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Clo. If any man doubt that, let him put me to my purgation. I have trod a measure; I have fatter'd a lady; I have been politick with my friend, smooth with mine enemy; I have undone three taylors; I have had four quarrels, and like to have fought one.

Jaq. And how was that ta’en up?

Clo. 'Faith, we met; and found, the quarrel was upon the seventh cause. 7

Jaq. How the seventh cause?-Good my lord, like this fellow, Duke Sen. I like him


well. Clo. God'ild you, sir, I desire of you the like: 8 I press in here, fir, amongst the rest of the country copulatives, to swear, and to forswear; according as marriage binds, and blood breaks: -A poor virgin, sir, an ill-favour'd thing, sir, but mine own ;-a poor humour of mine, sir, to take that that no man else will. Rich honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a poor house ; as your pearl, in your

foul oyster. Duke Sen. By my faith, he is very swift and fententious.


? We found the quarrel was upon the seventh cause.) So all the copies ; but it is apparent from the sequel that we must read, ihr quarrel was not upon the seventh cauf. JOHNSON.

-I defore you of the like.] We should read, I de fire of you the like. On the Duke's saying, I like him very well, he replies, I desire you will give me cause that I may like you too.

WARBURTON. I have not admitted the alteration, because there are other examples of this mode of expreffion. JOHNSON.

9 According as marriage binds, and blood breaks ] The construction is, to swear as marriage binds. Which I think is not Englith. I suspect Shakespeare wrote it thus, to swear and 10 forfwear, ai. cording as marriage Bids and blood Bids break.

WARBURTON. I cannot discover what has here puzzled the commentator: 1. fwear according as marriage binds, is to take the cath enjoin'd in the ceremonial of marriage. JOHNSON.


Clo. According to the fool's bolt, fir, and such dulcet diseases. 9

Jaq. But, for the seventh cause: how did you find the quarrel on the seventh cause ?

Clo. Upon a lye seven times removed ; (bear your body more seeming, Audrey) as thus, fir. I did dislike the cut of a certain courtier's beard ; ' he sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he was in the mind it was.

This is call'd the Retort courteous. If I sent him word again, it was not well cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please himself. This is call’d the Quip modest. If again, it was not wellcut, he disabled my judgment. This is call’d the Reply churlijh. If again, it was not well cut, he would an. swer, I fpake not true. This is call’d the Reproof valiant. If again, it was not well cut, he would say, Ilye. This is called the Countercheck quarrelseme ; and so, the Lye circumstantial, and the Lye direčt.

Faq. And how oft did you say, his beard was not well cut?

Clo. I durst go no further than the Lye circumftantial, nor he durft not give me the Lye direct, and so we measur'd swords and parted.

Jeq. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of the lye?

* Dulcet disenfis.] This I do not understand. For diseajes it is easy to read discourjes: but, perhaps the fault may lie deeper.

JOHNSON. · As thui, fir; I did dislike he cut of a courtier's beard;} This folly is touched upon with high humour by Fletcher in his Queen of Corinth.

Has be familiarly
Dilk't your yellow fach, or faid your doublet
was not ixaftly frenchified-

- or drawn your /wert,
Cry'di was ill mounted ? Has be given the lye
In circie or oblique or femicircle
O direct parallel ; you mus challenge bim. WARS.


Clo. O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book; as you have books for good manners.” I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous; the second, the Quip modeft; the third, the Reply churlifh; the fourth, the Reproof valiant ; the fifth, the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lye with circumstance; the seventh, the Lye direct. All these

Wolf, 1594

? O for, we quarrel in print, by the book ;] The poet has, in this scene, rallied the mode of formal duelling, then lo prevalent, with the highest humour and address: nor could he have treated it with a happier contempt, than by making his clown fo knowing in the forms and preliminaries of it. The particular book here alluded to is a very ridiculous treatise of one Vincentio Saviolo, intitled, Of bonour and bonourable quarrels, in quarto, printed by The first part

of this tract he entitles, A difcourse moft necessary for all genrlemen that have in regard their bonours, roueke ing the giving and receiving the lye, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers forms doth enfue; and mang

other inconveniences for lack only of true knowledge of bonor, and the righT UNDERSTANDING OF WORDS, which here is set down. The contents of the sea veral chapters are as follow. I. What the reason is that the

party unto whom the lye is given ought to become challenger, and of the nature of lies. 11. Of the manner and diverfry of lies. III. Of the bye certain, or direct. IV. Of conditional lirs, or the lye circumítantial. V. Of the lye in general. VI. Of the lye in particular, VII. Of foolis lies. VIII. A conclufion touching the wresting or relurring back of the lye, or the countercheck quarrelsome. In the chapter of conditional lies, speaking of the particle 17, he says,-Conditional lies be fucb as are given conditionally, thus ribou bajtjaid fo or fo, i ben thou liefl. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention, whereof no jure conclufion can arise. By which he means, they cannot proceed to cut one ano. ther's throat, while there is an ip between. Which is the reason of Shakespeare making the Clown say, I knew when leven juftices could not make up a quarrel: but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if, as if you said so, then I said so, and they look hands, and swore brothers. Your it is the only peacemaker; much virtue in if. Caranza was another of these authen. tick authors upon the Duello. Fletcher in his last act of Love's Pilgrimage ridicules him with much humour.

WARBURTON. 3 books for good manners.] One of these books I have seen. It is entitled The Doke of Nurture, or Schole of good Manners, for Men, Servants, and Children, with stans puer ad menjam; black letter without date. STEEVENS.


you may avoid, but the Lye direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew, when seven jul. tices could not take up a quarrel; but when the patties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as, If you said so, then I said so; and they fhook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker ; much virtue in If.

Jaq. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? he's good at any thing, and yet a fool.

Duke Sen. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit. * Enter Hymen, Rosalind in woman's cloaths, and Celid.

Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven,
When eartbly things made even

Atone together.
Good Duke, receive thy daughter,
Hymen from heaven brought ber,

Yea, brought ber bither :
That thou might ft join her bund with bis,

W’hose heart within bis bofom is.
Rof. To you I give myself; for I am yours.

[To the Duke. To you I give myself; for I am yours. [To Orlando. Duke Sen. If there be truth in fight, you are my

Orla. If there be truth in sight, you are my


+ Enter Hymen.) Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the com. peny to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aerial being in the character of Hymen.

JOHNSON. 5 If there be truth in fight.] The answer of Phebe makes it probable that Orlando says, if there be truth in shape: that is, if a form may be trufted; if one cannot usurp the form of another.



Phe. If sight and shape be true,
Why, then, my love adieu !
Ref. I'll have no father, if you be not he.

[To the Duke. I'll have no husband, if you be not he. [To Orlando. Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she. (To Pbebe.

Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion : 'Tis I must make conclusion

Of these most strange events : Here's eight that must take hands, To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents. You and you no cross shall part ;

(To Orlando and Rosalind. You and you are heart in heart:

[To Oliver and Celia. You to his love must accord, Or have a woman to your lord.

[To Pbebe. You and you are sure together, As the winter to foul weather:

(To the Clown and Audrey. Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing, Feed yourselves with questioning ; That reason wonder may diminish, How thus we meet, and these things finish.

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S O N G.
Wedding is great Juno's crown,

O blessed bond of board and bed! If truth holds true contents.] That is. if there be truth in truth, unless truth fails of veracity. JOHNSON.

? Wedding is, &c.] Catullus, addrefing himself to Hymen, has this stanza :

Que tuis careat facris,

Non queat dare prades
Terra finibus : at queat
Te volente. Quis huic deo
Compararier aufit?

Vol. III.


71 is

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