having put in a technical dicted, and true bilis for sedition were found defence, as to the composition of the Grand against them on the 15th of April ; on the even Jury, the Attorney-general, to prevent delay, ing of which day they were entertained at a abandoned the indictments, and filed, ex officio, grand soirée, where they made speeches just as informations against the accused. All, except seditious as those for which they are prosecut Mitchell, have moderated their tone since the ed. The people, under the instigation of these act above referred to was passed. We give a men, are arming throughout a very large por- specimen from one of his speeches. After givtion of Ireland with fire-arms and pikes, and ing instructions on the pike and rifle practice, are being drilled to the use of these weapons; , he declared that his “mission is to bear a hand rifle clubs are also formed to considerable ex- | in the final destruction of the bloody old • Brittent, the day for practice being generally Sun ish Empire'--the greedy, carnivorous old monday. To counteract this movement, large bod ster that has lain so long like a load upon the ies of troops are concentrating in different heart and limbs of England, and drank the blood sections, whilst vessels of war are stationed on and sucked the marrow from the bones of Irevarious parts of the coast. Large and influen- land. Against that empire of hell a thousand tial bodies of Irish, Catholic and Protestant, | thousand ghosts of my slaughtered country. have tendered their services to the Government men shriek nightly. Their blood cries conin case of necessity, and their offers have been | tinually from the ground for vengeance! And accepted. A run on the Savings Banks has Heaven has heard it. That bucaneering flag been made, at the suggestion of the leaders, for that has braved so long the battle and the breeze, the purpose of embarrassing the financial af- fies now from a ship in distress. The Charybfairs of the country. At Limerick, notices of dis of Chartism roars under her lee; the breakwithdrawal to the amount of £5000 on the 24th ers of Repeal are ahead, and the curses of the of April, were served on the 15th; and the Di-world swell the hurricane that rages round her, rectors have determined to pay out all sums --pirate and blood-stained slaver that she is, demanded, but not again to permit those mak | her timbers are shivering at last," &c. ing the drafts to obtain the benefit of these use-/ Some of the Roman Catholic clergy have reful institutions. On the 1st of April, Smith ceived sharp rebukes from their bishops, for the O'Brien, with a deputation from Ireland, pre- violence of iheir political course. sented an address to the Provisional Govern- As events progress in France, the views of ment at Paris, the object of which was to se- the different members of the Provisional Gov.