## Aspects of scientific explanation: and other essays in the philosophy of science |

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Page 147

other characteristics. For

which determine the division of humans into male and female are each

associated, by general laws or by statistical connections, with a large variety of

concomitant physical, physiological, and psychological traits. It is understandable

that a classification of this sort should be viewed as somehow having objective

existence in nature, as "carving nature at the joints," in contradistinction to "

artificial" classifications ...

other characteristics. For

**example**, the two sets of primary sex characteristicswhich determine the division of humans into male and female are each

associated, by general laws or by statistical connections, with a large variety of

concomitant physical, physiological, and psychological traits. It is understandable

that a classification of this sort should be viewed as somehow having objective

existence in nature, as "carving nature at the joints," in contradistinction to "

artificial" classifications ...

Page 200

However, if we do not require a finite observational criterion of application for

each permissible value of a theoretical functor, then an infinity of different values

may become available.38 Consider, for

contained in organism y'. If 'x is a cell', 'y is an organism', and 'x is contained in y'

are admitted as observational expressions, then it is possible to give a separate

criterion of applicability, in terms of observables, for each of the infinitely many

values ...

However, if we do not require a finite observational criterion of application for

each permissible value of a theoretical functor, then an infinity of different values

may become available.38 Consider, for

**example**, the functor 'the number of cellscontained in organism y'. If 'x is a cell', 'y is an organism', and 'x is contained in y'

are admitted as observational expressions, then it is possible to give a separate

criterion of applicability, in terms of observables, for each of the infinitely many

values ...

Page 352

This law expresses ajnaj^ejnaticjdrelationship between the length and the period

(which is a quantitative dispositional characteristic) of the pendulum at one and

the same time; laws of this kind, of which the laws of Boyle and of Charles, as

well as Ohm's law are other

in contradistinction to laws of succession, which concern temporal changes in a

system. These latter include, for

changes ...

This law expresses ajnaj^ejnaticjdrelationship between the length and the period

(which is a quantitative dispositional characteristic) of the pendulum at one and

the same time; laws of this kind, of which the laws of Boyle and of Charles, as

well as Ohm's law are other

**examples**, are sometimes called laws of coexistence,in contradistinction to laws of succession, which concern temporal changes in a

system. These latter include, for

**example**, Galileo's law and the laws for thechanges ...

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### Contents

Studies in the Logic of Confirmation | 3 |

Postscript 1964 on Confirmation | 47 |

Inductive Inconsistencies | 53 |

Copyright | |

10 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

accepted adequate analogous antecedent application argument assertion assumption atomic sentences basic behavior Carnap causal character characteristics characterized clearly cognitive significance connections consequence considered construal construed criteria criterion deductive deductive-nomological defined definiens definition of confirmation disconfirmation discussion empirical science equivalent essay event example existential clause explanandum explanans explanatory explicit expressed fact finite formulation functional analysis given hypothesis illustrated imply individual inductive inductive logic inference interpretation kind latter lawlike sentences logical probability logically equivalent means nomic object observation report observation sentences occurrence operational definition outcome particular phenomena phenomenon Philosophy of Science physical possible postdiction prediction premises present probabilistic problem procedure question rational reduction sentences reference relevant requirement rules satisfy schematic scientific explanation sense singular sentence specified statements statistical laws statistical probability statistical syllogisms suggested testability theoretical principles theoretical terms theory total evidence true universal vocabulary