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SPECIFIC RHETORICAL RULES, EXERCISES,
RULE I. Every period so constructed as to have its two principal members connected by correspondent conjunctions or adverbs, requires a long pause, and the rising inflexion at the end of the first principal member. *
EXAMPLES. “ As we perceive the shaʼdow/ to have moved along the di'al, but did not perceive its mov'ing ; so the adva'nces/ we make in lea'rning, (consisting of insensible steps,) are on'ly perc'eived by the di'stance gone o'ver."
“ As the bea'uty of the body/ must always accompany the health"-of-it, so is decency of beha'viour/ a necessary conco'mitant to virtue."
RULE II. Every period, consisting of two principal parts, and having only the first part to commence with a conjunction or adverb, requires a long pause and the rising inflexion at the end of the first part.
EXAMPLES. “ As in my speculations, I have endeavoured to extinguish pa'ssion and pre“judice, I am still desirous of doing some go'od/ in thi's-particular."
“ As no man can enjoy hap'piness/ unless he thinks”-he-en* With a view towards diminishing the labour of the teacher, and, at the same time, ensuring a more perfect reading of the Examples of the "Specific Rules,” the Editor has marked the whole of the intermediate pauses and inflections that occur in these Examples ;-an improvement which can hardly fail to be acknowledged. It will be perceived that the principal or leading slide (whether rising or falling, and which will require a little additional force) is marked throughout double, thus " ", and that the rhetorical pause is indicated by a slanting line (1) as after “shadow."
joys-it, the experience of calamity is necessary to a just sen'se of better-fortune.”
Note. When the emphatical word in the conditional part of these sentences is in direct opposition to another word in the conclusion, and a concession is implied in the former, in order to strengthen the argument in the latter, the middle of the sentence has the falling, and the latter member the rising inflexion.
EXAMPLES. “ If we have no regard for rel'igion in youth", we oug'ht to have some regard for it in ag'e.”
“ If we have no regard for our own" character, we ought to have some regard for the character of oth'ers."
In these examples the words “youth” and “ own character” have the principal falling, and both periods end with the rising inflexion ; but if these sentences had been formed so as to have made the latter member a mere inference from, or consequence of, the former, the general rule would have taken place, and the first emphatical word would have had the rising, and the last the falling inflexion.
EXAMPLES. “ If we have no regard for relig‘ion in youth", we have se'ldom any rega’rd-for-it/ in age"."
“ If we have no rega'rd for our own" character, it can scarcely be expected/ we should have any regard for the ch'aracter of oth'ers.
RULE III. Periods which commence with participles of the present, or present perfect, tense, consist of two parts, between which must be inserted the long pause and rising inflexion.
EXAMPLES “ Regarding the morality of the Go'spel/ in no higher point of vie'w/ than as it affects the in'terests of manki'nd in thi'sworld, we have the clearest conviction of its incomparable e'xcellence, and are constrained to acknowledge/ its divi'ne auth’ority.”*
* If we consider the “morality of the Gospel" as affecting also the “ interests of mankind " in the world to come, then the adverb even would be understood," this ” would require the strong emphasis, and, consequently, the falling inflexion.-See Note.
“ Having already shewn how the fancy is affected by the works of nature, and afterwards consi'dered in ge'neral/ both the works of na'ture and of a'rt, how they mutually assis't and complete each o’ther, in forming such scenes and prospects as are most ap't/ to delight the mind of the behold"er; I shall/ in this paper/ throw together some reflections on that parti'cular-art/ which has a more immediate tendency/ than any o'ther, to produce those pri'mary pleasures of the imagin'ation/ which ha've/ hi’therto/ been the sub'ject of this discou'rse.”
Note. When the last word of the first part of these sentences requires the strong emphasis, the falling inflexion must be used instead of the rising.
EXAMPLE. “ Hannibal/ being frequently destitute of mo'ney and provi'sions, with no recruits of streng'th/ in case of i'll-fortune, and no encou'ragement/ even when success"ful; it is not to be won'dered-at/ that his affairs beg'an/ at length/ to decli'ne.”
RULE IV. Every period where the first part forms perfect sense by itself, but is modified or determined in its signification by the latter, requires the rising inflection and long pause at the end of the first part.
EXAMPLES. 1st. “Gr'atian/ very often recomme'nds the fine taste", as the utmost perfecʻtion-of an accomplished man.”
In this sentence the first member ending at “ taste," forms perfect sense, but is qualified by the last ; for Gratian is not said simply to recommend the fine taste, but to recommend it in a certain way; that is, “as the utmost perfection of an accomplished-man.”
2d. “ Persons of good-taste/ expect to be pleas'ed, at the same-time, they are infor'med.'
Here perfect sense is formed at “pleased,” but it is not meant that persons of “good taste" are pleased in general, but only with reference to the time they are informed. For the same reasons, the same pause and inflexion must precede the conjunction “though," in the following examples.
“I can desire to perceive those thin'gs/ that G'od/ has pre
pared for those that love him, though they be suc'h/ as ey'e, hath not se'en, e'ar/ hea'rd, n'or/ hath it entered* into the heart of m'an/ to conce'ive.” “ The sound of lov'e/ makes your soft heart afr'aid,
And guard" itself, though but a child invade."
RULE V. Every member of a sentence forming consistent sense, and followed by two other members, which do not restrain or qualify its signification, requires the falling inflexion.
EXAMPLES. “ It is th'is/ that recommends vari"ety, where the mind is every instant called o'ff/ to something ne'w, and the attention not suffered to dwell too lo'ng/ on any partic'ular-object."
“ For this reason, there is nothing more enlivens a proʻspect, than ri'vers, jet-d’ea'ux, and falls of wa'ter, where the scene is perpetually shifting, and entertaining the sight every m'oment/ with som'ething/ that is ne'w.”
In these instances, though the word "water" in the last sentence, and the word "variety" in the preceding example, are marked with a comma only, precision as well as harmony requires the falling inflexion ; the first member being a kind of text to the whole sentence, and not so closely connected with the succeeding members, as these last are with each other.
RULE VI. . When sentences have two parts, corresponding with each other, so as to form an antithesis, they are termed " antithetic members ;"—the first part always concluding with the emphatic rising inflexion,
EXAMPLES. “We are always complaining our days are few", and ac'ting/ as though there should be no en'd-of-them.”
“ The pleasures of the imagin’ation, are not so gro'ss/ as those of sense”, nor so refined as those of the understa'nding.
* It is necessary to notice that, in Scripture-language, the participial termination “ed” is always pronounced as a distinct syllable.
RULE VII. Every member of a sentence immediately preceding the last, entitled the " penultimate member," requires the rising inflexion.
EXAMPLE. “ Aristotle te'lls us, that the world/ is a co'py or tra'nscript of those ide'as which are in the mind of the first Be ́ing ; and that those ideas/ which are in the mind of m'an) are a tran'script of the wor'ld: to thi's/ we may a'dd, that wor'ds/ are a transcript of those ide'as/ which are in the mind of man", and that writing or prin'ting) is the tran'script of words."
Note.-Emphasis, which controls every other rule in reading, forms an exception to this ; where an emphatic word is in the first member of a sentence, and the last has no emphatical word, this penultimate member then terminates with the falling inflexion.
EXAMPLE. “ I must therefore desire the reader/ to reme'mber, th’at/ by the pleasures of the imagin'ation, I meant only su'ch/ as arise/ ori'ginally/ from sight"; and that I divide these ple'asures/ into two-kinds.”
RULE VIII. When the first member of a sentence forms perfect sense, and is followed by two members necessarily connected, the falling inflexion must be placed on the last word of the first member.
EXAMPLE. “ It shall ever be my study/ to make discoveries of this n'ature/ in human life"; and to settle the proper distin'ctions/ between the virtues and perfec"tions-of-mankind, and those false co'lours and resemblances-of-them, that shin'e/ alik'e/ in the ey’es of the vulgar."
Obs.—In this example we may observe, that the falling inflexion might have been placed on the second member, (on “mankind,") if the second and third members had not been necessarily connected by an antithesis ; which shows that the falling inflexion requires the member it is placed on, not only to have perfect sense independent of the succeeding member, but at the same time requires the succeeding member to be dependent on a third.