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It may be, I shall otherwise bethink me.
Look, Lucius, here's the book I sought for so;
I put it in the pocket of my gown. [Servants lie down..
Luc. I was sure, your lordship did not give it me.

Bru. Bear with me, good boy, I am much forgetful.
Canst thou hold up thy heavy eyes awhile,
And touch thy instrument a strain or two?

Luc. Ay, my lord, an it please you.

It does, my boy: I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing.

Luc. It is my duty, sir.

Bru. I should not urge thy duty past thy might; I know, young bloods look for a time of rest.

Luc. I have slept, my lord, already.

Bru. It is well done; and thou shalt sleep again;
I will not hold thee long: if I do live,
I will be good to thee.

[Musick, and a Songs
This is a sleepy tune :-O murd'rous slumber!
Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy,
That plays thee musick ?-Gentle knave, good night;
I will not do thee so much wrong to wake thee.
If thou dost nod, thou break’st thy instrument;
I'll take it from thee; and, good boy, good night.
Let me see, let me see ;7--Is not the leaf turn'd down,
Where I left reading? Here it is, I think. (He sit down

Enter the Ghost of CÆSAR.
How ill this taper burns !--Ha! who comes here?
I think, it is the weakness of mine eyes,
That shapes this monstrous apparition.
It comes upon me :-- -Art thou any thing?
Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil,
That mak’st my blood cold, and my hair to stare?
Speak to me, what thou art.

- thy leaden mace -] A mace is the ancient term for a scep. tre. So, in The Arraignment of Paris, 1584:

Icok upon my stately grace,
“ Because the pomp that’longs to Juno's mace," &c. Steevens)
Siiakspeare probably remembered Spenser in his Fairy Queen, B.
I, cant. iv, st. 44:

“When as Morpheus had with leaden mase,
« Arrested all that courtly company."

H White. 7 Let me see, let me see;] As these words are wholly unmetricals 'we may suppose our author meant to avail himself of the common colloquial phrase.---- Let's see, let's see. Steervos



Ghost. Thy evil spirit, Brutus.

Why com'st thou?
Ghost. To tell thee, thou shalt see me at Philippi.

Bru. Well;
Then I shall see thee again ?8

Ay, at Philippi. [Ghost vanishes.
Bru. Why, I will see thee at Philippi then.-
Now I have taken heart, thou vanishest:
Ill spirit, I would hold more talk with thee.-
Boy! Lucius !--Varro! Claudius! Sirs, awake!


Then I shall see thee again?] Shakspeare has on this occasion deserted his original. It does not appear from Plutarch that the Ghost of Cesar appeared to Brutus, but « a wonderful straunge and monstruous shape of a body.". This apparition could not be at once the shade of Cæsar, and the evil genius of Brutus.

“ Brutus boldly asked what he was, a god, or a man, and what cause brought him thither. The spirit answered him, I am thy euill spirit, Brutus; and thou shalt see me by the citie of Philippes. Bru. tus beeing no otherwise affrayd, replyed againe vnto it: well, then I shall see thee agayne. The spirit presently vanished away; and Bru. tus called his men vnto him, who tolde him that they heard no noyse, nor sawe any thing at all.”

See the story of Cassius Parmensis in Valerius Maximus, Lib. I, c. vii. Steevens.

The words which Mr. Steevens has quoted, are from Plutarchi's Life of Brutus. Shakspeare had also certainly read Plutarch's account of this vision in the Life of Cæsar: “ Above all, the ghost that appeared unto Brutus, showed plainly that the goddes were offended with the murther of Cesar. The vision was thus. Brutus being ready to pass over his army from the citie of Abydos to the other coast lying directly against it, slept every night (as his manner was) in his tent; and being yet awake, thinking of his affaires,-he thought he heard a noyse at his tent-dore, and looking towards the light of the kampe that waxed very dimme, he saw a horrible vision of a man, of a wonderfull greatnes and dreadful looke, which at the first made him marvelously afraid. But when he sawe that it did him no hurt, but stoode by his bedde-side, and said nothing, at length he asked him what he was. The image aunswered him, I am hy ill angel, Brutus, and thou shalt see me by the citie of Philippes. Then Brutus replyed agayne, and said, Well, I shall see thee then. Therewithall the spirit presently vanished from him.”

It is manifest from the words above printed in Italics, that Shakspeare had this passage in his thoughts as well as the other. Malone.

That lights grew dim, or burned blue at the approach of spectres, was a belief which our author might have found examples of in almost every book of his age that treats of supernatural appearances. See King Richard III, Vol. XI, p. 180, n. 7. Steevens.

Luc. The strings, my lord, are false.

Bru. He thinks, he still is at his instrument...
Lucius, awake.

Luc. My lord!
Bru. Didst thou dream, Lucius, that thou so cry'dst out?
Luc. My lord, I do not know that I did cry.
Bru. Yes, that thou didst: Didst thou see any thing?
Luc. Nothing, my lord.

Bru. Sleep again, Lucius.- Sirrah, Claudius!
Fellow thou ! awake.

Var. My lord.
Clau. My lord.
Bru. Why did you so cry out, sirs, in your sleep?
Var. Clau. Did we, my lord?

Ay; Saw you any thing?
Var. No, my lord, I saw nothing.

Nor I, my lord. Bru. Go, and commend me to my brother Cassius; Bid him set on his powers betimes before, And we will follow.

Var. Clau. It shall be done, my lord. [Exeunt.


The Plains of Philippi.

Enter OCTAVIUS, Antony, and their Army.
Oct. Now, Antony, our hopes are answered:
You said, the enemy would not come down,
But keep the hills and upper regions ;
It proves not so: their battles are at hand;
They mean to warn uso at Philippi here,


warn us -] To warn is to summon. So, in King John:

“ Who is it that hath warn'd us to the walls ?” Shakspeare uses the word yet more intelligibly in King Richard III:

“ And sent to warn them to his royal presence.” Throughout the books of the Stationers' Company, the word is always used in this sense ; “Receyved of Raufe Newbery for his fyne, that he came not to the hall when he was warned, according to the orders of this house.”

Answering before we do demand of them.

Ant. Tut, I am in their bosoms, and I know
Wherefore they do it: they could be content
To visit other places; and come down
With fearful bravery, thinking, by this face,
To fasten in our thoughts that they have courage;
But 'tis not so.

Enter a Messenger.
Mess. Prepare you, generals:
The enemy comes on in gallant show;
Their bloody sign of battle is hung out,
And something to be done immediately.

Ant. Octavius, lead your battle softly on,
Upon the left hand of the even field.

Oct. Upon the right hand I, keep thou? the left.
Ant. Why do you cross me in this exigent?

Oct. I do not cross you; but I will do so. [March. Drum. Enter BRUTUS, Cassius, and their Army; Luci

Bru. They stand, and would have parley.
Cas. Stand fast, Titinius: We must out and talk.
Oct. Mark Antony, shall we give sign of battle?

Ant. No, Cæsar, we will answer on their charge.
Make forth, the generals would have some words.

Oct. Stir not until the signal.
Bru. Words before blows: Is it so, countrymen ?
Oct. Not that we love words better, as you do.
Bru. Good words are better than bad strokes, Octavius.

Again, in a Letter froin Lord Cecil to the Earl of Shrewsbury. See Lodge's Illustrations, &c. Vol. III, 206: I pray yor LP, therefore, let him be privatly warned, without any other notice (to his disgrace) to come up” &c. Steevens.

1 With fearful bravery, ] That is, with a gallant show of courage, carrying with it terror and dismay. Fearful is used here, as in many other places, in an active sense-producing fear-intimidating. Malone. So, in Churchyard's Siege of Leeth, 1575:

“ They were a feare unto the enmyes eye.” I believe, however, that in the present instance, fearful bravery requires an interpretation that may be found in Sidney's Arcadia, Lib. Il: "- her horse, faire and lustie; which she rid so as might show a fearefull boldness, daring to doe that which she knew that she knew not how to doe.” Steevens.

2 — keep thou – ] The tenour of the conversation evidently re: quires us to read-you. Ritson.


Ant. In your bad strokes, Brutus, you give good words:
Witness the hole you made in Cæsar's heart,
Crying, Long live! hails Cæsar!

The posture of your blows are yet unknown ;3
But for your words, they rob the Hybla bees,
And leave them honeyless.

Not stingless too.
Bru. O, yes, and soundless too ;
For you have stol'n their buzzing, Antony,
And, very wisely, threat before you sting.

Ant. Villains, you did not so, when your vile daggers
Hack'd one another in the sides of Cæsar :
You show'd your teeth like apes, and fawn'd like hounds,
And bow'd like bondmen, kissing Cæsar's feet;
Whilst damned Casca,4 like a cur, behind,
Struck Cæsar on the neck. O flatterers !5

Cas. Flatterers —Now, Brutus, thank yourself:6
This tongue had not offended so to-day,
If Cassius might have rul’d.
Oct. Come, come, the cause : If arguing make us

The proof of it will turn to redder drops.
Look ;
I draw a sword against conspirators;
When think you that the sword goes up again!
Never, till Cæsar's three and twenty wounds?


3 The posture of your blows are yet unknown;] It should be is yet unknown. But the error was certainly Shakspeare's. Malone.

Rather, the mistake of his transcriber or printer; which therefore ought, in my opinion, to be corrected. Had Shakspeare been zenerally inaccurate on similar occasions, he might more justly have been suspected of inaccuracy in the present instance. Steevens.

Casca,] Casca struck Cæsar on the neck, coming like a de. generate cur behind him. Johnson O flatterers.'] Old copy, unmetrically,- you flatterers!

Steevens. Flatterers !--Now, Brutus, thank yourself :) It is natural to suppose, from the defective metre of this line, that our author wrote:

Flatterers! Now, Brutus, you may thank yourself. Steevens.

three and twenty wounds -- ] [Old copy-three and thirty;] but I have ventured to reduce this number to three and twenty, from the joint authorities of Appian, Plutarch, and Suetonius : and I am persuaded, the error was not from the poet but his transcribers.



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