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Charles the Second to his dominions, and was overturned in his passage through a town in Holland. By his fall he received a great bruise in his side, which grew by neglect to an abscess. Mr. Locke, who was a student of Christ Church, and had a physician's place there, was desired by Dr. Thomas to wait on him with an excuse for the doctor's not attending him himself. Lord Ashley (this was his title at that time) * received him with his usual civility, and was so pleased with his behaviour and conversation, that he desired his company at supper; and finding Mr. Locke to be a man of excellent parts, and of a disposition equal to them, he conceived a very great friendship for him, which he steadily preserved to the end of his life. He took him into his house, made him his secretary, and, when lord chancellor, preferred him to be secretary of the presentations. After the seals were taken from Lord Shaftesbury, he, for a very moderate con


* "Milord Ashley le reçut très- aux discours de M. Locke, ce civilement, selon sa coutume, dernier fut tout-à-fait charmé et fut satisfait de ses excuses. de Milord Ashley, qui étoit un Comme il voulut se retirer, Mi- homme très-distingué par son lord, qui avoit déjà pris beau- esprit et par ses manières, coup de plaisir dans sa con- même parmi les personnes de versation, le retint à souper : son rang."-Le Clerc, Biblioet si ce seigneur prit du goût thèque Choisie, tom. vi. p. 353.

sideration, gave Mr. Locke an annuity of a hundred pounds per annum, which was paid till his death. As Lord Shaftesbury entered into the greatest intimacy with him, he imparted to him his most secret thoughts concerning the government, and all his schemes for the better regulation of it; and by his constant conversation upon public affairs, he first gave Mr. Locke those excellent notions of government which appear in

1 The friendly freedom which marked the intercourse between these two great men is well exemplified by an anecdote told by Le Clerc.

Locke was one day dining with three or four of Lord Ashley's particular friends, men who were all looked up to as the leading characters of the age. After dinner, cards were introduced, and the company were soon intent upon their game. Locke declined joining the card-party, but occupied himself in writing with great seriousness in his pocket-book, apparently absorbed in his occupation. Lord Ashley at length found leisure to look around him, and, noticing his friend's industry, insisted upon knowing what he was writing. “ My lord,” answered Locke, at last, “ I endeavour to get as much as I can in your good company; and having waited with impatience for the honour of being present at a meeting of the wisest and most ingenious men of the age, and enjoying at length this happia ness, I thought it proper to keep a note of your conversation, and I have accordingly been setting down what has been said within this hour or two.” Locke was immediately called upon to read, and his report was found highly amusing ; but the company were so little individually satisfied at being thus sketched in dishabillé, that the cards were soon laid down.

his essays upon that subject. In these, Mr. Locke maintains the same principles which were always so strenuously asserted by Lord Shaftesbury, at whose desire he turned his thoughts and study this way.*

Mr. Locke, soon after the death of Lord Shaftesbury, was, in the most arbitrary manner, turned out of his student's place of Christ Church by the king's absolute command to the dean and chapter of the college ; and the only reason assigned for it was, his having belonged to Lord Shaftesbury; as may be seen by the king's order, and the Earl of Sunderland's letters to the dean of the college, and the dean's answers to them. These letters have never yet been printed, and therefore the reader may be pleased to see them :f they carry in them a full conviction that Lord Shaftesbury

* “Il voulut qu'il s'applicât + To the Lord Bishop of Oxon. plutôt à l'étude des choses Whitehall, Nov. 6, 1684. qui concernent l'état et l'é- My LORD glise d'Angleterre, et de ce qui The king being given to unpeut avoir quelque rapport derstand that one Mr. Locke, aux soins d'un ministre d'état; who belonged to the late Earl et il devint si habile en cette of Shaftesbury, and has upon sorte de choses, que Milord several occasions behaved himAshley commença à le con- self very factiously and undusulter en toutes les occasions tifully to the government, is a qui s'en présentoient.”Biblio- student of Christ Church ; his thèque Choisie, tom. vi. p. 356. majesty commands me to sig

much obstructed the measures of the court, when they were destructive of the constitution. This the court could not forgive, and its resentment

nify to your lordship, that he with him, who has heard him would have him removed from speak a word either against or being a student; and that in so much as concerning the order thereunto your lordship government; and although should let me know the me- very frequently, both in public thod of doing it. I am, and private, discourses have

My lord, &c. been purposely introduced to
SUNDERLAND. the disparagement of his mas-

ter the Earl of Shaftesbury, To the Right Hon. the Earl of his party and designs, he could

Sunderland, Principal Se- never be provoked to take any cretary of State.

notice, or discover in word or Nov. 8, 1684. look the least concern; so that Right Hon.

I believe there is not in the I have received the honour world such a master of taciof your lordship's letter, where- turnity and passion. He has in you are pleased to inquire here a physician's place, which concerning Mr. Locke's being frees him from the exercises of a student of this house; of the college, and the obligation which I have this account to which others have to residence render,—that he being, as your in it; and he is now abroad lordship is truly informed, a upon want of health ; but, notperson who was much trusted withstanding, I have summonby the late Earl of Shaftes- ed him to return home, which bury, and who is suspected to is done with this prospect, that be ill affected to the govern- if he comes not back he will ment, I have for divers years be liable to expulsion for conhad an eye upon him; but so tumacy; and if he does, he will close has his guard been on be answerable to the law for himself, that, after several strict what he should be found to inquiries, I may confidently have done ainiss ; it being proaffirm, there is not any man in bable, that though he may the college, however familiar have been thus cautious here,

must have been very great, since even after his death it could exert itself on an innocent man, only because he had been Lord Shaftesbury's where he knew himself to be closed, containing his comsuspected, he has laid himself mand for the immediate exmore open at London, where pulsion of Mr. Locke. a general liberty of speaking

SUNDERLAND. was used, and where the execrable designs against his ma- To the Right Rev. Father in jesty and his government were God John Lord Bishop of managed and pursued. If he Oxon, Dean of Christ's does not return by the first of Church, and to our trusty January next, which is the time and well-belored the Chaplimited to him, I shall be en ter there. abled of course to proceed Right Rev. Father in God, against him to expulsion ; but and trusty and well-beloved, if this method seem not effec. we greet you well. Whereas tual or speedy enough, and his we have received information majesty, our founder and risi- of the factious and disloyal tor, shall please to command behaviour of Locke, one of the his immediate remove, upon students of that our college, the receipt thereof, directed to we have thought fit hereby to the dean and chapter, it shall signify our will and pleasure accordingly be executed by, to you, that you forthwith reMy lord,

move him from his student's Your lordship's most humble place, and deprive him of all and most obedient servant, the rights and advantages Joax Oxos. thereunto belonging. For

wbich this shall be your warTo the Bishop of Oxon. rant. And so we bid you

Whitehall, Nor. 12, 1684. beartily farewell. Given at My LORD,

our court at Whitehall the Having communicated your 11th day of November 1684 lordship's of the 8th to his By his majesty's command, majesty, he has thought fit to

SUNDERLAND direct me to send you the en

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