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I have not kn'own/ when his affections/ swayed
More than his rea'son. But," 'tis a common pro'of,
That low'liness is


ambition's lad'der
(Whereto the climber up'wards turns his fa'ce ;)
Ď'ut, when he once atta'ins the utmost roʻund,
He then unto the la'dder turns his ba'ck,
Loo'ks in the clo'uds, scorning the base degrees
By whi'ch/ he did asce'nd: so Cesar m'ay.
Theʼn, les't he m'ay, preve'nt. And, since the quarrel
Will bear no co'lour, for the thing he is',
Fashion it th'us,-thʼat what he is, augmeʼnted,
Would run to the se, and the-se-extre'mities :
And therefore, thi’nk him as a se'rpent's egg/
Whi'ch hatc'hed/ woʻuld, as his kind, grow mis'chievous ;
And k'ill-him/ in the she'll.


SHAKSPEARE. RO'MANS, coun trymen, and lo'vers ! hear' me for my cause', and be si'lent, that you may he'ar. Belie've me/ for mine honour, and have respect' to mine ho'nour, that you may believe'. Cen'sure me in your wis'dom, and awake your sen’ses, that you may the better judge'. If there be any in this asse'mbly, any dear friend of Cæ'sar's, to him' I say', that Bruîtus'* love to Cæ'sar, was no le'ss than h'is. If then that friend demand, why Bru^tus rose against Cæsar, this is my answer: Not that I loved Cæʻsar less', but that I loved Roome' more. Had

you rather Cæsar were li'ving, and die all slaves; than that Cæsar were dead', to live all free'men ? As Cæsar lo'ved me, I weep' for him ; as he was for'tunate, I rejoice at it; as he was va'liant, I ho'nour him; but, as he was ambi'tious, I slew him. There are tear's/ for his love', joy' for his fortune, ho'nour/ for his va’lour, but de-ath/ for his ambiotion. Who's here-so base', that would be a bond'man? If any', speak'; for him' have I offend'ed. Who's here so rude', that would not be a Ro'man ? If a'ny, speak'; for him' have I offen'ded. Who's here so vi^le, that will not love his cou’ntry ?* If any', speak'; for him' have I offen'ded. - I pause for a reply

* In giving the preference to this form of the genitive case, the Editor has followed Mr. Kemble's manner of delivering the speech, which is not only more harmonious, but more agreeable to the rhythmical structure of the sentence than the other form, “Brutus's.

No ne ? _ then none' have I offe'nded I have done no more to Cæsar, than you should do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled in the Ca'pitol : his gl'ory not exten'uated, wherein he was wor'thy: nor his offeʼnces enfor'ced, for wh'ich he suffered deoath'.

Here comes his body, mourn'ed/ by Mark Antony: wh'o, though he had no hand in his death', shall receive the beưnefit of his d'ying (a pl'ace in the com'monwealth ;) as whic'h of you/ sh'all not? With th`is/ I depart', that, as I slew my best loʻver/ for the good of Rome', I have the same dag'ger for myself, when it shall please' my coun’try to nee'd my death'.

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FRIENDS', Ro'mans, Country'men, lend me your ears'.
I come to bu'ry Cæsar, not to praise him.
The évill that men do/ lives a'fter them;
The goood/ is oft interredt with their bones';
So let it be/ with Cæ'sar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you, Cæsar was ambi'tious :
If it were'-so, it was a grievous fa'ult;
And grie'vously/ hath Cæsar an'swered it.
Here', under leave of Brutus, and the rest',
(For Brutus is an ho'nourable man',
So are they all', all' ho'nourable men')
Come I to speak in Cæsar's fu'neral.
He was my friend', faithful and just to ;

* This is one of those indefinite notes of interrogation that require to

read definitely, for we are not warranted to suppose that any man is * so vile" as not to “ love his country.'

+ In blank verse the participial termination ed must always be pronounced as a distinct syllable, where the syllables in a line make only nine without it.

But Bru'tus says, he was ambitious ;
And Brutus is an hon'ourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome',
Whose ran'soms/ did the g'eneral-coffers fill';
Did this' in Cæ'sar seem amb'itious ?
When that the poor' have cri'ed, Cæ'sar hath wept';
Ambition should be made of sterner st'uff :
Yet Bru'tus says, he was ambi'tious ;
And Brutus is an ho'nourable man.
You all did see', that, on the Lu'percal,
I thrice presented him a kingly crown';
Which he did thrice refuse'.

- Was this' ambition ?
Yet Bru'tus says, he wa's ambitious ;
And sure' he is an hoʻnourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke',
But here I am to speak' what I do know'.
You all did love' him once', (not without ca'use.)
What cause withholds you, then, to moʻurn for him ?
O judgʻment ! thou art fled to the brutish beasts,
And men'/ have lost their rea'son.—Bea'r with me,
My hear't/ is in the coffin there with Cæsar,
And I must pause'/ till it come back' to me.

you have tears', prepare to she'd them now. You all do know this man'tle : I remember The first time ever Cæsar put it on', ('Twas on a summer's evening in his tent',) That day' he overcame the Ner'viiLook'! in this place ran Cas'sius' dagger thro'ugh; See what a rent the envious Ca’sca ma'de !Through this'/ the well-beloved Brutu's stab'bed ; And, as he plucked his cursed steel away, Mark how the blood of Cæ“sar foʻllowed-it! (As rushing out of doors', to be resolved, Ìf Bru“tus/ so unkindly knock'ed, or no', For Brutus, as you know', was Cæ'sar's an'gel.) Judge', 0 ye gods' ! how dearly Cæsar lo'ved him ; Th'is, this was the unkindest cu't of a'll ; For, when the noble Cæsar saw him' stab, Ingra'titude (more strong than trai tor's arms) Quite vanq'uished him; then burst his mighty he'art; And, in his man'tle, muffling up his face', (Even at the base of Pompey's sta'tue,


Which all the while ran bloood) great Cæsar fell' ;
O whaît a fall was there', my coun’trymen !
Then I', and you', and all of us fell down',
While bloo'dy trea'son/ fl'ourished o'ver us.
O! now you weep'; and, I perceive', you feel
The dint of pity'; these are gra'cious drʼops.
Kind soʻuls ;* whať ! we'ep you when you but behold
Our Cæsar's ves'ture wounded ? look here'!
Here is himself, m'arred (as you see') by trai tors.

Good friends', swe^et friends', let me not stir you up

sudden flood' of mu'tiny. They that have done this deed are honourable. What pri vate griefs they have', alas' ! I know not, That made them do it; they are wi^se and ho‘nourable ; And will', no doubt', with rea‘son answer you. I come not', friends', to steal away' your hearts' ; I'am no orator, as Bru'tus is : But, as you know me all', a plain', blunt' man', That lov'e my friend"; and that they know full well, That gave me public leave to speak' of him : For Ï have neither w'it, nor wo'rds, nor wor'th, Ac'tion, nor ut'terance, nor the po'wer of spee'ch, To stir men's blo'od; I only speak right on': I tell you that', which you yourselves' do know'; Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds', (poo'r, poʻor/ dumb'mouths' !) And bid them' speak for ' :-But, were I Bru' tus, And Brutus Anotony, there were' an Antony Would rufile up your spi'rits, and put a tongue In e'very-wound of Cae'sar, that should move The stoʻnes of Rome', to ris'e and muotiny.

* There is a liquid sound of the k, c, and g hard, before the vowels a and i, which gives a smooth and elegant sound to the words in which they occur, and which distinguishes the polite pronunciation of London, from that of every other part of the island. This pronunciation is nearly as if the a and i were preceded by e. Thus kind is pronounced as if written ke-ind; card, as ke-ard; and regard, as re-ge-ard. The words that require this liquid sound, are sky, kind, guide, girl, garden, guise, guile, card, cart, guard, and regard, &c. ; these, and their compounds, are nearly all of the words where this sound occurs ; but these are so much in use, as to be sufficient to mark a speaker as either coarse or elegant, as he adopts or neglects it.

This sound is taken notice of by Steele, in his English Grammar, so long ago as the reign of Queen Anne.


SHAKSPEARE. Cas. That you have wron'ged-me, doth appe'ar/ in this", You have condem'ned and no'ted Lucius Pella For taking bri'bes here of the Sa'rdians ; Where'in

my let'ter (praying on his sid'e, Because I knew the m'an) was slig'hted-of.

Bru. You wronged yourse'lf, to write in such a c'ase.

Cas. In such a time as th‘is/ it is not me'et,

every nice o'ffence/ should bear its co'mment.
Bru. Yet let me te'll you, Ca’ssius, you yourse'lf
Are much condem'ned to have an itching paʻlm,
To s'ell and mar't-your-offices/ for gold,
To u’ndeser'vers.

Cas. I' an itching pa’lm ?
You know that you are Bruotus/ that spake th'is,
Or', by the goʻds, this spee'ch/ were else your

Bru. The name of Caʻssius/ honours this corr'uption,
And chaʼstisement/ doth therefore hi'de its head.

Cas. Chasotisement !

Bru. Remember Marc'h, the i’des-of-March/ remem'ber!
Did not great Julius bleed for justice-sake ?
What villain touched his bo'dy, that did sta'b,
And no't for jusįtice ? Wh'at ! shall one of us',
That struck the fore'most man of all this wor'ld,
(But for supporting* robbers), shall we no'w
Contaminate our fingers with base bri'bes,
And sell the mighty me'ed of our large hoʻnours
For so much tra'sh, as may be grasped th'us ?
I'd rather be a do'g, and bay the moon,
Than su'ch a R'oman.

Cas. Br’utus, ba'y not moe,
I'll not endu're it ; you forg'et-yourself,
To hedg'e-me-in; I am a soldier, I',

* The ringing sound of the participial termination ing must always be carefully and fully preserved, except where the verb, in its simple state, ends in ing, as sing, bring, fling, &c., where it seems proper that the termi. national ing should slide nearly into the sound of in, to avoid the tautological repetition of the ringing sound.

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