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if it does not throw light upon the its work. As a leading member question as to who is the real enemy of the Ottoman Cabinet is said to to the reformed administration of have phrased it, Turkey will give the provinces. Between impracti- guarantees for the execution of cable views as to the sacredness of these reforms : do not place us in Ottoman sovereignty and its im- a position of requiring guarantees munity from direct limitation on in our turn against those who will the one hand, and Russian views watch over and supervise that exeof military occupation on the other, cution. Prince Gortschakoff says there is a wide field for contend- that the Cabinet of St Petersburg ing negotiators to traverse before can be satisfied no longer with they discover ground which all may promises ; nor, we may add, can agree to occupy. But at any rate it the English people. The wasteought to be clearly ascertained in paper currency of reform promises which direction each Government will no longer be tolerated; but the is designedly travelling. Up to the question of providing guarantees present time there are at least will throw light upon the sincerity many reasons for concluding that of Russia's demand upon the conRussia has not been bonâ fide seek- cert of the six Powers for a pacific ing a pacific solution of these diffi- solution. Let Russia show clearly culties. The Porte may have seemed when she gets into Conference that impracticable; but its general dis- these guarantees are not to be made position to yield to the will of the pretext for encroachment, and Europe, and particularly of Great Europe will gladly accept the Czar's Britain, has been clearly marked; assurances to Lord A. Loftus that while its recalcitrant movements he desires no conquest and aims at have generally been explicable by no aggrandisement. Until then it reference to the foregone determina- must be remembered that the imtion of its opponents to reject pro- perial protestations as to the illuposed arrangements, and the natural sions and phantoms concerning desire of a sovereign to avoid un- Peter the Great's will and Cathenecessary humilation in dealing rine's aims, the misfortune to Russia with refractory subjects, encouraged of acquiring Constantinople, the inand supported by foreign aid. At veterate suspicion of Russian policy, the last moment, however, after and the continual fear of Russian Lord Salisbury has started, there aggression and conquest, were comcomes a despatch from Prince Gort- bined with a very decided hint that schakoff, and another from Lord A. necessity might oblige him to Loftus, which, if the representa- occupy Bulgaria.
Lord Derby tions made therein may be literally received with the greatest satisfacconstrued, would seem to assure the tion the Emperor's assurance that he conclusion of peace. At all events desired co-operation with England, it is a satisfactory sign, not merely and had no views on Constantinople, that the Emperor Alexander, whose or of conquest. But while accedpast history and pacific disposition ing to the imperial desire that such deserve well of this country, is will- assurances should be made public, ing to make such assurances, but he added with a touch of approprithat he is anxious to publish them ate sarcasm, “I thought its publito the world. We shall see to cation might be opportune, since what extent they may be relied the last few days had brought us the upon when the Conference begins intelligence of the mobilisation of a considerable Russian force, and of all have deprecated, and a regard for the emission of the new Russian public law and treaties is openly set loan for 100 million of roubles.” at nought by Europe, it will be in
Under these circumstances, the vain to persuade Englishmen that duties of Lord Salisbury at the ap- Constantinople, the Dardanelles, proaching Conference weight him the Bosphorus, and the means of with the heaviest responsibility, and access to the Black Sea, are to be he ought to be supported by the allowed to fall beneath the sway of people of England. What we all of a hostile and unprincipled Power. us want is either the establishment of It is sometimes argued in Opposia durable pacification, or the settle- tion newspapers by the political ment of a broad and intelligible issue, successors of the men who risked the merits of which all may appre
the fortunes of this country before ciate. We hope it will be clearly the walls of Sebastopol, that we understood who is responsible for may abandon Constantinople to its repressing a peaceful solution, what fate. The authors of the Crimean are the grounds on which war is expedition were men who believed appealed to, and the reasons for the that the English empire was scarceparticular attitude which may be ly safe unless that distant fortress assumed by Great Britain. If Tur- was destroyed; for unless Russian key puts herself hopelessly in the encroachment were stayed, the wrong, and refuses adequate con- Mediterranean would be converted cessions, she must look to herself into a Russian lake. Their successors and her own capacity for guarding now tell us, in their desperate straits her empire and her territory. If, for a weapon wherewith to assault on the other hand, the treaty of the foreign policy of the GovernParis is to be set at nought, and a ment, that even Constantinople itwar of encroachment is begun, we self is not worth a blow; and that must come to a clear understanding we, who in the interval have abanwith the guaranteeing Powers as doned Corfu and other harbours of to the course to be taken. Eng- importance, can safely permit the land will not, we are convinced, capital of the East to pass into the shrink from her treaty obligations hands of an enemy. The fatal reand her duties as the champion sult, as it appears to us, would be, of Ottoman independence. But that a commanding position would at the same time, her interests, be attained by Russia from which as Mr Disraeli observed in 1875, she could securely plan, and at her are not so direct as those of other own time and option execute, an Powers. They are substantial inter- assault upon our Eastern communiests which she cannot afford to ne- cations, whether by the invasion of glect. If the issue of the negotia- Egypt or a harassing naval warfare tions at Constantinople is that war in the Mediterranean. We should is the immediate result, it is in vain have to secure the defence of Egypt; to speculate beforehand as to the we should have to double the exduties of England, or the line which penditure on our navy; and even she will be bound to take. That then we should have to deal with depends, in the first place, upon the an enemy who would have a secure casus belli which
chosen, and the base of operations, and an excellent attitude of the rest of Europe with harbour of refuge. It has been the regard to it. If, unfortunately, that unbroken policy of England ever scramble for territory begins which since she obtained her Indian empire to secure her safety in the east ly and neutral Power. It is of vital of the Mediterranean. The pur- importance to us that it should not chase of the Suez Canal shares owed pass into the hands of others, least all its popularity to the fact that of all into those of Russia.
By all the whole country, with a true in- means let it remain where it is as stinct, regarded it as a resolute as- long as possible, and then, if no insertion of British interests in that ternational occupation be possible, quarter of the globe.. Mr Gladstone Great Britain must hold it totis argued that they were valueless, viribus. We at least might be and might be divided amongst the trusted to maintain the freedom of members of the Cabinet in acknow- the Straits, and our only interest is ledgment of their services in buy- to render the Mediterranean secure. ing them. And doubtless there are It is, however, premature for the premany Liberals who would readily sent to raise this controversy: if ever contend that Constantinople might it becomes a subject of immediate belong to Russia and Gibraltar be practical interest, the great mass of .ceded to Spain. But before they Englishmen will be unanimous upon will ever obtain a hearing from the it. Meanwhile, although the overvast majority of their countrymen, whelming interest which England or induce the inaction of their takes in the Eastern Question is country, whilst Constantinople is due to considerations of this kind, menaced, they must first ask some they are happily too remote to affect military or naval authority of emi- her impartiality in the discussion nence to pledge his professional re- of the existing differences. It is putation before the world, that in generally recognised by Europe-by his opinion the possession of that all, in fact, except a few disconcity by a hostile Power would have tented Opposition organs—that her no strategic importance whatever. Majesty's Government have no inUntil then it is in vain to question terest at present in Turkey except the settled determination of the that peace should be secured ; and English people to struggle, with the as a chief means to that end, that utmost energy of which they are the better government of its subject capable, in order that a stronghold populations should be effectively of such enormous importance should guaranteed. not pass from the hands of a friend
INDEX TO VOL. CXX.
Addison, generosity of Swift to, 523. Budhist remains in Júnághar, 400.
Bullock - gárhí, travelling by, in India,
Calderon's Tragedies, differences between
Herod and Marianne, 231-his Secret
the Painter of his own Dishonour, 235
count of the Dutch, 287.
seq. pass.- present position of, as re- cellor of, 618.
Casket Rocks, the, 167.
Chatham, the former attack by the Dutch
Cherbourg breakwater, dockyard, &c.,
CHILDHOOD, PAGES FROM THE STORY OF
China, sketches in, 691—the great wall
garian atrocities, 640. See also Disraeli. Christopher North, papers, &c., of, on
gies, &c., between, 229.
82, 83 et seq. pass.-failure of the, 245. Macaulay's Life, 525.
Colquhoun, the works of, on sporting,
Coltness Collection, extracts from, on
Commission on Army Retirement, the, its
CONFERENCE AT CONSTANTINOPLE, THE,
Continent, country life in, as compared
191-speculation in, during the Ameri- new aspects, &c., 671.
COUNTRY LIFE, 483.
Croker, hostility of Macaulay to, 524.
Cross, Mr, his Enclosure Bill, 389.
Dalai-nor, the lake of, 692.
France, present exhaustion of, 281–
84 et seq.- his speech on it, 246—on the Germany, and its effects on Bath-life
Exchange, 311 et seq.
OBJECT, No. II., 278—No. III., 730. GERMAN Batu, A, 670.
Germans, differences between them and
Germany, position, &c., of, as to the
Eastern question, 87—the possibilities
of invasion from, 281-great increase
of speculation in, 315—influence of her
ascendancy on Russia, 449— country
Gifford, Captain, rescue of the survivors
of the Strathmore by, 320, 339.
the, 279—the, their attack on Chatham, Gírnar, the mountains of, 194—and its
taining the integrity of Turkey, 634
- his pamphlet on the Bulgarian
of England on the, 395—views of the Gobi, the desert of, 690, 700.
GORTSCHAKOFF, PRINCE, AND PRINCE
tions to the, 521.
Granville, Lord, on the Eastern question,
GREEK GIRL, A, 600.
Eastern question, 82, 84 et seq. 253, and those of Shakespeare, 229.
Harley, Swift's friendship for, 535, 536.
Havre, sketch of, 159.
regards the Turkish question, 247 — the Strathmore, 317, 318, 327, 331.
Herm, the island of, 168.
Herring-fishery, the Dutch, its early im-
Herzegovina, position of the Powers to-
ward the, 82.
Highland proprietor, life, &c., of a, 495.
632 et seq.
449 et seq.