Pre-Modern European Economy: One Thousand Years (10th-19th Centuries)

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BRILL, 2009 - Business & Economics - 422 pages
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The book deals with the characters and evolution of the European economy from the high Middle Ages until the start of modern growth in the 19th century. Europe is always set in a global context and the European specific features are analysed on the background of the world economy. The main aim of the book is to present a clear picture of the structure and organisation of the European pre-modern economy, specifying its features, institutions, constraints and differences with other traditional coeval economies. The path followed starts from the demographic characters, the techniques, the sectors (agriculture, trade, industry), the output, and continues with the demand side (consumption, investment, public expense). The last chapter recalls the main features of the pre-modern economy in a more formal way. The book is the only available work dealing with the formation of the European economy and its features over the long term, that is from the 10th until the 19th century.
 

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Contents

Population
1
Two different estimates of world population at
4
The European population
6
European Population 12000
7
Population in China and India from 800 to 1900
10
Yearly rates of growth 15001870 and densities
13
Demographic density in Europe inhabitants
16
The demographic model
17
Land productivity and labour productivity
129
Average yields for wheat rye and barley in 16th
138
Utility and cost on the peasant farm
142
Output per ha and output per Worker
150
Indices of gross agricultural product per capita
153
Conclusion
156
Trade
159
Commodities from western and eastern Europe
165

The death rate
21
The spread of Black Death in Europe from 1347 on
28
The birth rate
31
The demographic transition
36
Death and birthrates in Europe 17502000
37
Global population changes 17001950
38
Mortality Crises in England 15501850
43
Conclusion
46
Energy
49
Cycles of demographic growth in the last 1 million
51
Fuel
56
Estimate of the extent of forests in Europe
58
Fuel prices in some European cities during the 18th
59
The reaming of a cannon through a waterwheel
64
Animals
65
Water and wind
70
The spread of fulling mills in Europe
73
Estimate of the availability of power per capita from
74
Climate and biomass
78
Northern Hemisphere Temperatures 2002000
80
The energy transition
84
Composition of energy consumption in 1850 Sweden
87
Estimate of per c energy consumption in England
89
Per capita energy Consumption in Europe
91
Conclusion
92
Agriculture
95
The advancement of agriculture from the Near
98
Three agricultural ecosystems
100
Yield per hectare of rice maize and wheat
103
Threefield rotation in the village of Limbach East
105
Peasant economies
107
Wheat Prices in Tuscany 12501860 deviations
114
The village and the manor
116
The World flow of precious metals in the 16th
171
Rivers roads fairs markets
176
Prices and the volume of exchange by two diverse
178
The ways through Asia
184
Wheat prices in Pisa and Udine 15001821
191
Correlation of wheat and rye prices between some
192
Innovations in exchange
193
Conclusion
200
Industry
201
NorthEuropean centres of wool production in
212
Developed and peripheral areas of Europe in the early
220
Combination of costs and product in premodern
226
Hours required for the manufacturing of woollen
229
Hydraulic pumps in 16th century German mines
233
Urbanisation rate in 1800
242
Urbanisation rates in Europe in 1800
243
Chapter VI
253
Output
255
Prices of nonagricultural products
258
Price Indices in Italy and England 12851860
260
Price Index in Europe 15001850
262
Real wage rates in the building sector in some
271
Building real wages and population in Europe
275
Per capita GDP in Italy CN 13001913
290
Demand
293
Herring fishing and main fishing areas in Europe
303
Being rich in medieval Germany
316
A Renaissance investment A Tuscan villa
331
Premodern economies
349
Bibliography
383
Index
417
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About the author (2009)

Paolo Malanima graduated from the University of Pisa and Scuola Nornale Superiore. He has been Professor of Economic History at the University of Pisa, and of Economic History and Economics at the University Magna Graecia in Catanzaro. He published on Italian and European economic History. He is now Director of the Institute of Studies in Mediterranean Societies (ISSM-CNR).

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