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A.D. 1641. with the parliament. As the parliament seemed

more and more determined to secure the constitution against any future encroachments; so the king, after his return, became more violent in his

for the continuance of the war, the necessity of the times, and, never left pressing and per- by giving his assent to some suading the king, till they of the most material proposiprevailed with him to change tions that were sent him, to his former resolutions, and to settle a lasting peace with his give order for his answer to be people. The king was, at last, drawn as it was now delivered. prevailed with to follow their -Whitlocke, p. 65.

counsel ; and the next mornMany endeavours were used, ing was appointed for signing from time to time, to bring a warrant to his commissioners matters to an accommodation to that effect: and so sure by way of treaty; but some were they of a happy end of one unlucky accident or other all differences, that the king rendered them abortive. At at supper complaining his wine the treaty of Uxbridge, though was not good, one told him the parliament's demands were merrily, he hoped bis majesty high, and the king showed a would drink better with the more than ordinary aversion lord mayor at Guildhall before to comply with them; yet the the week was over. But so it ill posture of his affairs at that was, that when they came time, and the fatal conse- early the next morning to wait quences they feared would on him with the warrant that follow upon breaking off the had been agreed on over-night, treaty, obliged a great many of they found his majesty had the king's friends, and more changed his resolution, and particularly that noble person was become inflexible in these the Earl of Southampton, who points. What occasioned this had gone post from Uxbridge alteration in the king's mind, to Oxford for that purpose, to was a letter he had just repress the king again and again ceived from the Marquis of upon their knees to yield to Montrose out of Scotland, ac

proceedings. His removing the governor of the A.D. 1641. Tower, and putting in another, who was universally obnoxious, and this in the midst of the people's jealousy and apprehensions; his seizing the papers of particular members of parliament, and going to the house in a hostile manner to demand their persons; all these intemperate acts, at a time too when the parliament's credit and authority were so great were as weak as they were violent.

The point upon which the king ought, in policy, to have made his stand against the parliament, was the act that they should not be dissolved without their own consent; for this was a change of the constitution, and an invasion of his just prerogative. Upon this point all moderate men would have joined him; and the public would,


quainting him with some unexpected success; and, therefore, desiring him not to treat

with the parliament. — Wellwood's Memoirs.

32 The reason generally assigned by the people for the removal of Sir William Balfour from the governorship of the Tower was, that he had refused to connive at the escape of the Earl of Strafford when the court had matured a plot for that purpose. Colonel Lunsford, who succeeded Balfour, was at the time an outlaw; a sentence he had incurred by an attempt at assassination.

A.D. 1642. perhaps, have seen the force of his reasons against

so violent an act. Many, upon seeing the king urged to a compliance with a thing unjust in its own nature, would have lost sight of the necessity which they thought there was for such a measure, and have been more slow in justifying or supporting the parliament in their other proceedings. But, on the contrary, the king, through a mistaken pride, was obstinate for his prerogative in points obnoxious to public liberty and unknown to our constitution, and this made the commons the more resolute in their measures. Thus affairs were carried on till each side was too much inflamed. The king was full of anger at the proceedings of the parliament; and his anger was stimulated by the courtiers about him. The parliament, fully determined to support their conduct, and pursue the reformation they had begun, were without confidence in the honour of the king, and felt it necessary to guard with watchfulness every success which they obtained with so much difficulty. All England was divided into parties for the king or the parliament. Every man was engaged, either in inclination or action, for one or the other.


Account of the life of Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, and of the

concern he had in public affairs, from the year 1643 to the death of Oliver Cromwell.

We are now arrived at the period when Sir A.D. 1643. Anthony began to distinguish himself in the conduct of public affairs. During the years 1641 and 1642, he resided with his lady and family in different parts of the kingdom, as the circumstances of the times rendered it necessary. The counties he chiefly lived in were those of Norfolk, Nottingham, York, and Durham. He was at Nottingham and Derby when the king was at those places, but he only appeared there as a Sir Anthony

engages in spectator. But in 1643 he returned into Dorset- publis. shire, to his house at St. Giles's Winborne; and then it was that his superior talents soon became conspicuous. He was often meditating on the immediate mischiefs and the future evil consequences of the civil war; and he justly apprehended that the longer it should continue, the



A.D. 1643. more fatal it would prove. He was sensible that

whichever side should conquer, the other would be much depressed; and that the contest, if persisted in, must end either in an unlimited monarchy, if the king prevailed, or an indigested commonwealth if the parliament succeeded. To

avoid both these evils, he formed a scheme which, formed by

though not calculated to make his court either to the king or the parliament, was intended to restore and establish the nation's peace upon a solid and happy foundation. When Sir Anthony had prepared his plan, he went to Oxford, where he was recommended to the king by his relation

the Marquis of Hertford, and introduced by Lord Lays it be- Falkland. At his audience, he informed the king,

“that he had a proposal to make, which he hoped might put an end to the war, and terminate the differences between him and the parliament.” The king, looking earnestly at him, said, “ You are a young man, and talk great things. What way will you take to compass such an undertaking?" Sir Anthony replied, “ that he was persuaded the men of estates in almost every part of England were tired of the war, especially as they had no fairer prospect of its conclusion than they had at first; that he knew this was the

fore the


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