The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period, C. 1800-1550 B.C.
This study is an attempt to establish a chronology for the Second Intermediate Period (the 250 years prior to 1800-1550 BC), and define the different kingdoms which then existed. The Second Intermediate Period separates the two glorious periods of the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. During the 19th century BC, an invasion by Canaanite tribes into the Egyptian Delta took place. Around 1800 BC, these people proclaimed their own king and the Delta thus became independent from the rest of Egypt. Egypt remained split between Canaanite kings in the north and native Egyptian kings in the south for the remainder of the Second Intermediate Period. The division of Egypt brought about an economic decline, and the entire period is characterised by a lack of royal monuments. This circumstance has greatly hampered attempts to establish a chronology of the period and, as a consequence, it has been very difficult to date many sources which are relevant for the social and political situation of the period. The Second Intermediate Period has, therefore, remained one of the most obscure periods of Egypt's ancient history. The first chapter discusses the primary sources for the chronology of the period. It includes a revised restoration and a comprehensive source evaluation of the famous Turin King-list, a papyrus from the New Kingdom (1550-1100 BC), which contains the only complete king-list from Pharaonic Egypt. The second chapter, the individual dynasties/kingdoms of the period are systematically defined according to their kings, geographical and chronological extent. The fourth and final chapter contains an historical outline of the political situation during the Second Intermediate Period, based on the conclusions in the study. Appended to the work is a catalogue of all the sources, approximately 1500, known to contain the names of the Egyptian kings of the period. Each source is briefly described in terms of type, origin and present location, followed by bibliographical references. This catalogue, which also includes some unpublished material, is intended to facilitate further research into the period.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Seals of Kings
Wepwawemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib
Other Royal Persons of the Second Intermediate Period
Abydos Accordingly Ahmose Amenemhet Amenemhet IV Antef Antef VII Apophis Appellation ASAE 41 attested Avaris Beckerath Berlin Bibi BibL Bietak BIFAO burial Canaan cartouche contemporary coregent Cylinders 1917 Delta Egypt Egyptian Engelbach fact Fifteenth Dynasty File Fourteenth Dynasty Helck Hist.-biogr Historical Scarabs 1889 hki-hiswt Hyksos Ibiaw inscribed inscription Kamose Karnak Kerma Khayan Khendjer King's Daughter lacuna Martin Matouk MDAIK Mirgissa Monthhotep monuments Nebiryraw Neferhotep Nehsy Newberry nomen Nubia Petrie Museum prenomen prenomina Prov PSBA recorded Redford regnal-year reign royal seals ruler Scarab-seal Scarab-Shaped Seals Scarabs Scarabs and Cylinders Second Intermediate Period Senior Queen Senwosret Seqenenre Seventeenth Dynasty Sheshi Sihathor Sixteenth Skarabden Sobkemsaf Sobkhotep Sotheby stela Studies successor suggests Tell el-Dab'a TEx King Fuad Texte2 Thebes Thirteenth Dynasty tomb Tufnell Turin King-list Twelfth Dynasty unknown Unpublished vizier Ward Wegaf Ya'qub-Har Yakbim Zwischenzeit